This and subsequent tests were so successful that a contract was placed for 40 powered aircraft with the Gothaer Waggonfabrik AG under the designation Go The all-wing fighter was to be powered by two BMW turbojets situated one on each side of the cockpit.
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Tubular steel was to be used for the construction of the center section with wooden outer panels and plywood covering. The cockpit was set well forward and the pilot was provided with a spring-loaded ejector seat. Lateral and longitudinal control was by means of elevons which occupied most of the trailing edge of the wing, directional control being achieved by the aid of flaps above and below the wingtips.
This order delayed completion by about seven weeks and it was not until sometime in January, , that the aircraft made its initial flight from Oranienburg piloted by Fw. Even at this stage, considerable lateral instability was experienced, making the aircraft a far from ideal gun platform. Two further flights followed, the fourth coming on February Following a pass over Bisping's funeral cortege, the port engine cut, leading Ziller to attempt an emergency landing on a lengthened, grassed over, portion of the runway.
As the main wheels hit the ground, they broke through a patch of ice, causing the aircraft to ground loop.
Despite the fact that the Gotha company had received the first drawings of the Ho IX in July , the third aircraft, the Go V3, was still not complete when the war ended. The main reason for this was that Gotha was more interested in promoting its own P 60 delta wing fighter design than building the Ho IX. Five further prototypes were under construction as the war ended, the Go V4 to V8. The first of these was a production prototype with a new landing gear retraction system, armament, armor and self sealing tanks.
It was virtually complete when the war ended, but, like the center section of the V5, it mysteriously disappeared before the Friedrichsroda plant was captured by U. Construction of the V6 and V7 also began, various armament combinations being proposed. Some thought was also given to the production of a two-seat night fighter variant.
At one time it had been planned to transfer one of the Go prototypes to the Versuchsverband OKL at Oranienburg, but as has been explained, none of these was completed. A proposal was also made in April to reequip 1. In your last email you mentioned some interest in the Horten glider which was the prototype for the Go The wing was built strictly according to F. The conversion consists of leaving off the engine housings and retractable landing gear housing. The landing gear on the glider was fixed, the main gear was housed in trapezoidal fairing's with the nose wheel exposed.
On my model the landing gear and pilots canopy are plastic everything else is card. I must commend your design, in spite of the large size and change of materials, the wing held its shape without any internal bracing. From what I can see in the available black and white photographs, the glider was gray on top, probably light blue on the bottom with Balken crosses on top and bottom of wings. Horten IX Soaring Wing' sailplane. The aircraft was of mixed construction welded steel tube and wood and was covered with several layers of plywood of various qualities, the outer layer being of the best quality.
This method of construction made radar detection of the aircraft extremely difficult. The pilot was accommodated in a normal seated position. The first flight of the V1 took place on March 1, , at Gottingen with Heinz Scheidhauer at the controls. Following several towed takeoffs, the aircraft was sent to Oranienburg near Berlin for flight testing, with Scheidhauer as pilot.
A brief report submitted by the DVL on April 7, , indicated that the aircraft provided an excellent gun platform. In order to simulate the stabilizing effect of the engines, which were absent from the V1, the aircraft's main undercarriage legs were faired from the outset; only the aircraft's nose wheel was retractable. On March 5 the nose gear failed after it developed a wobble on Oranienburg's concrete runway. A special pressure suit was to have replaced the absent cockpit pressurization, but was never used in practice.
The machine was sent to Brandis, where it was to be tested by the military and used for training purposes.
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It was found there by soldiers of the US 9th Armored Division at the end of the war and was later burned in a "clearing action. One beta builder has commented on the fact that he could get one wing onto the fuselage with access through the opposite side. However, when putting the other wing on there was no place to get an index finger inside the model to help attach and align the wing.
During mock-ups I found it easiest to attach the second wing by sliding the wing ass'y onto the already glued up tabs and then applying light pressure just inside the joint at the leading and trailing edge of the fuselage. This "puffs up" the fuselage, making it grab hold of the wing tabs. Alene's Tacky, WeldBond or other quick setting glue works well. FWIW, if you don't feel comfortable with this, you can cut a hole in the gray area where the main landing gear housing covers and get a finger in there. This area is completely covered anyway. If there's enough of a problem here I can even draw a cut-out area right on the model for this purpose.
With all the renewed interest in the HO such as the TV coverage of the Northrop replica build causing discussion among the WWII veterans I decided to put a Fiddlersgreen together for a possible short presentation before the next B Combat Crewmembers organization meeting. So, how are you putting the two halves together? The pix looks like a butt joint. Is that the case?? Haven't decided for sure yet, but am leaning towards a double connecting strip. I've tried tabs on one half but I don't think that will cut the mustard.
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We'll see, things have a way of changing. First attempt was a tracing as RM described. Which in this case is the center of the whole shabang. In addition that center section has a different profile than the outer sections. The joint between them also needed to be straight to look right. After stretching and poking these joints for a couple of weeks I'm finally getting "close enough for government work". One day I'm liable to be in the shower and the force of the water on my head may knock some sense into me and I'll get another brainstorm.
This is how the Flea wing curve and the Trieb rotating collar came to me. One of the first things I've been doing when starting a design is trolling the web for info, pictures, 3-views, etc. It's like having an "off-brand" encyclopedia right at my fingertips. Still need the books though. As far as progress on the goes, I've joined the two halves of the center fuse section together at the bottom-rear and will use tabs up one side of the center joint to make it come together like a zipper.
I'm working on the engine nacelles now. Kinda tough because of the odd angle that the engines were mounted on. It's based on the V3 that unlike the Fly model Nachtjager, which is based on the V7, has full-length nacelles instead of just humps on the upper wing. As far as color schemes go, I'm leaning toward the one depicted in the 3-view on page of the book "Warplanes of the Third Reich" by William Green. RLM 74, 75, 76 again? Hard for me to tell whether it's the RLM gray shades or green. I've attached a graphic that is just nothing but "scary" to me. I pulled this off Usenet some time ago and wish I knew who rendered it so I could give credit because it's really well done.
Pretty cool composite of a real B2 being stalked by a pair of rendered hos. Every design I've done so far for Fiddlers Green has been of a subject that I have little actual knowledge of but have grown to love through learning and the more I learn about these Horten brothers and they're work, the more amazed I am.
Yep, those s with their wooden construction were pretty "stealthy" too and just as fast as a B The very advanced pre-war Horten 'soaring wing' Glider. Check out the Fiddlersgreen Ho-IX cardmodel. It was built to test the full power irreversible hydraulic flight control system used in the B35 bomber and to check out pilots prior to flying the big wings.
This is the only 60 foot N9M known to exist. An earlier model N1M 30 foot wing is on display in the Smithsonian Museum, but all of the full scale bombers were scrapped. The N9MB took 13 years and over 20, man hours to rebuild by a group of volunteers at Planes of Fame, and was supported by aircraft component manufacturers.
Two of the volunteers were original "Norcrafters" who worked on the wing during the original construction. The outer wings are wood construction and the engines are mounted in a steel frame center body. The engines are the original eight cylinder Franklin's, which are supercharged to obtain horsepower. Less than 20 of these engines were built by Franklin in the 's. This plane is based at the Fighter Jets Museum in Chino. In the s the Horten brothers had become interested in the all-wing design as a method of improving the performance of gliders.
The all-wing layout removes any "unneeded" surfaces and —in theory at least— leads to the lowest possible drag. For a glider this is important, with a more conventional layout you have to go to extremes to reduce drag and end up with long wings. If you can get the same effect with a different layout, you end up with a similarly performing glider that's sturdier.
At the time there was simply no way to meet these goals; jet engines could give the performance required, but swallowed fuel at such a rate that they would never be able to match the range requirement. The Hortens felt that the low-drag all-wing design could meet all of the goals — by reducing the drag cruise power could be lowered to the point where the range requirement could be met. They put forward their current private and jealously guarded project, the Ho IX, as the basis for a fighter.
There were a number of minor handling problems but otherwise the performance was outstanding. Gotha appeared to be somewhat upset about being ordered to build a design from two "nobodies" and made a number of changes to the design, as well as offering up a number of versions for different roles. Several more prototypes, including those for a two-seat night fighter, were under construction when the Gotha plant was overrun by the American troops in April.
The Ho A-0 pre-production fighters were to be powered by two Junkers Jumo B turbojets with 1, lbf thrust each.
The Horten Brothers and Their All-Wing Aircraft by David Myhra (1997, Hardcover)
The maximum speed was estimated at an excellent mph at sea level and mph at 39, ft. Maximum ceiling was to be 52, ft, although it's unlikely this could be met. It was to be armed with two 30 mm MK cannon, and could also carry either two kg bombs, or twenty-four R4M rockets. But like many of the late war German designs, the production was started far too late for the plane to have any effect. In this case none saw combat. It has a span of Engines were completely buried and drove propellers on extension shafts raised relative to the engine crankshaft and driven through a reduction gear.
The undercarriage was of fixed tricycle type with castoring nose wheel and trousered main wheels. Three examples were built. The first, built at Ostheim in was constructed of plastic material with riveted sheet plastic covering. Pilot and passenger were contained entirely in the wing contour and the nose wheel was retractable. This aircraft crashed on its first flight, due mainly to its unorthodox waggle-tip control. The second version used more normal control methods and conventional construction, it was started in and flew successfully.
In it was completely rebuilt as a single-seater, but retained the same control system. In its original form the H V was fitted with waggle tip control in which the fore and aft sweep of the wing tips was geared to the stick, producing incidence change by a skew hinge arrangement. The aircraft crashed on it first flight due to the control taking charge after a bounce during landing. The reason for the accident was obscured by a failure of one engine but the control system was not regarded as satisfactory by the Hortens who later developed the idea further on an H III.
They considered that damping is necessary to prevent the tips oscillating under suddenly applied acceleration as occur during take off and landing. The second aircraft in both its forms had a two stage elevon control rather similar to the H III. The inner flap pair had round noses. The idea of using graded flap deflections originated from a hunch of the Hortens that the sudden discontinuity and greater spanwise flow with ungraded flaps might cause stability and control troubles. They later found that this fear was unfounded and gave up the graded deflection principle. Rudder control on the second two aircraft was by split nose flaps on the H III pattern.
We questioned him extensively about his impressions of the aircraft Sept. The Hortens themselves had lost interest in the H V because later designs incorporated many improvements. Longitudinal dynamic stability was good and no fundamental different from a conventional aircraft could be noticed. In rough air he thought it had a more abrupt pitch response than normal, which was only a disadvantage if gun platform steadiness was needed.
Lateral stability appeared satisfactory. Stuper was in fact expecting trouble from this source but failed completely to find any. He added that his impressions were purely qualitative as they had no time to instrument the aircraft. Controls were light and effective, with the exception of the rudder, which was heavy and not effective enough. With the stick back, aileron movement was restricted, which Stuper thought a bad point since plenty of aileron was useful in an approach in gusty weather. The aircraft was in trim virtually over the whole speed range without movement of the elevator trimmer.
When flaps were lowered there was a slight nose heavy tendency which could easily be held. Stuper said that aileron and elevator control were quite normal but rudder control needed improvement. Behavior at the stall flaps down was very satisfactory, the nose dropped gently and the aircraft gained speed.
Wing dropping could be induced if the aircraft was stalled in a yawed attitude but normally the wings remained level and ailerons still effective, thought restricted in movement. The stall was reached with the stick not quite fully back; only one CG position was tested. Stalling speed was about 70 kph. Rudders were not used much because they were so heavy, although Walter Horten claimed that at kph single engine flight could be maintained on rudder only engine nearly at full power if the pilot was strong enough.
During take-off the aircraft could quite easily be kept straight until the drag rudders became effective, and flew itself off the ground without assistance from the pilot - in fact it made very little difference what the pilot did with the controls during take-off. There was no tendency to bounce during the ground run. Landing was quite straightforward and normally the aircraft settled down on all wheels at once.
The flying wing layout removed the need for a tail and associated control surfaces and theoretically offered the lowest possible weight, using wings that were relatively short and sturdy, and without the added drag of the fuselage. The result was the Horten H. Conventional German bombers could reach Allied command centers in Great Britain, but were suffering devastating losses from Allied fighters. The Hortens concluded that the low-drag flying wing design could meet all of the goals: They put forward their private project, the H.
IX , as the basis for the bomber. IX was of mixed construction, with the center pod made from welded steel tubing and wing spars built from wood. The wings were made from two thin, carbon-impregnated plywood panels glued together with a charcoal and sawdust mixture. The wing had a single main spar, penetrated by the jet engine inlets, and a secondary spar used for attaching the elevons. It was designed with a 7g load factor and a 1.
A drogue parachute slowed the aircraft upon landing. The pilot sat on a primitive ejection seat. The aircraft was originally designed for the BMW jet engine, but that engine was not quite ready, and the Junkers Jumo engine was substituted. Control was achieved with elevons and spoilers. The control system included both long-span inboard and short-span outboard spoilers, with the smaller outboard spoilers activated first. This system gave a smoother and more graceful control of yaw than would a single-spoiler system.
Given the difficulties in design and development, Russell Lee, the chair of the Aeronautics Department at the National Air and Space Museum, suggests an important purpose of the project for the Horton Brothers was to prevent them and their workers from being assigned to more dangerous roles by the German military. The first prototype H. IX V1, an unpowered glider with fixed tricycle landing gear , flew on 1 March Flight results were very favorable, but there was an accident when the pilot attempted to land without first retracting an instrument-carrying pole extending from the aircraft.
The design was taken from the Horten brothers and given to Gothaer Waggonfabrik. The Gotha team made some changes: The first flight of the H. IX V2 was made in Oranienburg on 2 February By this time, the Horten brothers were working on a turbojet-powered design for the Amerika Bomber contract competition and did not attend the first test flight. The test pilot was Leutnant Erwin Ziller. Two further test flights were made between 2 and 18 February IX V2 reportedly displayed very good handling qualities, with only moderate lateral instability a typical deficiency of tailless aircraft.
While the second flight was equally successful, the undercarriage was damaged by a heavy landing caused by Ziller deploying the brake parachute too early during his landing approach. There are reports that during one of these test flights, the H. IX V2 undertook a simulated "dog-fight" with a Messerschmitt Me , the first operational jet fighter, and that the H. IX V2 outperformed the Me Two weeks later, on 18 February , disaster struck during the third test flight.
Ziller took off without any problems to perform a series of flight tests. After about 45 minutes, at an altitude of around m, one of the Jumo turbojet engines developed a problem, caught fire and stopped. Ziller was seen to put the aircraft into a dive and pull up several times in an attempt to restart the engine and save the precious prototype.
Ziller did not use his radio or eject from the aircraft. He may already have been unconscious as a result of the fumes from the burning engine. The aircraft crashed just outside the boundary of the airfield.
Horten Ho 229
Ziller was thrown from the aircraft on impact and died from his injuries two weeks later. The prototype aircraft was completely destroyed. Despite this setback, the project continued with sustained energy. On 12 March , nearly a week after the U. The prototype workshop was moved to the Gothaer Waggonfabrik Gotha in Friedrichroda , western Thuringia. In the same month, work commenced on the third prototype, the Ho V3. The V3 was larger than previous prototypes, the shape being modified in various areas, and it was meant to be a template for the pre-production series Ho A-0 day fighters , of which 20 machines had been ordered.
Work had also started on the two-seat Ho V4 and Ho V5 night-fighter prototypes, the Ho V6 armament test prototype, and the Ho V7 two-seat trainer. During the final stages of the war, the U. A Horten glider and the Ho V3, which was undergoing final assembly, were transported by sea to the United States as part of Operation Seahorse for evaluation. On the way, the Ho spent a brief time at RAE Farnborough in the UK,  during which it was considered whether British jet engines could be fitted, but the mountings were found to be incompatible  with the early British turbojets, which used larger-diameter centrifugal compressors as opposed to the slimmer axial-flow turbojets the Germans had developed.
The Americans were just starting to create their own axial-compressor turbojets before the war's end, such as the Westinghouse J30 , with a thrust level only approaching the BMW A's full output. In December , the National Air and Space Museum moved the Ho into the active restoration area of the Garber Restoration Facility, and it is being reviewed for full restoration and display.