Guide Spaniens Beteiligung am Irak-Krieg und die Theorie des Demokratischen Friedens (German Edition)

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However, stakeholders and their demands can be categorized, evaluated and ranked. Demands can be compared in terms of their urgency, legitimacy, and power Mitchell et al. Hill and Jones , p. Although neither of these ideas has yet emerged as a generally agreed model of reality, all challenge the underlying assumption that managers cannot possibly cope with demands placed upon them. The inherent verdict that there never will be a generally agreed answer underlies the assumption that multiplicity and complexity are persistent attributes of managerial reality.

As markets continue to integrate across geographical or cultural boundaries, so demands on companies and their managers become alike. Management research has reacted and developed models for the successful transnational organisation Bartlett et al. From implementers to entrepreneurs front-line , from administrative controllers to inspiring coaches middle-managers , and from resource allocators to institutional leaders CEOs.

In its normative claim the model recognizes no reservations, thereby qualifying the statement. According to Hosmer stakeholder conflict and trade-offs between their interests are inevitable. To discard any moral or ethical concerns might have been the most severe flaw of the paradigm that dominated management thinking and education until recently. Seen from that perspective, the statement reflects a step forward. Politik - Internationale Politik - Allgemeines und Theorien. Politik - Internationale Politik - Region: Naher Osten, Vorderer Orient. Frieden und Konflikte, Sicherheit. The story of Thomas More by John Farrow.

Overview of More's Utopia, Von weltlicher Obrigkeit, wie weit man ihr Gehorsam schuldig ist, Wittenberg Project Wittenberg's Web Site. Studies of the Lutherian Ethical Tradition. Du droit des magistrats sur leurs subjets. Von der freiwilligen Knechtschaft. Die Weigerung, den Totalitarismus zu denken. Politica Methodice digesta atque exemplis sacris et profanis illustrata, Herborn Tractatus de legibus ac Deo legislatore in decem libros distributus, Coimbra Grotius on International Law. Selected Works of the Levellers.

The Elements of Law Natural and Politic. The Commonwealth of Oceana. Of the laws of nature and nations. De officio hominis et civis juxta legem naturalem libri duo. A Essay Concerning the true original, extent, and end of Civil Government. The Spirit of Laws. The Theory of Moral Sentiments.

Biography of Thomas Jefferson. The Letters of Thomas Jefferson: A Biography of Alexander Hamilton. What is the Third Estate? Immanuel Kant - Informationen Online. Elektronische Version der Berlinischen Monatsschrift ff. Federalist Peace Plans of Bentham and Kant. A Biography of Thomas Paine Home Page of the Hegel Society of America.

Harmonic Series of Charles Fourier. Lehrbuch des Vernunftrechts und der Staatswissenschaften, 4 Bde. Die Philosophie des Rechts nach geschichtlicher Ansicht, 2 Bde. Der Einzige und sein Eigentum. Geschichte der sozialen Bewegung in Frankreich von bis auf unsere Tage, 3 Bde. Marx und Engels Texte online.

Gesammelte politische Schriften, Hg. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Hg. Rosa Luxemburg Texte online. Der Begriff des Politischen. Leo Strauss by David McBryde. Leo Strauss, the neocons, and Iraq". The Collected Works of Eric Voegelin. Ernst Fraenkel im Internet. The Human Condition, Chicago dt. It is ideally placed for strategic missions in the Middle East.

The new Big Blu bomb is 20ft long, weighs 30,lb and carries lb of high explosives. It is designed to go deeper than even existing nuclear bunker-busting weapons. The bomb is designed to be dropped from as great a height as possible to achieve maximum velocity and penetrating power, guided on to target by satellite and accurate to within a few feet.

Each B2 bomber would be able to carry only one weapon because of its weight. The B2s, normally based at Barksdale, Missouri, flew round-trip strikes against Baghdad in , but would ideally be positioned closer to its targets for missions against Iran. The Pentagon has drawn up contingency plans for a range of attacks on Iran. The likeliest is a five-day bombardment, aiming to disable nuclear facilities and all major airbases and radar facilities; the most devastating would involve air and cruise missile attacks on targets, including headquarters and barracks of the Iranian Republican Guard Corps, over more than a month.

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The US branded the Revolutionary Guards a terrorist organisation last week in the latest round of diplomatic sanctions against Tehran. Ahmadinejad felicitates Austrian counterpart on National Day. According to the Presidential Bureau, in the message, President Ahmadinejad underlined that "Fortunately the two sides's high ranking officials are determined to broaden friendly ties between the two countries.

Oktober in Washington mit. Zwingend notwendig ist, dass die Bundesregierung nicht nur mit der Regierung des Irans, sondern vor allem mit der US-Regierung spricht. Paulson give remarks from a joint press availability on Iran in the Ben Franklin Room on October 25, Office of the Spokesman.

Nuclear energy "indispensable" says EU report. The report, Conventional Energy Sources and Energy Technology was adopted with votes in favour, against and 30 abstentions. Renewable energy sources are expected to be economically competitive with conventional energy sources in the medium to long term Iran never let its legitimate rights be trampled upon.

Iran is to show good-will when it sees the same from the other side It is about three decades that Iran has faced sanctions mostly by the Americans or even some unofficial sanctions imposed by the Europeans, he said In the meantime, the Zionist regime is now developing its nuclear facilities without any concern, he underlined.

The foreign minister said those who try to persuade the UNSC to impose more unjust sanctions on Iran, prevent the same from being applied to the Zionist regime Kritik an der Entscheidung kam auch aus Russland, das sich ebenso wie China gegen Sanktionen ausspricht. Ahmadinejad's stock rose even higher after his speech this week at Columbia University; people in Iran and the Arab world are angry at Columbia University president Lee Bollinger for insulting the Iranian leader during his introduction.

The entire uproar over the Columbia event - played right into the Iranian leader's hand. When Ahmadinejad says controversial things, the western world condemns him, but is he even talking to the West? In fact, same-sex relations in Iran do look very different from what is called gay behavior in the West. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was derided for his statement in a Sept. Though many Americans may find it incredible, differences in the construction of sexual behavior do exist across cultures.

As an anthropologist, I can state with confidence that sexuality varies tremendously between cultures. The notion that one is either "gay" or "straight" does not accord with what we observe in human sexual behavior, which is far more flexible. This categorization is an artifact of American culture, which glories in binary categories for classifying people. Folks that identify as "bisexual" yet another ambiguous category in the United States often get grief from both the gay and straight community for "deluding" themselves about their sexuality.

The articles points to the president's popularity among Muslims who believe that their leaders are too beholden to or frightened of the Bush administration. He makes me feel proud. He's a symbol of Islam. He seems the only person capable of taking a stand against Israel and the West. Iran will not attack Israel - Iranian president says his country never sought to expand its territory, says reported IAF attack in Syria stemmed from 'Israeli expansionism' and had nothing to do with Iran.

Every Monday night at 10 o'clock, Iranians by the millions tune into Channel One to watch the most expensive show ever aired on the Islamic republic's state-owned television. Its elaborate s costumes and European locations are a far cry from the typical Iranian TV fare of scarf-clad women and gray-suited men.

But the most surprising thing about the wildly popular show is that it is a heart-wrenching tale of European Jews during World War II. Over the course of the 22 episodes, the hero saves his love from Nazi detention camps, and Iranian diplomats in France forge passports for the woman and her family to sneak on to airplanes carrying Iranian Jews to their homeland. On the surface, the message of the lavish, state-funded production appears sharply at odds with that sent out by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who has repeatedly called the Holocaust a myth.

In fact, the government's spending on the show underscores the subtle and often sophisticated way in which the Iranian state uses its TV empire to send out political messages. The aim of the show, according to many inside and outside the country, is to draw a clear distinction between the government's views about Judaism -- which is accepted across Iranian society -- and its stance on Israel -- which the leadership denounces every chance it gets. Fatthi, 48 years old, is a well-known director of historical fiction for television.

In the past, his work has focused on Iranian history. But he also dabbles in comedy, winning international critical acclaim two years ago for a hit feature, "Marriage, Iranian Style. Abdol Hussein Sardari saved over a thousand European Jews by forging Iranian passports and claiming they belonged to an Iranian tribe. Fatthi says he chose the title because the world at the time was in dire circumstances, offering few options for avoiding the terrors to come.

Shot on location in Paris and Budapest, the show stars Iranian heartthrob Shahab Husseini and is so popular that its theme song -- an ode to getting lost in love -- is a hit, too. No matter where I am or what I'm doing, on Monday nights I find a television set and watch the show. Fatthi enlisted the help of Iran's Jewish Association, an independent body that safeguards the community's culture and heritage. The association has criticized Mr. Ahmadinejad's comments about the Holocaust but has praised Mr. Iran is home to some 25, Jews, the largest population in the Middle East outside of Israel.

Iran's Jews -- along with Christians and Zorastrians -- are guaranteed equal rights in the country's constitution. Iran's Jews are guaranteed one member of parliament and are free to study Hebrew in school, pray in synagogues and shop at kosher supermarkets. Ahmadinejad's statements, it isn't government policy to question the Holocaust, and the country's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, hasn't endorsed those views.

While Iran makes it no secret that it considers Israel an enemy, it has been extremely touchy about criticism of its treatment of Jewish citizens. The show is seen as an effort by the government to erase the image that it may be anti-Semitic -- both at home among Jews and non-Jews, and abroad. The message appears to be grabbing the public.

Sara Khatibi, a year-old mother and chemist in Tehran, says she and her husband never miss an episode. The Jewish state was conceived in modern times by Western powers rather than as part of a centuries-old desire of Jews for a return to their ancestral homeland. In one scene, a rabbi declares it a bad idea for Jews to resettle in Arab lands. In another, the French Jewish protagonist refuses a marriage offer by a cousin, who is advocating the creation of Israel.

Iran has long used TV to shape public opinion, where newspapers and the Internet are seen as media for the elite. The state's control over radio and television is enshrined in the constitution. Ayatollah Khamenei, the supreme leader, is not only head of the armed forces and the judiciary, but also the national broadcast authority. On any given day, the country's seven state-run channels broadcast a mostly drab offering of news, sports, cooking shows, soap operas and religious sermons. Political propaganda is constantly fed into the mix.

Dissidents such as students or reformers are routinely paraded before cameras to read confessions after stints of solitary imprisonment. A slick documentary-style program recently aired long interviews with two Iranian-Americans who were detained on allegations of working to overthrow the regime. The interviews -- in which the pair blandly admitted to meeting with Iranian scholars and dissidents, but not to attempting to topple the government -- were intercut with provocative scenes of demonstrations in Ukraine, where the U.

Its Arabic news channel, Al Alam, has been broadcasting news with an Iranian slant in the Arab world for several years. Episodes of "Zero Degree Turn," broadcast in Farsi, can be seen outside of Iran on the Internet, either streaming live or downloaded at tv1. It is also broadcast with English subtitles on the state-controlled Jameh Jam satellite channel, which is available on Europe's Hot Bird satellite network.

Fatthi also says Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting has been contacted about selling the show to networks in other countries, but he doesn't know which ones. Write to Farnaz Fassihi at farnaz. An earlier version of this article incorrectly called the channel Pars News. URL for this article: This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only.

Distribution and use of this material are governed by our Subscriber Agreement and by copyright law. For non-personal use or to order multiple copies, please contact Dow Jones Reprints at or visit www. Hyperlinks in this Article: The Director General believes that this new assessment by the U. At the same time, it should prompt Iran to work actively with the IAEA to clarify specific aspects of its past and present nuclear program as outlined in the work plan and through the implementation of the additional protocol.

This would allow the Agency to provide the required assurances regarding the nature of the program. While calling on Iran to accelerate its cooperation with the Agency, in view of the new U.

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Estimate, the Director General urges all parties concerned to enter without delay into negotiations. Nuclear Intentions and Capabilities 3 Dec. English PDF Document - 9 pages!! Austria Germany Japan Russia UK A new IAEA report on a multilateral framework for nuclear energy presents a range of options that seek to guarantee supplies of nuclear fuel while minimizing proliferation risks.

Options for Assurance of Supply of Nuclear Fuel - addresses proposals put forward over the past two years by various States and institutions. Some proposals call for the creation of an actual or virtual reserve fuel bank of last resort, under IAEA auspices, for the assurance of supply of nuclear fuel. This bank would operate on the basis of apolitical and non-discriminatory non-proliferation criteria.

Others call for conversion of a national facility into an international enrichment centre. Still others call for the construction of a new, multinational enrichment facility under IAEA control. Such a framework is voluntary and States are free to choose their fuel options - no rights of States would compromised. The report comes at a time when more countries are expressing interest in nuclear power for electricity generation, to help meet rising energy demands. This would mean increased demand for fuel cycle services. It also means an increase in the potential proliferation risks created by the spread of sensitive nuclear technology, such as that used in uranium enrichment and nuclear fuel reprocessing.

ECCHR - European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights

The report acknowledged the role of nuclear energy as an option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but said that safety, weapons proliferation and waste remain as constraints. Current nuclear power is included as a 'key mitigation technology' in the field of energy supply while advanced nuclear power is considered key for the timeframe, alongside advanced renewables like tidal and wave energy, concentrating solar and photovoltaics.

Greenpeace reacted negatively to the inclusion of nuclear energy in the report, stating that the IPCC had identified two "false solutions" in nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. The report concludes that there are mitigation options available that could be used to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions. The report notes that to achieve the lower stabilization levels will require greater emphasis on low carbon energy sources "such as renewable energy and nuclear power.

The statement added that the tripartite oil consortium would implement oil extraction and exploration projects in Iran. The Turkish Petrol Ofisi's share in these projects will be 33 percent," said the statement. Petrol Ofisi is one of the oldest oil enterprises in Turkey whose shares have gradually been transferred to the private sector. The OMV is one of Austria's largest oil companies. Iran's PetroPars Company was registered in It is a subsidiary of NIOC, which owns all of its shares.

Euro im Iran investieren. At a meeting with his visiting Iranian counterpart in Vienna, Martin Bartenstein said Austria is willing to beef up cooperation with Iran in different areas. Referring to the agreements made between the officials of the Iranian and Austrian Chambers of Commerce, he said," Apart from oil and gas sectors, the two countries can embark on joint investment in Africa, Central Asia and Latin America.

Iran's Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs Davoud Danesh Ja'fari, for his part, said the two countries are willing to expand cooperation in customs and taxation. He underlined Iran's strategic position in the Middle East and Austria's unique position in Europe, calling for enhancement of mutual economic ties. OMV is the operator of the Mehr block with a 34 percent stake. OMV signed a preliminary agreement with Iran last month to develop an area of its giant South Pars gas field, build a liquefied natural gas LNG terminal and export the fuel.

The US had earlier voiced concerns over the Austrian company's deal with Iran. He told IRNA that despite some similarity between the countries on the two sides of Atlantic Ocean in their political and economic policies, their stance on energy and the way to supply it are not the same. Nabavi made the statement in response to the question about US pressures on Austria about this deal.

About EU support for the signed agreement, he said that lower reliance of European Union on a single source to supply its energy requirements and the diversity of such sources is of strategic importance and the EU intends to make long-term investment in the energy sector. The Iranian diplomat said, "On the other hand, Europe's new energy policy aims to guarantee balanced relations between environmental sustainability, energy security and competitiveness. The Iranian ambassador said that undoubtedly EU support for Iran-Austria agreement is mainly rooted in its growing energy requirements in future, particularly natural gas.

Speaking at the European Parliament in Strasbourg, the European Energy Commissioner, Andris Piebalgs said, "We should not somehow think that because of the example of Iran we have a difference of opinion in energy policy with the United States because we have clearly the same basis. We are for the open markets, freedom of investment and OMV is currently involved in an offshore oil project in Iran. The US expressed concerns on March 23 about OMV's plans for a natural gas project in Iran at a time when Iran is facing international sanctions over its nuclear program.

EU foreign ministers agreed on April 23 on new sanctions against Iran, after Tehran refused international requests to halt its uranium enrichment. Support for OMV has come from Austria's government. Foreign Minister Ursula Plassnik stressed on April 23 that "no general economic boycott" existed against Iran. Eager to reduce dependence on gas imports from Russia, the EU plans to expand cooperation with the Caspian states as well as Algeria, Libya and Iran on gas supply.

Alles in allem hat das Projekt einen Wert von knapp 22 Mrd. JP Morgan hat die zugrunde liegenden Aktien in Verwahrung. Das Projekt an sich sei "strategisch sinnvoll". Kurt Eder, who is head of economic commission of Austrian parliament, also told IRNA in an exclusive interview that the Europe economy requires gas to provide its energy. Pointing to the US pressure to hinder in the way of the deal, he added that Austrian Chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer underlined in the parliament session on the country's budget that his government will not permit other countries to interfere its internal affairs.

The MP quoted the Chancellor as saying that the matter concerns economic policies of Iran and Austria. He clearly underlined that the project guarantees the energy supply of European countries. The head of the Austrian OMV Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer told reporters, "If one wants to provide energy security then one has to focus on diversification. Naturally, with this diversification we will keep to all Austrian laws, all decisions by the European Union, the United Nations Security Council and of course also our code of ethics in regards to human rights.

In calling for a total, rather than partial, arms embargo, the EU sanctions go further than those already agreed by the United Nations after Iran refused to halt its uranium enrichment activities. The EU has also added further people to the 'travel ban' list - they are banned from the EU and their assets are frozen. The two negotiators are due to meet in Turkey on 25 April, in their first meeting since February. Iran remains adamant that it has no intention of halting its uranium enrichment programme, which it insists is solely for the production of nuclear fuel.

According to Aghazadeh, a plant to produce zirconium tubes to hold nuclear fuel rods has already been completed and a facility for making fuel pellets should be ready next year. On 21 April, the Iranian cabinet approved the establishment of three companies, specialising in enrichment, fuel production and waste. Meanwhile, Russia and Iran have signed a new protocol on 'stable financing' of Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant. Irina Yesipova of AtomStroyExport suggested that the protocol would go some way towards solving the funding issues that have beset the project, but that some issues remained.

Further talks are due in May. Disagreements over Iran's payments to Russia have contributed to delays to the startup of Iran's first nuclear plant, for which Russia is to provide the fuel. Enrichment confirmed, Bushehr delay acknowledged WNN: Iran rebuked by sanctions. Solana sagte in Luxemburg, auch er hoffe auf ein Signal der Verhandlungsbereitschaft.

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Auf die Frage, ob die berichteten 22 Milliarden Euro nicht etwas hoch seien, sagt Ruttenstorfer: Euro investiert werden sollen. Bauer termed the oil show in Iran as invaluable. He told PIN the international exhibition provided a good opportunity to exchange views and information on the oil industry. He underlined that the foreign companies, which were keen to cooperate with Iran, needed to attend the oil show and share their know-how and experience. OMV is among the giant European oil and gas companies, which is active mainly in exploration and production fields.

The Austrian company is in charge of implementing the project of oil exploration in Mehr Block in the southern Iranian province of Khuzestan. Iran signed a major agreement with Austrian energy group OMV yesterday to help develop the country's vast gas resources and build a plant for liquefied natural gas LNG. The understanding is deemed as Iran's biggest such agreement with Europe. Speaking to reporters on the sidelines of the 12th International Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Exhibition here in Tehran on Sunday, Hamaneh also said, "To export natural gas to Europe, Turkey and European countries should first settle down the problems pertaining to the gas transfer pipeline.

Regarding the contract, the Iranian oil minister said, "The billion-dollar agreement signed yesterday included both sales of LNG Liquefied Natural Gas and the Austrian side's participation in the implementation of the project. Also noting the start of executive operations of phase 12 of South Pars, he said, "Under the present conditions, this agreement is very important to us.

Elsewhere, Hamaneh assessed the 12th International Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Exhibition as more successful than previous years, and added, "A number of foreign companies have partaken in the 12th exhibition, which shows 5 to 6 percent of increase in comparison to the past.

But OMV made clear the deal was still at an early stage and did not give any figures, suggesting it had so far only signed a non-binding memorandum of understanding. It comes at a time of escalating tension between the West and Iran over Tehran's disputed nuclear program. The United States has urged its allies not to invest in the Islamic Republic.

Iran sits atop the world's second-largest gas reserves after Russia. The huge oil and gas reserves are a strong magnet for international energy companies despite the political risks. Reuters quoted OMV as saying it had signed a so-called Heads of Agreement - a non-binding document outlining the main issues of a tentative partnership accord-with Iran's national oil company NIOC. It concerned participation in the development of an area of the South Pars gas field, an LNG plant and a subscriber agreement for such gas, it said.

LNG is gas frozen to liquid for transport in special tankers, avoiding the need for pipelines. It added, "Further talks on this matter are confidential. Concrete results are not expected until the second half of Iran says its atom work is aimed at generating electricity so that it can export more of its valuable gas and oil. Further talks on this matter are confidential. Of this, approximately trillion cubic feet 85 bn boe are located in Iranian territory. Iran plans to develop this gas field in several phases.

The first exploration well was carried out successfully in January The drilling reached a depth of 4, meters. A field development plan is being developed. OMV sells more than 14 bcm gas a year. Other important holdings are: With the acquisition of a majority stake in the Romanian Petrom, OMV has become the largest oil and gas group in Central Europe, with oil and gas reserves of approx.

OMV now has over 2, filling stations in 13 countries. In June , OMV has established the OMV Future Energy Fund, a wholly owned subsidiary to support projects in renewable energy with more than EUR Mio to initiate the change from a pure oil and gas group to an energy group with renewable energy in its portfolio. These include a strong sense of responsibility towards the social and natural environment in economically weak regions. OMV works hard to address economic, environmental and social issues related to its operations.

Its CSR activities are fully documented in biannual performance reports compiled according to Global Reporting Initiative guidelines. Corporate social responsibility CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis[1]. It is about enterprises deciding to go beyond minimum legal requirements and obligations stemming from collective agreements in order to address societal needs.

Through CSR, enterprises of all sizes, in cooperation with their stakeholders, can help to reconcile economic, social and environmental ambitions. As such, CSR has become an increasingly important concept both globally and within the EU, and is part of the debate about globalisation, competitiveness and sustainability. In Europe, the promotion of CSR reflects the need to defend common values and increase the sense of solidarity and cohesion Die Tagesproduktion der OMV liegt bei rund Der Iran plant dieses Gasfeld in mehreren Phasen zu entwickeln.

Die Bohrung erreichte eine Tiefe von 4. Erste Produktionstests ergaben eine Rate von 1. Die OMV ist an integrierten Chemie- u. English Version of this Article here. Campaign Pushes for Iran Divestment - The Iran disinvestment campaign is being marshaled by, among other groups, the conservative American Enterprise Institute, an influential Washington think tank whose experts laid much of the ideological groundwork for the U.

The AEI has identified dozens of energy companies active in Iran's oil and gas fields and has also pointed a finger at such engineering, transportation and communications giants such as Siemens, Daimler-Chrysler and Volkswagen of Germany, Renault and Peugeot Citroen of France, and Ericsson and Volvo of Sweden. Pletka wants the White House and State Department to arm-twist American allies to end state-funded subsidies that facilitate commercial engagement with Iran. The Bush Administration has resisted, preferring instead to use gentler arguments to build a broad coalition that emphasizes diplomacy.

Barack Obama, the Illinois Democratic presidential hopeful and advocate for withdrawing most U. A separate bill by Democratic Rep. Sherman complains that the Bush Administration has routinely waived punishments for big companies from friendly countries.

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State Department officials don't relish a repeat of the "freedom fries" confrontation with France and other European nations who opposed the invasion of Iraq. Security Council sanctions resolutions. Requires the President to report periodically to the appropriate congressional committees on the extent of the success of such efforts. Authorizes the President to waive such sanctions if certain requirements are met. Requires the President to report to the appropriate congressional committees with respect to the imposition of trade sanctions on persons doing business or having investments in Iran or Libya by member states of the European Union, the Republic of Korea, Australia, Israel, or Japan.

Specifies exceptions to trade sanctions, among other things, for certain defense-related articles or services essential to U. Government to deny licenses or permits to a sanctioned person for the export of goods or technology; and 3 prohibit loans from U. Specifies sanctions that may be made against sanctioned persons that are financial institutions. Waives the requirements of this Act with respect to Libya only if the President, in addition to the waiver determination, certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that Libya has fulfilled the requirements of the United Nations Security Council Resolution , adopted January 21, , Resolution , adopted March 31, , and Resolution , adopted November 11, Prescribes a minimum two-year duration for sanctions.

Requires such report also to detail: Requires the President to ensure continued reports to the Congress on Iran's: Die USA wollen damit den Iran wirtschaftlich isolieren. Bisher ist noch nie ein Unternehmen wegen dieses Gesetzes mit Sanktionen belegt worden. Speaker, I move to suspend the rules and pass the bill H. The Clerk read as follows: The Congress makes the following findings: The Congress declares that it is the policy of the United States to deny Iran the ability to support acts of international terrorism and to fund the development and acquisition of weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them by limiting the development of Iran's ability to explore for, extract, refine, or transport by pipeline petroleum resources of Iran.

The Congress further declares that it is the policy of the United States to seek full compliance by Libya with its obligations under Resolutions , , and of the Security Council of the United Nations, including ending all support for acts of international terrorism and efforts to develop or acquire weapons of mass destruction. In order to further the objectives of section 3, the Congress urges the President to commence immediately diplomatic efforts, both in appropriate international fora such as the United Nations, and bilaterally with allies of the United States, to establish a multilateral sanctions regime against Iran, including provisions limiting the development of petroleum resources, that will inhibit Iran's efforts to carry out activities described in section 2.

The President shall report to the appropriate congressional committees, not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act, and periodically thereafter, on the extent that diplomatic efforts described in subsection a have been successful. Each report shall include-- 1 the countries that have agreed to undertake measures to further the objectives of section 3 with respect to Iran, and a description of those measures; and 2 the countries that have not agreed to measures described in paragraph 1 , and, with respect to those countries, other measures in addition to that provided in subsection d the President recommends that the United States take to further the objectives of section 3 with respect to Iran.

The President may waive the application of section 5 a with respect to nationals of a country if-- 1 that country has agreed to undertake substantial measures, including economic sanctions, that will inhibit Iran's efforts to carry out activities described in section 2 and information required by subsection b 1 has been included in a report submitted under subsection b ; and 2 the President, at least 30 days before the waiver takes effect, notifies the appropriate congressional committees of his intention to exercise the waiver.

The President shall report to the appropriate congressional committees any country with respect to which paragraph 1 applies. The President, not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, shall report to the appropriate congressional committees on-- 1 whether the member states of the European Union, the Republic of Korea, Australia, Israel, or Japan have legislative or administrative standards providing for the imposition of trade sanctions on persons or their affiliates doing business or having investments in Iran or Libya; 2 the extent and duration of each instance of the application of such sanctions; and 3 the disposition of any decision with respect to such sanctions by the World Trade Organization or its predecessor organization.

The sanctions described in subsections a and b shall be imposed on-- 1 any person the President determines has carried out the activities described in subsection a or b ; and 2 any person the President determines-- A is a successor entity to the person referred to in paragraph 1 ; B is a parent or subsidiary of the person referred to in paragraph 1 if that parent or subsidiary, with actual knowledge, engaged in the activities referred to in paragraph 1 ; or C is an affiliate of the person referred to in paragraph 1 if that affiliate, with actual knowledge, engaged in the activities referred to in paragraph 1 and if that affiliate is controlled in fact by the person referred to in paragraph 1.

The President shall cause to be published in the Federal Register a current list of persons and entities on whom sanctions have been imposed under this Act.

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The removal of persons or entities from, and the addition of persons and entities to, the list, shall also be so published. The President shall cause to be published in the Federal Register a list of all significant projects which have been publicly tendered in the oil and gas sector in Iran. The President shall not be required to apply or maintain the sanctions under subsection a or b -- 1 in the case of procurement of defense articles or defense services-- A under existing contracts or subcontracts, including the exercise of options for production quantities to satisfy requirements essential to the national security of the United States; B if the President determines in writing that the person to which the sanctions would otherwise be applied is a sole source supplier of the defense articles or services, that the defense articles or services are essential, and that alternative sources are not readily or reasonably available; or C if the President determines in writing that such articles or services are essential to the national security under defense coproduction agreements; 2 in the case of procurement, to eligible products, as defined in section 4 of the Trade Agreements Act of 19 U.

The sanctions to be imposed on a sanctioned person under section 5 are as follows: The President may direct the Export-Import Bank of the United States not to give approval to the issuance of any guarantee, insurance, extension of credit, or participation in the extension of credit in connection with the export of any goods or services to any sanctioned person.

The President may order the United States Government not to issue any specific license and not to grant any other specific permission or authority to export any goods or technology to a sanctioned person under-- i the Export Administration Act of ; ii the Arms Export Control Act; iii the Atomic Energy Act of ; or iv any other statute that requires the prior review and approval of the United States Government as a condition for the export or re-export of goods or services.

The following prohibitions may be imposed against a sanctioned person that is a financial institution: A Prohibition on designation as primary dealer: Neither the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System nor the Federal Reserve Bank of New York may designate, or permit the continuation of any prior designation of, such financial institution as a primary dealer in United States Government debt instruments. B Prohibition on service as a repository of government funds: Such financial institution may not serve as agent of the United States Government or serve as repository for United States Government funds.

The imposition of either sanction under subparagraph A or B shall be treated as 1 sanction for purposes of section 5, and the imposition of both such sanctions shall be treated as 2 sanctions for purposes of section 5. The United States Government may not procure, or enter into any contract for the procurement of, any goods or services from a sanctioned person. The President may impose sanctions, as appropriate, to restrict imports with respect to a sanctioned person, in accordance with the International Emergency Economic Powers Act 50 U.

The Secretary of State may, upon the request of any person, issue an advisory opinion to that person as to whether a proposed activity by that person would subject that person to sanctions under this Act. Any person who relies in good faith on such an advisory opinion which states that the proposed activity would not subject a person to such sanctions, and any person who thereafter engages in such activity, will not be made subject to such sanctions on account of such activity.

The requirement under section 5 a to impose sanctions shall no longer have force or effect with respect to Iran if the President determines and certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that Iran-- 1 has ceased its efforts to design, develop, manufacture, or acquire-- A a nuclear explosive device or related materials and technology; B chemical and biological weapons; and C ballistic missiles and ballistic missile launch technology; and 2 has been removed from the list of countries the governments of which have been determined, for purposes of section 6 j of the Export Administration Act of , to have repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism.

The requirement under section 5 b to impose sanctions shall no longer have force or effect with respect to Libya if the President determines and certifies to the appropriate congressional committees that Libya has fulfilled the requirements of United Nations Security Council Resolution , adopted January 21, , United Nations Security Council Resolution , adopted March 31, , and United Nations Security Council Resolution , adopted November 11, If the President makes a determination described in section 5 a or 5 b with respect to a foreign person, the Congress urges the President to initiate consultations immediately with the government with primary jurisdiction over that foreign person with respect to the imposition of sanctions under this Act.

In order to pursue consultations under paragraph 1 with the government concerned, the President may delay imposition of sanctions under this Act for up to 90 days. Following such consultations, the President shall immediately impose sanctions unless the President determines and certifies to the Congress that the government has taken specific and effective actions, including, as appropriate, the imposition of appropriate penalties, to terminate the involvement of the foreign person in the activities that resulted in the determination by the President under section 5 a or 5 b concerning such person.