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Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. Continue shopping Checkout Continue shopping. Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori. Volume One by Janet G. Buy the eBook Price: Available in Russia Shop from Russia to buy this item. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world.
The first source is based on palaeological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains. The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan , dating to approximately — BC. Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of present-day horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and palaeological excavations.
The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse,   while many mares were part of early domesticated herds. There are very low levels of Y-chromosome variability,   but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA.
Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed. One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication.
Feral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals. There are also semi-feral horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in "wild" conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands.
Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights. The concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times. Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called "thoroughbreds". Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a "purebred" is a horse or any other animal with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry. These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been selectively bred since their domestication.
An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin , who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines. Breeds developed due to a need for "form to function", the necessity to develop certain characteristics in order to perform a particular type of work. One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed.
Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. The genetic makeup of the human population in a geographical area is affected by the presence or absence of horses more variation in Africa, less in Eurasian steppes. Societies where horse riding is an integral part of life have developed traditional attires specially suited for horse riding such as tightly wrapping waistbands or cummerbunds giving wide support useful for protecting the spine during long journeys, and voluminous headgear such as turban to protect the skull during falls from the horse.
Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes. The Food and Agriculture Organization FAO estimates that in , there were almost 59,, horses in the world, with around 33,, in the Americas, 13,, in Asia and 6,, in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania. There are estimated to be 9,, horses in the United States alone. Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity;  to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control.
Historically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races.
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Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle. Many sports, such as dressage , eventing and show jumping , have origins in military training , which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider.
Other sports, such as rodeo , developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations. Sport hunting from horseback evolved from earlier practical hunting techniques. All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport. The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat.
Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions. Examples include show jumping , dressage , three-day eventing , competitive driving , endurance riding , gymkhana , rodeos , and fox hunting. They host a huge range of classes, covering all of the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as "In-hand" classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation.
The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider. Although the horse requires specialized training to participate, the details of its performance are not judged, only the result of the rider's actions—be it getting a ball through a goal or some other task. Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world. There are three types: There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them.
For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control. They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas. Horses are quieter than motorized vehicles. Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective. In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses.
Horses have been used in warfare for most of recorded history. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between and BC,  and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age. Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur. Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes. Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles.
Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events. Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature. They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories.
People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from association with horses. Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence. In hippotherapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills.
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Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave. Horses are raw material for many products made by humans throughout history, including byproducts from the slaughter of horses as well as materials collected from living horses. Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols , who let it ferment to produce kumis.
Drinking their own horses' blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat. Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages. It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures,  and a subject of political controversy in others. Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue. Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture.
Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier , as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Horse disambiguation.
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Domesticated four-footed mammal from the equine family. Linnaeus , . Equine coat color , Equine coat color genetics , and Horse markings. Equine anatomy , Muscular system of the horse , Respiratory system of the horse , and Circulatory system of the horse. Skeletal system of the horse. Horse hoof , Horseshoe , and Farrier. Equine digestive system and Equine nutrition. Horse gait , Trot horse gait , Canter , and Ambling. Horse behavior and Stable vices. Draft horse , Warmblood , and Oriental horse. Horse sleep patterns and Sleep in non-humans.
Evolution of the horse , Equus genus , and Equidae. History of horse domestication theories and Domestication of the horse. Horse breed , List of horse breeds , and Horse breeding. Equestrianism , Horse racing , Horse training , and Horse tack. Horses in art and Horse worship. Hippotherapy and Therapeutic horseback riding. Equine nutrition , Horse grooming , Veterinary medicine , and Farrier. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.
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Horse - Wikipedia
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