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There are four footnotes in the Russian translation. The first two appear in chapter 5 and refer to the use of Latin sentences in the novel.
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The original Spanish reads:. The Russian notes include the translation of the Latin sentences: This man has discovered the fourth state of matter" lat. This fact irrefutably proves the existence of God" lat. This may indicate that the translators and editors of these translations presupposed more familiarity with the Latin language on the part of the TL readers than in the case of the average Russian readers.
Likewise, in the third footnote lack of familiarity with the English language is also presupposed. In chapter 18 the original reads:. The Russian translation reproduces the original English term Sanskrit Primer and explains it in a footnote: Rabassa reproduces the original term in the English translation p. Meyer-Clason maintained the original English term in inverted commas: Claude and Carmen Durand in the French translation p.
The fourth footnote also has to do with a foreign term in the original, this time a Catalan curse in the chapter Butririna and Stolbov kept the original Catalan term ' Collons ' and explained it in a footnote: Rabassa kept the original in inverted commas and italics: Meyer-Clason translated the curse into German: Claude and Carmen Durand kept the original Catalan term, italicized it and used an exclamation point: Eliane Zagury also left the original Catalan word and italicized it: It is clear that this worldwide expansion of the Latin American novel would have not been possible without the crucial role played by these translations.
Besides, only in the English translation was there a translation norm that allowed for direct influence of the instructions of the translation initiator or client on the translated text in the form of adding a paratext, a family tree that was not in the original. As Rabassa tells us, he agreed with the editor's addition and only after the novel had been published did he have second thoughts. The fact that the other translations did not include the additional family tree indicates that a translation norm was applied according to which the original was perceived as somehow sacred so that there was no room for alterations in the translated texts.
In the English translation this sacred character of the original was overridden by an alleged enhancement of textual comprehension on behalf of the potential readers. Another interesting aspect with respect to the valid translation norms when the translations were initially published has to do with the fact that the translators' names did not appear on the novels' covers. This indicates that they were not considered at the same level of the novel's author.
Venuti's hypothesis about the translators' invisibility in modern Translation Studies is clearly illustrated here. Translators are not considered authors but simply re-creators. With regard to the translation norm related to the text type or genre it is important to point out that the German, French, and Russian translations explicitly identify the text type as a 'novel'. This would indicate that there is a translation norm at work, according to which translations' publishers can help TL readers to clearly identify what type of text they are dealing with.
This could be a patronizing attitude towards the target language readers in as much as they are regarded as 'ignorant' of the literary production beyond their own borders. It is really hard to think that the novel's title is not telling enough about the nature of the text type involved.
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Another textual translation norm is related to the fact that footnotes are considered a valid resource a paratext that can be added to the translations in case it is deemed necessary. The translations analyzed have shown that there is a continuum from no footnotes English and German , to some French and Russian or to many Portuguese. Furthermore, there seems to be another translation norm at work in the use of footnotes, according to which a domesticating or a foreignizing translation strategy is implemented.
When footnotes are included it is possible to use either a foreignizing strategy where the original term may be kept in the translation e. It is also possible to use a domesticating strategy where the foreign item is directly translated into the target language e. All in all, one can say that when there are no footnotes in the translation a tendency can be traced towards the use of a domesticating strategy that helps TL readers to 'grasp' immediately the meaning of the original; however the price paid for this device is that the original novel's credibility in depicting its characters can be affected negatively.
However, as discussed above, this is one punctual translation strategy which concerned only the translation of names or expressions in a foreign language in the original novel. Finally, I can say that the overall prevailing translation norm in all the analyzed translated texts is faithfulness to the original author's communicative purpose. This means that the translators did not alter the textual sequence of the contents of the original and stuck to the closest equivalent expression in the target language.
When punctual transformations, adaptations and additions were called for, they were carried out by using diverse translation strategies such as domesticating or foreignizing. Lo mismo para B y para C y para todos. Rowohlt, Sigher, Hausser y Aufbau.
Jochen Hieber, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Towards an integrated translation approach. A dynamic translation model DTM. The translation studies reader. London y New York: Biblioteca de Literatura Colombiana.
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Culture as Text , pp. State University of New York at Binghamton. Oxford University Press, pp. If this be treason. Translation and its dyscontents. A New Directions Book. The Translation of Cultures". The Craft of Translation , pp. The University of Chicago Press. The world of translation. With an introduction by Gregory Rabassa , pp. El viaje a la semilla. Descriptive translation studies and beyond. El vicio incurable de contar. Services on Demand Article. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail.
Introduction 'Translation norms' is a useful concept in modern Translation Studies, for it helps us to understand the reason why a text has been translated properly or if some dramatic changes have occurred in the process so that the translated text can be best labelled as 'adaptation', 'summary', 'parody', or any other similar text transformation.
Not all norms have the same binding force and "The institutions or agents who exercise normative control tend to occupy positions of power and dominance in the particular field where the norms apply, or indeed in higher-level fields, i. No doubt, it's definitely a masterpiece. One day, as we were heading to Acapulco with Mercedes and the kids, I was driving my Opel, thinking obsessively on One Hundred Years of Solitude when suddenly I had a revelation: Not Enabled Enhanced Typesetting: Share your thoughts with other customers.
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