Askok berritu zituzten hemen zure hitzak: Arkadia, Bizitza Berri, Paradisu. III Harritu egingo zinateke hona etorrita. Zuk eta nik ezagututako bizitzeko era, hainbetse urte, hainbetse mende etengabean irun eta josi zituena, ezkutatu egin da betiko. Hariak, oihala, ez ziren suertatu armiarmek belar-zirien artean hedatutakoak baino tinkoago.
Kansasen egon nintzen, Texasen, Oklahoman eta Coloradon, ez nuen artzai bakarti bat ikusi. Alferrik egiten dute han zuhaitzen hostoek xuxurla, alferrik egiten du euri, alferrik idazten dituzte txoriek mezuak airean. Har ditzagun umeak gogoan, ez dituzu kurkuluxetan edo txingotan jostatzen ikusiko, edo bizkarretik elkar hartuta bidean. Bizimodu hau Beste da, again hobe. Ba, beldurra ez da desagertu, Virgilio. Gure artean jarraitzen du ez dezan inork zoriontsu lo egin iturri edo ibai alboan, itzal goxoen anparoan.
Zenbat polizia, epaiketa, kartzela! Zenbat aulki elektriko, gas gela! Izutu egingo zinateke zenbakiekin. Bonbardaketetan ohearen azpian gordetzen zen bere ilobekin, ume artean ume. Lakuaren ur arreak, izei lun horiek; ez dago besterik, ez dago edenik. The rumours rife in the port of Brindisi were absolutely right, 5 Thule was not the farthermost shore; beyond it lay forests, rivers, plains, prairies, islands, deserts; there were human beings who said Milwaukee, Mississippi, Saskatchewan; many here repeated your words, Arcadia, the New Life, Paradise.
The life that you and I both knew and which, like a tireless seamstress, stitched together all those years and centuries, has disappeared for ever. Those threads, that fabric, proved no stronger than the webs the spider weaves between one blade of grass and another. This is another life, possibly better. V And what about Fear, you ask. No, Virgil, fear has not disappeared. So many policemen, trials, prisons, electric chairs and gas chambers!
The numbers, Virgil, are frightening. Do you know, Virgil, that, later, during the bombardments, he hid beneath the bed with his nieces and nephews, like another child.
Bernardo Atxaga has devoted some of his works to thinking about what paradise means to us, both as individuals and as groups. As a clue to his literary work we could say that from the beginning of his literary career, he was interested in the subject, and that he thought this real world the antithesis or complete opposite to paradise. He gave the title of Etiopia to his first book of poetry ; see Atxaga , depicting a world of dire need and suffering. The title suggested in those years of the twentieth century the idea of total starvation, due to the severe famine they were suffering on the eastern side of the Horn of Africa.
Atxaga shares his commitment to social and ethical issues with a whole rank of writers in contemporary Basque literature that were all influenced in their youth by writers like Gabriel Aresti songwriters and singers such as Mikel Laboa — As a clue to understanding their literature we may remember that Laboa was the author who introduced very early into Basque literature several texts of Bertolt Brecht — , the author who represents the voice of the critical conscience of the intellectual in post-war Europe.
Bertolt Brecht will be remembered in literary history as a major playwright and theatre director, as a theorist of epic theatre, but he was also an exceptional poet, with a characteristic voice of short and direct style, avoiding sentimentality and focusing on politics and social issues. Brecht is a reference point for a whole current of poetry in the Hispanic context. He was concerned with human suffering at all times and places. His poetry has two main styles: Nevertheless, Alianza editores published an anthology of his poems titled Poemas y Canciones in and very soon after Bertolt Brecht became well known in the Basque Country through Basque versions of texts that were sung by Mekel Laboa.
Comparative literature began with the idea of writing the story of the literature of a nation in relation to other national literatures, in order to describe which one was the origin and source of ideas and styles, and which ones were influenced by these. Modern comparative literature has internalized the idea of an international context of literary studies, in which intertextuality is a common feature of every text. It was Julia Kristeva Some are named and others not. We will also see that this dialogue is dominated by the sign structure, which has been defined in a certain pragmatic context and conveys significance and value to its readers.
It also protested about the hardships Vietnam veterans faced upon their return from the war. So the desperation and sacrifice relayed in the verses of the nationalist chorus is overwhelming. Some critics have also pointed out that the lyrics symbolically suggest the effect of blind nationalism upon the working class.
VII This is America, they cry. This is the best country in the world! We can talk of a different source of intertextual reading by observing another feature of the poem: The narrative voice tells of a desperate travelling across the country, a continuous change of place, looking for some trace of the old Arcadia: This is the most outstanding rhythmic and semantic feature of the poem, because if we look at the map of United States, we can see that he is crossing the country from one end to the other, from north to south.
The map and places are mentioned following their phonetic similarity, expressing the idea that all places are alike, as if they cannot give the poet any rest: The phonetic similarities and the parallelism of syntactic structures have a beautiful rhythmic effect that reinforces the connotation of the exhausting search from place to place, as we have said, but a careful look at the places that are mentioned show that the poet has also chosen to list some of the most dangerous places in the United States, in order to transmit indirectly, by accumulation, the internal subject of the poem: This song, by Canadian singer and songwriter Neil Young, was released on his album Harvest.
The repetition of structure and the similarity of names is a wonderfully expressive way to convey his endless search for his ideal. That way the reader feels an immediate emotional distress and weariness before having understood the real content of the poem. His search for a good place where the memory of a Paradise, an old Arcadia or Eden, suggested by many local names, is not successful at all, and this is why his solitary travelling through American cities and states makes him experience a state of danger.
Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te consule, inibit, Pollio, et incipient magni procedere menses; te duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri, inrita perpetua solvent formidine terras. IV Eclogue, verse [Only do thou, at the boy's birth in whom The iron shall cease, the golden race arise, Befriend him, chaste Lucina; 'tis thine own Apollo reigns.
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And in thy consulate, This glorious age, O Pollio, shall begin, And the months enter on their mighty march. But for Jameson, postmodernism is a kind of Iron Time: The past is still a repository of cultural and symbolic significance which continues to be revisited and reconstructed imaginatively by individuals and communities. But we have to ask ourselves which kind of myths and histories is he using and reworking — the biblical idea of Paradise, the Utopia city projections — and now we will take into account the Roman Empire at its peak: A dialogue with the classical poet Virgil implies a certain notion of the literary canon that nowadays nobody would let pass without questioning its relevance in literary studies.
Virgil was considered the best poet of the classical period of Western literature, but, at the same time, due to his great prestige, Roman Catholics were later immensely attracted by his literature and considered him almost a Christian saint and assimilated him into its tradition. When he wrote his Divina Commedia. Dante took Virgil as his guide on his visit toInferno, because he was such a wise man and so cultivated a person that nobody could have been a better guide.
In modern times, Thomas S. Eliot maintained that Virgil was really the unique classical figure of occidental literature. In Criterion, the magazine he published between the two world wars, Eliot advocated a Europe-wide culture. He did not mean that Virgil was the greatest European poet; he meant that his work showed a maturity of mind, manners and language with a perfection of the common style to such a degree that it provided us with a criterion by which to judge our living poets.
European Comparative Literature Studies experienced a turning point during the Second World War because great intellectuals took to thinking about what had really happened in the Western cultural heritage. They wanted to reflect on how Western civilization had many cultural elements to share and it was a total waste to try to fight each other to extinction. Great intellectuals, not only T. Eliot but also Ernst R. Curtius and Auerbach created the real platform for the comparative literature of today; confronted with the radicalism of totalitarianism they tried to strengthen European democratic cultural relations.
They were aesthetically and ideologically as interested as Eliot in claiming Virgil as the main figure and the great herald of European culture. The essential usefulness of basic literacy is taken for granted, but beyond that, the nature of reading has been made more problematic by contemporary literary theory. This is why, nowadays, the classics and the maintenance of the canon 8 are the target of a bitter debate.
That is why it is feasible to talk directly with a poet like Virgil. In this poem, Atxaga names Virgil as the creator of a certain idea of Arcadia that is representative of ancient civilization: For epicureans, the combination of these two states was supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form.
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But we cannot ask you for everything, we must content ourselves with the consolation that your verses, though distant, still bring us. Among the works ascribed to Virgil — The Eclogues, Bucolica; the Georgics, Georgica; the Aeneid, Eneida [AQ23] see Virgil , the Eclogues offer a simplicity of mind and sweetness of soul, similar conditions of life for all mankind that is responsible for the idea of the Virgilian Arcadia that Atxaga is longing for. These little pieces from Virgil are copies of far superior originals from Theocritus, but they have a perfection of form, a delicacy of treatment and a charm of diction that have gained them the rank of models of their kind.
But, above all, the author is asking for an attentive reading of the rhythm and the metaphoric meaning of his expressions. The great modernist writers, T. That way they demonstrated that great myths never die and old metaphors can hold new senses in their great masterpieces. As we have seen, they are used here in a new context and in a new sense: The poem is not talking, either, of a fear of supernatural beings or forces, or a personal anguish of death, which Atxaga has dealt with in a story cycle that is his most renowned book Obabakoak [Individuals and things of Obaba].
As social science experts assert nowadays, human fear is the fear of the other, the different. Thus, Delumeau describes the four directions in which the elites decided to reinforce their defences in history: The foundations of modern society are built on a society that has suffered terrifying and destructive wars in its recent past and has developed, in our days, a need for absolute security that is far from being achieved.
Our schedule is the following:. August-October We will edit the film to rough cut, show it to broadcasters and continue to raise funds. For 35 years, the La Fageda cooperative has been a beacon of enlightened mental healthcare provision. In tackling this problem Colon has developed a sustainable, socially responsible yet profitable business - acceptable to the most sensitive workforce imaginable.
And the people who work here feel that there is no greed in our organisation. We believe we don't just make yoghurts here; we are here to help a group of people lead a better life Colon. La Fageda has featured in the Harvard Business Review and become a soulful organisation and a model of alternative treatment for mental illness to be emulated by the many visitors from around the world.
Pero esta historia no va solo de la enfermedad mental. Colon ha producido un modelo de capitalismo social y sostenible. La Fageda ha salido en Harvard Business Review como modelo de empresa y un sistema alternativo del tratamiento de enfermos mentales para ser copiada por todo el mundo. For people who are sick or disabled, placement in work improves health and psychosocial status. Marwaha and Johnson, ; Schneider, But the principles that have underpinned the La Fageda project for over 30 years may provide a solution.
As expressed by Colon, these are:. Our capabilities may vary, but we are all able to do something - it is about matching the work with the capability of the person. But mental health problems remain stigmatised and treatment outdated throughout the world. Our film will inspire others, transform attitudes to mental health and provide a prototype for positive change.
Through partnership with broadcasters and film distributors we will ensure that Yoghurt Utopia is seen by as wide an audience as possible.
We aim to show Yoghurt Utopia at film festivals, on television, through video on demand and at educational events at The Royal Society of Arts. Marwaha and Johnson, ;Schneider, Para las personas enfermas el trabajo mejora su salud y su estatus psicosocial. Como dice Colon estos son: La enfermedad mental sigue estigmatizada y su tratamiento anticuado en todo el mundo. Crucially for this project she is a fluent Catalan speaker. David's directing career spans broadcast TV, commercials, event visuals and award-winning digital ad campaigns - making him a true multi-platform specialist.
He's just as at home shooting commercials and documentaries as he is creating immersive experiences for the web. Isona Passola i Vidal, Executive Producer. Isona is a multi-award winning film producer, screenwriter and director from Barcelona. She is the current president of the Catalan Academy of Cinema and runs production company, Massa D'or. Adrian Pennink, Executive Producer. Adrian has produced and directed more than 30 television documentaries and documentary series for British broadcasters and as co-productions with PBS, Discovery and NHK.
Adrian is a director of the production company Chimerica Media. Natalia Asheshov, Producer, UK. Alba Forn, Producer, Spain. Harold has over thirty years of service as a distinguished patient care-focused clinician, a senior clinical faculty at Harvard Medical School, and as a court qualified testifying clinical and forensic neuropsychiatric expert. His many distinctions include being recognized as a practicing "doctor's doctor",appointed as the representative of Harvard Medical School to the Harvard University Alumni Board and receiving the Harvard Medical School Excellence in Mentoring Award.
Joana has over 10 years experience creating projects all over the world in stop motion, 2d and 3d graphics. She works across genres creating animation for documentary, commercials, museums and interactive videos. Yoghurt Utopia is proud to be featured on RSA Kickstarter, which selects the best new Fellowship campaigns driving innovation and positive social impact today. Discover more about the RSA and joining the Fellowship here: Making a documentary on a shoestring is a challenge but we have benefitted from the fact that both David and I can shoot, record sound and edit so additional crew costs have been minimal.
La Fageda is right by Anna's family home in Spain she's half Catalan so that's we stay and borrow the family car when shooting. Put simply, we run a tight ship and can continue to shoot the documentary at a relatively low cost. We have spent over a year with the workers of La Fageda, making friends and developing a strong bond of trust. We have learnt that moods are changeable and that it is essential to work at the pace of our cast and if they are not in the right frame of mind to go and shoot something else.
Questions about this project? Check out the FAQ.
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PLUS your name on the big screen with a special thank you in the credits! Y todos los regalos digitales: PLUS your name on the big screen with a special thank-you in the credits! Todos los premios impresos. Your travel and accommodation are not included. A full day's work experience day with David or Anna. Do you want to know about producing, editing, directing, pitching, shooting?
We'll share our expertise and if we're in production or in the edit, come and join us and see how we do it! Quieres saber mas sobre Producir, Dirigir, Montaje, filmar? An original signed painting by Joan Vila. A signed postcard poem by Luis Garrido. Your name in the film credits and our thanks forever more.
Y gracias de Anna y David para siempre mas.