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Eower, of you ; Dat. Eow, to you ; Acc. Eow, you ; Voc Eala ge, O ye; Abl. Theirs is very commodious. If I be smitten, If thou be smitten, If he be smitten. If I love, If thou love , If he love. If I loved, If thou loved , If he loved. If I do not love, If thou do not love, If he do not love. If thou call , rarely, If thou do call , If thou called. If thou love, rarely, If thou do love, If thou loved. We, you or ye, they, were. He would be better without it. If thou hadst not been by. Or, in the familiar style: Had not thou been by,"-- Shak.

Taylor has now furnished. It is cheap at twenty pounds. But, the relative is always the same. The first chapter of Syntax, being appropriated to general views of this part of grammar, to an exhibition of its leading doctrines, and to the several forms of sentential analysis, with an application of its principal rules in parsing, contains no false grammar for correction; and has, of course, nothing to correspond to it, in this Key, except the title, which is here inserted for form's sake.

Two, the singular and the plural. But that I deny: Murray's False Syntax , Rule Horne Tooke having taken orders, admission to the bar was refused him. Isaiah , i, Isaiah , xxxii, Job , xix, 3. Yes; they are the same. Smith and Priestley cor. Ay, that I am not thou. I am not he. The state of a pupil , or scholar. Horne's sermon on Christ, as being the Object of religious adoration. The names of all males are of the masculine gender. I have fallen out with my more heady will. They were formerly written in two fourteen-syllable lines. It is the time which a speaker occupies in pronouncing them.

I remember all thy tenderness. Strephon, how canst thou despise Her who, without thy pity, dies? Conjunctions are used to join or connect either words or sentences. Interjections are interspersed among other words, to express strong or sudden emotion. The words may better be written separately, as they formerly were. What do you see? What do you see now? Addison was the first that attempted a regular inquiry into the pleasures of taste. Such negligence respecting the pronouns , renders style often obscure, and always inelegant.

But when two consonants come between two vowels, and are such as cannot begin a word, they must be divided, as, ut-most, un-der. It is the means of communicating thoughts from one person to an other. Forms adapted to the Common or Familiar Style. It has been considerably polished and refined. Forms adapted to the Solemn or Biblical Style. Prince has a genius which would prompt him to better things. I am sorry to hear of thy loss; but I hope it may be retrieved.

I should be happy to render thee any assistance in my power. I shall call to see thee to-morrow morning. Accept assurances of my regard. I have just received the kind note you favoured me with this morning; and I cannot forbear to express my gratitude to you. On further information, I find I have not lost so much as I at first supposed; and I believe I shall still be able to meet all my engagements.

I should, however, be happy to see you. Accept, dear sir, my most cordial thanks. If thou love, If thou loved. Johnson tells us, that, in English poetry, the accent and the quantity of syllables are the same thing. No rarity, you may depend on it.


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The argument needed more explanation. He woos the widow's daughter, of the glen. Birney has pled or pleaded the inexpediency of passing such resolutions. III, that the distinctive OR has a double use. To reveal; to make appear; to show plainly. Paul was then absent from the Corinthians. It is the combining of letters to form syllables and words. It is a describing of the nature, use, and powers of words. This is a begging of the question, and therefore requires no answer.

It is speech , or the expressing of ideas by the human voice. See my 2d Rule for Spelling, of which this is a partial copy. Or, as Campbell has it in his version: That is, What am I, and whence am I? Any person from whom , or place at which , certain decisions are obtained. Murray, et al, cor. A fictitious name used in law proceedings. THOU is of the second person singular. WE is of the first person plural.

YE or YOU is of the second person plural. THEY is of the third person plural. Mitchell's deceit is very remarkable. Song , vi, 6. Campbell observes, may prevent him from mistaking it. She weeps, she bleeds, and each new day a gash Is added to her wounds. It is therefore proper to retain these sounds in those Hebrew names which have not been modernized , or changed by public use.

But this is not the case: The prominent subject for the agreement , the true nominative to the verb, or the term to which the verb peculiarly refers, is the word 'officer. The plan of this little work is similar to that of Mr. Murray's smallest Grammar ; but, in order to meet the understanding of children, its definitions and language are simplified, so far as the nature of the subject will admit. It also embraces more examples for Parsing, than are usual in elementary treatises.

Murray and others cor. The defective verbs are chiefly the auxiliaries and the impersonal verbs. The term COMMON is from the Latin communis , pertaining equally to several or many; and a Common noun is so called, because it is common to every individual comprised in the class. Paul positively stated, that 'He that loveth an other, hath fulfilled the law. Those words which chiefly express what is said of things. Murray and others, improperly] included among the derivatives. But its chief use is, to denote the possessive case of nouns.

It is also used when a word is divided. In order to distinguish the long or open vowels from the close or short ones , some writers of dictionaries have placed the grave accent on the former, and the acute on the latter. This character is now seldom used [ for such a purpose ], except in the Old and New Testaments. In type, they are inverted commas at the beginning, apostrophes at the conclusion.

Interjections are so called, because they are generally thrown in between the parts of discourse, and have no reference to the structure of those parts. The compounds thus formed are called reciprocal pronouns. Greenleaf's book is far better adapted to the capacity of learners, than any other that has yet appeared, on the subject. Murray and Fisk cor. Or, if this was the critic's meaning: The art or practice of writing words with their proper letters; 2.

That part of grammar which treats of letters, syllables, separate words, and spelling. Lowth and Churchill cor. A noun is the name of something ; as, a man, a boy. Allen ; also Parker and Fox ; also Weld ; also Weld again. Yes ; the conjunction sometimes joins words together, and sometimes sentences, or certain parts of sentences. Click here Do you believe that this item violates a copyright? Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. View or edit your browsing history. Get to Know Us.

Not Enabled Word Wise: Enabled Average Customer Review: Be the first to review this item Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Would you like to report this content as inappropriate? Do you believe that this item violates a copyright? It was first printed by the King's Printer Robert Barker and was the third translation into English approved by the English Church authorities. The first commercial tobacco crop is raised in Jamestown, Virginia.

The Adoration of the Shepherds. Logarithms presented by John Napier in his book Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio A Description of the Wonderful Law of Logarithms , which contained fifty-seven pages of explanatory matter and ninety pages of tables of numbers related to natural logarithms see Napierian logarithm. The book also has an excellent discussion of theorems in spherical trigonometry, usually known as Napier's Rules of Circular Parts. Painting by Frans Hals: Banquet of the Officers of the St.

Hals was in his thirties when he painted this piece, and was far from established as a portrait painter. To be safe, he based most of his design on the painting of his predecessor, Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem, who painted the same militia company in Given a nearly impossible task, namely to complete his assignment but to add theatrical elements at the same time, Hals must have spent lots of time judging the politics of the group. He knew these men well as he served in the St. Joris militia himself from In his painting, he indicates the political position of each man in the group as well as managing to give each a characteristic portrait.

In Cornelis van Haarlem's piece the figures seem crammed into a tight space, and each face seems to have a similar expression. In Hals' group, an illusion of space and relaxed conversation is given. Officers were selected by the council of Haarlem to serve for three years, and this group had just finished their tenure and celebrated their end of service with a portrait. The man with the orange sash heads the table and the second in command is on his right. The three ensigns stand and the servant is carrying a plate.

Death of retired Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. Fabio Colonna publishes "Dissertation on Tongue Stones" arguing that "nobody is so stupid" that he or she will not agree that tongue stones are really shark teeth. Like Rondelet several decades earlier, he attracts little attention. Italian philosopher Lucilio Vanini suggests that humans descended from apes. In Vanini is arrested and, after a prolonged trial, condemned to have his tongue cut out, to be strangled at the stake and to have his body burned to ashes.

The sentence was executed on 9 February Nikko Tosho-gu Shrine , dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate, is built. Ieyasu is enshrined there, where his remains are also entombed. During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate carried out stately processions from Edo to the Nikko Tosho-gu. The shrine's annual spring and autumn festivals reenact these occasions, and are known as processions of a thousand warriors. The stable of the shrine's sacred horses bears a carving of the three wise monkeys, who hear, speak and see no evil, a traditional symbol in Chinese and Japanese culture.

Beginning of the Thirty Years War.. The Manchus start invading China. Their conquest eventually topples the Ming Dynasty. Like indentured servants, they were probably freed after a fixed period of service. Painting by Artemesia Gentileschi: Judith Beheading Holofernes shows the scene of Judith beheading Holofernes, common in art since the early Renaissance. The subject represents an episode from the apocryphal Book of Judith in the Old Testament which recounts the assassination of the Assyrian general Holofernes by the Israelite heroine Judith.

The painting shows the moment when Judith, helped by her maidservant, beheads the general after he has fallen asleep drunk. The painting is relentlessly physical, from the wide spurts of blood to the energy of the two women as they perform the act. Although the painting depicts a classic scene from the Bible, Gentileschi drew herself as Judith and her mentor Agostino Tassi, who was tried in court for her rape, as Holofernes.

Gentileschi's biographer Mary Garrard famously proposed an autobiographical reading of the painting, stating that it functions as "a cathartic expression of the artist's private, and perhaps repressed, rage. English philosopher Francis Bacon publishes Novum Organum New Instrument , which seeks to add inductive reasoning to the tools of deductive inquiry that had been outlined in Aristotle's treatises of logic known as the Organum.

Slide Rule invented by William Oughtred. Algonquian natives kill English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia one-third of the colony's population and burn the Henricus settlement. The third English dictionary, English Dictionarie , and the first to be called a dictionary is published by Henry Cockeram, listing difficult words with definitions. Francis Bacon develops a method of steganography that used an underlying binary code for the letters of the alphabet. Wilhelm Schickard designs a calculating machine.

Gaspard Bauhin publishes Pinax Theatri Botanici describing some 6, plants. The Laughing Cavalier has been described as "one of the most brilliant of all Baroque portraits". The unknown subject is in fact not laughing, but can be said to have an enigmatic smile, much amplified by his upturned moustache.

Galileo presents to Cesi, founder of the Lincean Academy, a "little eyeglass" a microscope. The invention will enable the Linceans to study natural objects with unprecedented precision. They will start with bees, then move on to flies and dust mites. English settlers occupy the islands of Barbados and St.

Painting by Nicolas Poussin: The Martyrdom of St. The book established the circulation of the blood and was a landmark in the history of physiology. Just as important as its substance was its method. Harvey combined observations, experiments, measurements, and hypotheses in extraordinary fashion to arrive at his doctrine. His work is a model of its kind. It had an immediate and far-reaching influence on Harvey's contemporaries. In the book, Harvey investigated the effect of ligatures on blood flow.

The book also argued that blood was pumped around the body in a "double circulation", where after being returned to the heart, it is recirculated in a closed system to the lungs and back to the heart, where it is returned to the main circulation. The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp shows Dr. Tulp explaining the musculature of the arm to medical professionals. Some of the spectators are various doctors who paid commissions to be included in the painting.

The painting is signed in the top-left hand corner Rembrandt. This may be the first instance of Rembrandt signing a painting with his forename in its original form as opposed to the monogramme RHL Rembrandt Harmenszoon of Leiden , and is thus a sign of his growing artistic confidence. Galileo Galilei first describes the Principle of Relativity, the idea that the fundamental laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames and that, purely by observing the outcome of mechanical experiments, one cannot distinguish a state of rest from a state of constant velocity.

Under compulsion, Galileo rejects the Copernican system. Painting by Adriaen Brouwer: Brouwer left a small body of work amounting to about 60 works. Just a few of his works are signed, while none is dated. As Brouwer was widely copied, imitated and followed in his time, attributions of work to Brouwer are sometimes uncertain or contested. For instance, the The smoker Louvre showing a man exhaling smoke while holding a bottle of liquor was attributed for a long time to Brouwer, but is now given to Brouwer's follower and, possibly, pupil Joos van Craesbeeck.

The principal subject matter of Brouwer are genre scenes with peasants, soldiers and other 'lower class' individuals engaging in drinking, smoking, card or dice playing, fights etc. Brouwer also contributed to the development of the genre of tronies, i. Jan Morris has called it "one of the most Spanish of all pictures". Lucas de Clercq , a Dutch cloth merchant known today for his and his wife's pendant marriage portraits painted by Frans Hals.

Painting by Guido Reni: The Archangel Michael vanquishing Satan. Painting by Justus Sustermans: Portrait of Galileo Galilei. Justus Sustermans was a Flemish painter working in the Baroque style. He was born in Antwerp and died in Florence. Sustermans is chiefly notable for his portraits of members of the Medici family as he was their court painter. His work can be found in both the Palatina Gallery and the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, and in many other galleries around the globe. A rare example of a work painted for the artist's own pleasure rather than for a commission, it shows a view of the Het Steen estate near Brussels, which he had acquired in , set in an early-morning autumn landscape.

It has influenced artists including John Constable, during his period working for Sir George Beaumont, who then owned the painting and later donated it to the National Gallery in The painting features the first convincing depiction of a mackerel sky. The painting is the first of its kind in pictorial tradition. No other artist at the time had painted this specific narrative moment. This painting was a gift to the House of Orange, Rembrandt's current patron of a few commissioned paintings.

Colonial North America's slave trade begins when the first American slave carrier, Desire, is built and launched in Massachusetts. Harvard University is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Francesco Stelluti publishes a summary of research on fossil wood conducted by himself and fellow Lincean Academy member Federico Cesi. Though resulting from meticulous research, the work reaches the wrong conclusion, describing the origin of fossil wood as inorganic.

Pierre de Fermat formulates his so-called Last Theorem , unsolved until This theorem was first conjectured by Pierre de Fermat in in the margin of a copy of Arithmetica where he claimed he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin. Galileo Galilei demonstrates that unequal weights would fall with the same finite speed in a vacuum, and that their time of descent is independent of their mass.

Thus, freely falling bodies, heavy or light, have the same constant acceleration, due to the force of gravity. Jeremiah Horrox observes the first transit of Venus. Horrox or Horrocks was an English astronomer. He was the first person to demonstrate that the Moon moved around the Earth in an elliptical orbit; and he was the only person to predict the transit of Venus of , an event which he and his friend William Crabtree were the only two people to observe and record. Painting by Georges de La Tour: Magdalene with the Smoking Flame has been allotted the date of , by analogy with the Saint Mary with a Mirror, which has been dated between and During the 17th century, great devotion was shown to Mary Magdalene in all Catholic countries.

She was the perfect lover of Christ, her beauty made yet more appealing by reason of her repentance, which had a special attraction for a period so passionately interested in problems of mysticism, quietism and asceticism. The theme of the repentance of sinners and trials sent by God is illustrated in such subjects as the Repentance of St.

Peter, Mary Magdalene and Job. A number of written works give evidence of the cult of the Magdalene and this cult was the more widespread since Provence owned two great sanctuaries dedicated to her: It has been suggested that Georges de La Tour took a gypsy as his model: John Punch, a runaway black servant, is sentenced to servitude for life. His two white companions are given extended terms of servitude.

Punch is the first documented slave for life. New Netherlands law forbids residents from harboring or feeding runaway slaves. Regents of the St. Painting by Simon Vouet: Presentation in the Temple. Massachusetts is the first colony to legalize slavery. The D'Angola marriage is the first recorded marriage between blacks in New Amsterdam. The Tokugawa Shogunate institutes Sakoku — foreigners are expelled and no one is allowed to enter or leave Japan. Permission is denied, but he will publish Men Before Adam anonymously 14 years later, inciting both outrage and mild amusement among religious leaders.

Dutch anatomist Nicolaas Tulp produces the first formal description of an ape a chimp, bonobo or orangutan. Art historian Ellis Waterhouse wrote of it as "a touchstone by which we can interpret the whole of Ribera's art". Commissioned by a Flemish dealer, the painting features a Neapolitan beggar boy with a deformed foot. Behind him is a vast and luminous landscape, against which the boy stands with a gap-toothed grin, wearing earth-toned clothes and holding his crutch slung over his left shoulder.

This is one of the painter's last works, and one of the most bitter. The Night Watch is renowned for three characteristics: The painting was completed in , at the peak of the Dutch Golden Age. It depicts the eponymous company moving out, led by Captain Frans Banning Cocq dressed in black, with a red sash and his lieutenant, Willem van Ruytenburch dressed in yellow, with a white sash.

With effective use of sunlight and shade, Rembrandt leads the eye to the three most important characters among the crowd: Behind them, the company's colours are carried by the ensign, Jan Visscher Cornelissen. Pascal's calculator or the Pascaline constructed. The mezzotint printmaking method was invented by the German amateur artist Ludwig von Siegen. Mezzotint is a printmaking process of the intaglio family, technically a drypoint method. It was the first tonal method to be used, enabling half-tones to be produced without using line- or dot-based techniques like hatching, cross-hatching or stipple.

Mezzotint achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots made by a metal tool with small teeth, called a "rocker. A high level of quality and richness in the print can be achieved. Workers dig up a skeleton in Flanders. A court physician to the Danish king observes the excavation, measures the skeleton in "Brabantian cubits," and attributes the skeleton to a giant.

It will later be identified as a fossil proboscidian. Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer. Manchu dynasty established in China; end of the Ming line. The Manchu conquer China ending the Ming Dynasty. The subsequent Qing Dynasty rules until Giacomo Torelli of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage. Peter Stuyvesant appointed governor of New Amsterdam. Christiaan Huygens invents the pendulum and applies its workings to create highly accurate pendulum clocks.

The Holy Family on the Steps. Franciscus Hackius publishes a lavish book on the natural history and medicines available from Brazil, Historia Naturalis Brasileae. King Charles I is executed for High treason, the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death. George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, is imprisoned at Nottingham.

Portrait of Innocent X is considered by many artists and art critics as the finest portrait ever created. It is housed in the Galleria Doria Pamphilj in Rome. The painting is noted for its realism, in that it is an unflinching portrait of a highly intelligent, shrewd but aging man. He is dressed in linen vestments, and the quality of the work is evident in the rich reds of his upper clothing, head-dress, and the hanging curtains.

A contributing factor for this large advancement in the painter's career was that he had already depicted a number of members of Pamphilj's inner court. Yet the pope remained wary and cautious, and the painting was initially displayed to only his immediate family, and was largely lost from public view through the 17th and 18th centuries. Irish archbishop James Ussher calculates the date of creation, based on the ages of biblical prophets.

Using his calculations, theologians will identify the date of creation as on October 26, BC. William Harvey publishes Exercitationes de generatione animalium On Animal Generation explaining that all animal life begins as eggs, whether in birds, amphibians or mammals.

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According to Joseph Needham, in this work Harvey: Painting by Carel Fabritius: The Goldfinch is an animal painting by Carel Fabritius of a chained goldfinch. The work belongs to the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague, Netherlands. The feeder consists of two half rings and a blue container. The bird is sitting on the top ring, to which it is chained by its foot. In the 17th century, goldfinches were popular pets because they could be trained to draw water from a bowl with a miniature bucket.

The Dutch title of the painting pertains to the bird's nickname puttertje, which refers to this custom and translates literally as 'little weller'. Massachusetts requires all black and Indian servants to receive military training. Rhode Island passes laws restricting slavery and forbidding enslavement for more than 10 years.

Aristotle Contemplating a Bust of Homer was painted as a commission from Don Antonio Ruffo, from Messina in Sicily, who did not request a particular subject. Aristotle, world-weary, looks at the bust of blind, humble Homer, on which he rests one of his hands.

This has variously been interpreted as the man of sound, methodical science deferring to Art, or as the wealthy and famous philosopher, wearing the jeweled belt given to him by Alexander the Great, envying the life of the poor blind bard. It has also been suggested that this is Rembrandt's commentary on the power of portraiture. After three months, the Nominated Assembly passes a motion to dissolve itself and Cromwell establishes the Protectorate.

A Virginia court grants blacks the right to hold slaves. Scotland incorporated with the English Commonwealth.

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Otto von Guericke invents a vacuum pump consisting of a piston and an air gun cylinder with two-way flaps designed to pull air out of whatever vessel it was connected to, and used it to investigate the properties of the vacuum in many experiments. Guericke demonstrated the force of air pressure with dramatic experiments.

In , he machined two inch diameter hemispheres and pumped all the air out of them, locking them together with a vacuum seal. The air pressure outside held the halves together so tightly that sixteen horses, eight harnessed to each side of the globe, could not pull the halves apart. It would have required more than 4, pounds of force to separate them.

The Polish Rider depicts a young man traveling on horseback through a murky landscape. When the painting was sold by Zdzislaw Tarnowski to Henry Frick in , there was consensus that the work was by the Dutch painter Rembrandt. This attribution has since been contested, though this remains a minority view. There has also been debate over whether the painting was intended as a portrait of a particular person, living or historical, and if so of whom, or if not, what it was intended to represent.

Both the quality of the painting and its slight air of mystery are commonly recognized, though parts of the background are very sketchily painted or unfinished. The Slaughtered Ox is an oil on beech panel painting by Rembrandt. It has been in the collection of the Louvre in Paris since A similar painting is in Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, possibly by Rembrandt himself but probably by one of his pupils, perhaps Fabritius.

Other similar, paintings attributed to Rembrandt or his circle, are held by museums in Budapest and Philadelphia. Rembrandt made a drawing of a similar scene c. Another, pre, painting of a slaughtered ox the example in Edinburgh, now attributed to Rembrandt's circle but formerly to Rembrandt was perhaps inspired by a lost earlier work by Rembrandt himself. In northern Europe, the month of November was traditionally the season slaughtering livestock in northern Europe, before winter made feed difficult to find. The island of Jamaica is captured from the Spaniards by the English.

Danish scholar Ole Worm publishes Musei Wormiani Historia , a successful book about his cabinet of natural curiosities. Las Meninas The Ladies-in-Waiting has a complex and enigmatic composition that raises questions about reality and illusion, and creates an uncertain relationship between the viewer and the figures depicted. Because of these complexities, Las Meninas has been one of the most widely analyzed works in Western painting.

The painting shows a large room in the Royal Alcazar of Madrid during the reign of King Philip IV of Spain, and presents several figures, most identifiable from the Spanish court, captured, according to some commentators, in a particular moment as if in a snapshot. Some look out of the canvas towards the viewer, while others interact among themselves.

The young Infanta Margaret Theresa is surrounded by her entourage of maids of honour, chaperone, bodyguard, two dwarfs and a dog. In the background there is a mirror that reflects the upper bodies of the king and queen. Las Meninas has long been recognised as one of the most important paintings in Western art history.

The Baroque painter Luca Giordano said that it represents the "theology of painting" and in the president of the Royal Academy of Arts Sir Thomas Lawrence described the work in a letter to his successor David Wilkie as "the true philosophy of the art". The first persecution of Quakers occurs in Massachusetts.

Virginia passes a fugitive slave law. Cromwell dies and his son Richard becomes Lord Protector. Jesuit missionary Martino Martini publishes a manuscript explaining that documented Chinese history predates the time generally understood to mark Noah's flood 2, BC. Richard Cromwell is pressured into dissolving the Protectorate; the Rump Parliament is restored.

John Tradescant deeds his family treasures to fellow collector Elias Ashmole. Ashmole will later donate the collection to Oxford University, stipulating that a separate building is to be constructed for it. For the first time, women began to act in plays in London. Previously men had portrayed both male and female roles. Painting by Jacob von Ruisdale: The Jewish Cemetery is an oil on canvas painting.

This painting was documented by John Smith in , who wrote: On the foreground are a broken tree lying across a rapid stream, a tomb of black marble, with an inscription on it; a row of three sarcophagi extending along the front; and on the left stands a cluster of large umbrageous trees, the verdant hues of whose foliage is contrasted by the leafless trunk of a beech.

Three persons in black are seen near a small tomb on the side of the hill, musing amidst the tombs. The grandeur and solemnity of the scene is strikingly enhanced by rolling stormy clouds, in which may be perceived the evanescent colours of a rainbow. End of Puritan rule in England; restoration of the Stuarts. The Commonwealth of England ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration. Foundation of the Royal Society, London, for the promotion of mathematical and physical science. Painting by Charles Le Brun: Robert Boyle publishes The Sceptical Chymist helping to transform alchemy into chemistry.

Though an alchemist himself with his own cache of secret notebooks, Boyle begins writing up experiments for use by others. The Syndics of the Drapers Guild. Massachusetts reverses a ruling dating back to , which allowed blacks to train in arms. New York, Connecticut, and New Hampshire pass similar laws restricting the bearing of arms. Until the s, most settlers in the region are small landowners from Barbados. In Gloucester County, Virginia the first documented slave rebellion in the colonies takes place.

German physician Otto von Guericke pieces together bones from different species to make a fossil "unicorn. It forms a pendant with the Regentesses of the Old Men's Almshouse. Though it is no longer known which name belongs with which face, the regents portrayed were Jonas de Jong, Mattheus Everzwijn, dr. Frans Hals painted them in his "loose style", with rough brush strokes.

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The painting is traditionally dated , though no archival evidence has yet been found to confirm this. The date is chosen as the middle of the term that the sitters served as regents. Though the paintings as pendants seem to belong together, they did not hang together, and as was the case in the St. Elisabeth hospital across the street, they probably each hung in a separate regents' meeting room; the one for the ladies in the ladies' meeting room and the one for the men in the men's meeting room.

Maryland is the first colony to take legal action against marriages between white women and black men. New York and New Jersey legalize slavery. The State of Maryland mandates lifelong servitude for all black slaves. In his private museum in Rome, Virgilio Romano exhibits a Hippopotamus major canine tooth found in Pleistocene gravels along the Via Nomentana. Isaac Newton discovers that white light is composed of different colors. Painting by Rembrandt The Jewish Bride. Robert Hooke observes cork under a microscope and uses the word cells to describe the tiny chambers that he sees.

He publishes drawings of these cells, of fleas, and of other small creatures, in his book Micrographia. Painting by Jacob von Oost: Maryland passes a fugitive slave law. Samuel Morland builds a mechanical calculator that will add and subtract. Milton's Paradise Lost is published.


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Painting by Jan Vermeer: The Art of Painting is one of Vermeer's most famous. Svetlana Alpers describes it as unique and ambitious; Walter Liedtke "as a virtuoso display of the artist's power of invention and execution, staged in an imaginary version of his studio Its composition and iconography make it the most complex Vermeer work of all. Virginia declares that Christian baptism will not alter a person's status as a slave.

Niels Stensen Steno describes his dissection of the head of a giant white shark and correctly identifies shark teeth, still generally thought despite arguments to the contrary from Rondelet and Colonna in the preceding century to be serpent tongues. The Mission of Sault Ste. Marie, in what will become Michigan, is founded by Father Marquette. New Jersey passes a fugitive slave law. Natural historian John Somner finds woolly rhino teeth near Canterbury in Kent, and figures they might be the remains of a sea monster. Francesco Redi publishes Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti Experiments on the Generation of Insects , which is regarded as his masterpiece and a milestone in the history of modern science.

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At the time, prevailing wisdom was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat. Redi took six jars and divided them into two groups of three: In one experiment, in the first jar of each group, he put an unknown object; in the second, a dead fish; in the last, a raw chunk of veal.

Redi covered the tops of the first group of jars with fine gauze so that only air could get into it. He left the other group open. After several days, he saw maggots appear on the objects in the open jars, on which flies had been able to land, but not in the gauze-covered jars. In the second experiment, meat was kept in three jars. One of the jars was uncovered, and two of the jars were covered, one with cork and the other one with gauze. Flies could only enter the uncovered jar, and in this, maggots appeared.

In the jar that was covered with gauze, maggots appeared on the gauze but did not survive. Knowing full well the terrible fates of out-spoken thinkers such as Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei, Redi was careful to express his new views in a manner that would not contradict theological tradition of the Church; hence, his interpretations were always based on biblical passages, such as his famous adage: Jan Swammerdam dissects a caterpillar for Cosimo de Medici, demonstrating that the butterfly wings already exist inside the caterpillar's body.

A year later, he will publish Historia Insectorum Generalis. Robert Hooke presents a lecture to the Royal Society claiming that earthquakes, not the biblical flood, have caused fossils to be found on mountaintops and buried in stone. Painting by Willem Kalf: Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar is a sumptuous still life displaying the sort of costly wares that flowed through the Netherlands during its heyday as a trade center. In Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar, Kalf selected an array of precious objects with which to showcase the wealth and refinement of the Netherlands and his own skills as a painter.

Everything is expensive, imported, or both. The citrus fruit, glassware from Venice, and Chinese porcelain jar are evidence of Dutch sailors' enterprise. Local talent is displayed by Dutch silver and a rummer, or wineglass, with a cherub holding a cornucopia at its base.

They stand on a marble tabletop with a carelessly crumpled oriental rug. Amid all that luxury is a lesson: The carefully balanced composition, rich colors, and warm tonalities make this painting an object of beauty as well as moral edification. Niels Stensen Steno publishes Forerunner, showing diagrammatic sections of the Tuscany area geology, making the important point that sediments are deposited in horizontal layers.

The Hudson Bay Company is incorporated. The State of Virginia prohibits free blacks and Indians from keeping Christian i.

Rushton Woodside

Agostino Scilla publishes Vain Speculation Undeceived by Sense arguing for the organic origin of fossils. The Greenwich Observatory is built. The book describes Newton's analytic methods, which would now be called calculus. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invents the Staffelwalze stepped drum, or stepped reckoner , the first mechanical calculator that could perform all four mathematical operations. Its intricate precision gearwork, however, was somewhat beyond the fabrication technology of the time; mechanical problems, in addition to a design flaw in the carry mechanism, prevented the machines from working reliably.

Despite the mechanical flaws, it suggested possibilities to future calculator builders. The operating mechanism, invented by Leibniz, called the stepped cylinder or Leibniz wheel, was used in many calculating machines for years, and into the s with the Curta hand calculator. In discussing his invention, Leibniz wrote Indignum enim est excellentium virorum horas servii calculandi labore perire, qui Machina adhibita vilissimo cuique secure transcribi posset — For it is unworthy of distinguished men to waste their time with slavish calculations, which can be done safely with the use of this machine by anyone else.

The Mississippi River is discovered. Apothecary and antiquary John Conyers finds an elephant tusk and a nearby handaxe about 12 feet below ground at Gray's Inn Lane, London. The Gray's Inn Lane handaxe will later be dated at , years old. Leeuwenhoek begins corresponding with the Royal Society of London describing his discoveries under the microscope. Painting by Jan Steen: Merrymaking at an Inn combines the Flemish tradition of low-life tavern scenes with the more elegant Dutch merry companies. New York declares that blacks who convert to Christianity after their enslavement will not be freed.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek creates a simple microscope with only one lens. He developed glass-handling techniques that allowed him to create lenses with magnifying power up to x — by far the most powerful magnifying lenses available. Although compound microscopes had been invented in the s, nearly forty years before Leeuwenhoek was born, there were technical difficulties in building them, meaning that early compound microscopes such as used by Robert Hooke had a maximum magnification of only 20x or 30x.

Leeuwenhoek's more powerful lenses allowed him to discover protozoa and other single-celled organisms and to be the first to observe bacteria.