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Das Argument , , no. Der gemachte Mann extracts. Grundlagentexte Band III ab Ulrike Helmer Verlag, Herausgegeben von Ilse Lenz und Michael Meuser. Wiesbaden, Springer VS, Kulturaustausch , , vol. Knowledge Base Erwachsenen Bildung, , http: Feministische Studien , , vol. Wedgwood, N and RW Connell. Bern, Verlag Hans Huber, Translation of 2nd English edition, To Koinoniko Fylo , Thessaloniki, Il silenzio de la terra.

Uomini Contro le Donne? Questioni de genere , 2nd edition, with introduction by Roberta Sassatelli. Bologna, Il Mulino, Connell, Raewyn and Sveva Magaraggia. Ricerca sulle questioni de genere: Intervista a Raewyn Connell. Studi Culturali , vol. Questioni di genere , Bologna, Il Mulino, Gender Sekai Shisosha Kyogakusha, In English and Japanese. Kurume University, Kurume, Paul Preston estimates the total number of victims of deliberatedly killed by the Nationalists in Andalusia at 55, Andalusia is one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain.

The Regional Government of Andalusia Spanish: The Autonomous Community of Andalusia was formed in accord with a referendum of 28 February [81] and became an autonomous community under the Statute of Autonomy known as the Estatuto de Carmona. The process followed the Spanish Constitution of , still current as of , which recognizes and guarantees the right of autonomy for the various regions and nationalities of Spain.

The process to establish Andalusia as an autonomous region followed Article of the Constitution, making Andalusia the only autonomous community to take that particular course. That article was set out for regions like Andalusia that had been prevented by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War from adopting a statute of autonomy during the period of the Second Spanish Republic. Article 1 of the Statute of Autonomy justifies autonomy based on the region's "historical identity, on the self-government that the Constitution permits every nationality, on outright equality to the rest of the nationalities and regions that compose Spain, and with a power that emanates from the Andalusian Constitution and people, reflected in its Statute of Autonomy".

In the Andalusians broadly backed the constitutional consensus. Today, the Constitution, in its Article 2, recognizes Andalusia as a nationality as part of the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation. On 2 November the Spanish Chamber Deputies ratified the text of the Constitutional Commission with votes in favor, none opposed, and 2 abstentions. This was the first time a Spanish Organic Law adopting a Statute of Autonomy was approved with no opposing votes. The Senate, in a plenary session of 20 December , ratified the referendum to be voted upon by the Andalusian public 18 February The Statute of Autonomy spells out Andalusia's distinct institutions of government and administration.

The Andalusian Statute of Autonomy recognizes Seville as the region's capital. The Andalusian Autonomous Government is located there. Within the government, the President of the Regional Government of Andalusia is the supreme representative of the autonomous community, and the ordinary representative of the Spanish state in the autonomous community. The president is formally named to the position by the Monarch of Spain and then confirmed by a majority vote of the Parliament of Andalusia.

In practice, the monarch always names a person acceptable to the ruling party or coalition of parties in the autonomous region. In theory, were the candidate to fail to gain the needed majority, the monarch could propose a succession of candidates. After two months, if no proposed candidate could gain the parliament's approval, the parliament would automatically be dissolved and the acting president would call new elections. The Council of Government, the highest political and administrative organ of the Community, exercises regulatory and executive power.

In the current legislature — , there are 15 of these departments. The Parliament of Andalusia, its Autonomic Legislative Assembly, develops and approves laws and elects and removes the President. Further elections have occurred in , , , , , , and The High Court is not an organ of the Autonomous Community, but rather of the Judiciary of Spain , which is unitary throughout the kingdom and whose powers are not transferred to the autonomous communities.


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Andalusia consists of eight provinces. The latter were established by Javier de Burgos in the territorial division of Spain. Each of the Andalusian provinces bears the same name as its capital: Andalusia is traditionally divided into two historical subregions: Within the various autonomous communities of Spain, comarcas are comparable to shires or, in some countries, counties in the English-speaking world.

Unlike in some of Spain's other autonomous communities, under the original Statute of Autonomy, the comarcas of Andalusia had no formal recognition, but, in practice, they still had informal recognition as geographic, cultural, historical, or in some cases administrative entities. The Statute of Autonomy echoes this practice, and mentions comarcas in Article 97 of Title III, which defines the significance of comarcas and establishes a basis for formal recognition in future legislation.

The current statutory entity that most closely resembles a comarca is the mancomunidad , a freely chosen, bottom-up association of municipalities intended as an instrument of socioeconomic development and coordination between municipal governments in specific areas. Beyond the level of provinces, Andalusia is further divided into municipalities municipios.

At the municipal level, representation, government and administration is performed by the ayuntamiento municipal government , which has competency for urban planning , community social services, supply and treatment of water, collection and treatment of waste, and promotion of tourism, culture, and sports, among other matters established by law. In conformity with the intent to devolve control as locally as possible, in many cases, separate nuclei of population within municipal borders each administer their own interests.

Andalusia ranks first by population among the 17 autonomous communities of Spain. The estimated population at the beginning of was 8,, The population is aging, although the process of immigration is countering the inversion of the population pyramid. At the end of the 20th century, Andalusia was in the last phase of demographic transition. The death rate stagnated at around 8—9 per thousand, and the population came to be influenced mainly by birth and migration. In , Andalusia had By , this had declined to Although the Andalusian population was not declining in absolute terms, these relative losses were due to emigration great enough to nearly counterbalance having the highest birth rate in Spain.

Since the s, this process has reversed on all counts, [98] and as of , Andalusia has Furthermore, prior emigrants have been returning to Andalusia. Beginning in the s, others have been immigrating in large numbers as well, as Spain has become a country of net immigration. At the beginning of the 21st century, statistics show a slight increase in the birth rate, due in large part to the higher birth rate among immigrants.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the population structure of Andalusia shows a clear inversion of the population pyramid, with the largest cohorts falling between ages 25 and As far as composition by sex, two aspects stand out: This is a relatively low number for a Spanish region, the national average being three percentage points higher. The immigrants are not evenly distributed among the Andalusian provinces: The predominant nationalities among the immigrant populations are Moroccan 92,, constituting When comparing regions rather than individual countries, the single largest immigrant block is from Latin America , outnumbering either North Africans or non-Spanish Western Europeans.

Andalusia is traditionally an agricultural area, but the service sector particularly tourism, retail sales, and transportation now predominates. The once booming construction sector, hit hard by the recession , was also important to the region's economy. The industrial sector is less developed than most other regions in Spain. Between — economic growth per annum was 3. The primary sector , despite adding the least of the three sectors to the regional GDP remains important, especially when compared to typical developed economies.

The primary sector produces 8. The primary sector is divided into a number of subsectors: For many centuries, Andalusian society was mainly agricultural. Using irrigation, maize , cotton and rice are also grown on the banks of the Guadalquivir and Genil. Organic farming has recently undergone rapid expansion in Andalusia, mainly for export to European markets but with increasing demand developing in Spain. Andalusia has a long tradition of animal husbandry and livestock farming, but it is now restricted mainly to mountain meadows, where there is less pressure from other potential uses.

Andalusians have a long and colourful history of dog breeding that can be observed throughout the region today. The raising of livestock now plays a semi-marginal role in the Andalusian economy, constituting only 15 percent of the primary sector, half the number for Spain taken as a whole. Although the productivity is higher than with extensive techniques, the economics are quite different. While intensive techniques now dominate in Europe and even in other regions of Spain, most of Andalusia's cattle , virtually all of its sheep and goats , and a good portion of its pigs are raised by extensive farming in mountain pastures.

Andalusia's native sheep and goats present a great economic opportunity in a Europe where animal products are generally in strong supply, but the sheep and goat meat, milk, and leather and the products derived from these are relatively scarce. Dogs are bred not just as companion animals, but also as herding animals used by goat and sheep herders. Hunting remains relatively important in Andalusia, but has largely lost its character as a means of obtaining food.

It is now more of a leisure activity linked to the mountain areas and complementary to forestry and the raising of livestock. The Andalusian forests are important for their extent—50 percent of the territory of Andalusia—and for other less quantifiable environmental reasons, such as their value in preventing erosion, regulating the flow of water necessary for other flora and fauna. For these reasons, there is legislation in place to protect the Andalusian forests. This comes mostly from cultivated species— eucalyptus in Huelva and poplar in Granada—as well as naturally occurring cork oak in the Sierra Morena.

Fishing is a longstanding tradition on the Andalusian coasts. Fish and other seafood have long figured prominently in the local diet and in the local gastronomic culture: The Andalusian fishing fleet is Spain's second largest, after Galicia , and Andalusia's 38 fishing ports are the most of any Spanish autonomous community. Failure to comply with fisheries laws regarding the use of trawling, urban pollution of the seacoast, destruction of habitats by coastal construction for example, alteration of the mouths of rivers, construction of ports , and diminution of fisheries by overexploitation [] have created a permanent crisis in the Andalusian fisheries, justifying attempts to convert the fishing fleet.

The decrease in fish stocks has led to the rise of aquaculture , including fish farming both on the coasts and in the interior. Despite the general poor returns in recent years, mining retains a certain importance in Andalusia. Andalusia produces half of Spain's mining product by value.


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Of Andalusia's production, roughly half comes from the province of Huelva. Mining for precious metals at Minas de Riotinto in Huelva see Rio Tinto Group dates back to pre-Roman times; the mines were abandoned in the Middle Ages and rediscovered in In addition, limestone, clay, and other materials used in construction are well distributed throughout Andalusia. The Andalusian industrial sector has always been relatively small.

Nevertheless, in , Andalusian industry earned In a comparison with the Spanish economy, this subsector is virtually the only food that has some weight in the national economy with On the contrary it is symptomatic of how little weight the regional economy in such important sectors such as textiles or electronics at the national level.

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Andalusian industry is also characterized by a specialization in industrial activities of transforming raw agricultural and mineral materials. This is largely done by small enterprises without the public or foreign investment more typical of a high level of industrialization. In recent decades the Andalusian tertiary service sector has grown greatly, and has come to constitute the majority of the regional economy, as is typical of contemporary economies in developed nations.

In , this had risen to This process of "tertiarization" of the economy has followed a somewhat unusual course in Andalusia. There were two principal reasons that "tertiarization" followed a different course in Andalusia than elsewhere:. Andalusian capital found it impossible to compete in the industrial sector against more developed regions, and was obligated to invest in sectors that were easier to enter. The absence of an industrial sector that could absorb displaced agricultural workers and artisans led to the proliferation of services with rather low productivity.

This unequal development compared to other regions led to a hypertrophied and unproductive service sector, which has tended to reinforce underdevelopment, because it has not led to large accumulations of capital. Due in part to the relatively mild winter and spring climate, the south of Spain is attractive to overseas visitors—especially tourists from Northern Europe.

Among the autonomous communities, Andalusia is second only to Catalonia in tourism, with nearly 30 million visitors every year. The principal tourist destinations in Andalusia are the Costa del Sol and secondarily the Sierra Nevada. As discussed above , Andalusia is one of the sunniest and warmest places in Europe, making it a center of "sun and sand" tourism. The largest number of tourists come in August— In , the Blue Flag beach program of the non-profit Foundation for Environmental Education recognized 66 Andalusian beaches and 18 pleasure craft ports as being in a good state of conservation in terms of sustainability, accessibility, and quality.

However, Hotel chains such as Fuerte Hotels have ensured that sustainability within the tourism industry is one of their highest priorities.

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Together with "sand and sun" tourism, there has also been a strong increase in nature tourism in the interior, as well as cultural tourism , sport tourism, and conventions [ citation needed ]. One example of sport and nature tourism is the ski resort at Sierra Nevada National Park. As for cultural tourism, Andalusia has some notable monuments dating back to the Muslim era: There are hundreds of cultural tourist destinations: Each of the provinces shows a great variety of architectural styles: Islamic architecture , Renaissance architecture , Baroque architecture and more modern styles.

Further, there are the Lugares colombinos , significant places in the life of Christopher Columbus: There are also archeological sites of great interest: There are numerous other significant museums around the region, both of paintings and of archeological artifacts such as gold jewelry, pottery and other ceramics, and other works that demonstrate the region's artisanal traditions. The unemployment rate stood at As in any modern society, transport systems are an essential structural element of the functioning of Andalusia.

The transportation network facilitates territorial coordination, economic development and distribution, and intercity transportation. In urban transport, underdeveloped public transport systems put pedestrian traffic and other non-motorized traffic are at a disadvantage compared to the use of private vehicles. For over a century, the conventional rail network has been centralized on the regional capital, Seville, and the national capital, Madrid; in general, there are no direct connections between provincial capitals.

Further AVE routes are under construction. It has a daily link with twenty cities in Spain and over a hundred cities in Europe mainly in Great Britain, Central Europe and the Nordic countries but also the main cities of Eastern Europe: Algeciras is Spain's leading commercial port, with 60,, tonnes 66,, short tons of cargo in The lack of high-quality fossil fuels in Andalusia has led to a strong dependency on petroleum imports. Still, Andalusia has a strong potential for the development of renewable energy , above all wind energy.

The Andalusian Energy Agency established in by the autonomous government, is a new governmental organ charged with the development of energy policy and provision of a sufficient supply of energy for the community. The infrastructure for production of electricity consists of eight large thermal power stations , more than 70 hydroelectric power plants, two wind farms , and 14 major cogeneration facilities. It is the largest existing solar power facility in Europe. Two more large thermosolar facilities, Andasol I y II , planned at Hoya de Guadix in the province of Granada are expected to supply electricity to half a million households.

As throughout Spain, basic education in Andalusia is free and compulsory. Students are required to complete ten years of schooling, and may not leave school before the age of 16, after which students may continue on to a baccalaureate , to intermediate vocational education , to intermediate-level schooling in arts and design, to intermediate sports studies, or to the working world.

Andalusia has a tradition of higher education dating back to the Middle Ages and the Madrasah of Granada , University of Baeza , and University of Osuna. As of , there are ten private or public universities in Andalucia. University studies are structured in cycles, awarding degrees based on ECTS credits in accord with the Bologna process , which the Andalusian universities are adopting in accord with the other universities of the European Higher Education Area.

Responsibility for healthcare jurisdictions devolved from the Spanish government to Andalusia with the enactment of the Statute of Autonomy. Thus, the Andalusian Health Service Servicio Andaluz de Salud currently manages almost all public health resources of the Community, with such exceptions as health resources for prisoners and members of the military, which remain under central administration.

The Council of Innovation, Science and Business is the organ of the autonomous government responsible for universities, research, technological development, industry, and energy. The Andalusian government deployed , Ubuntu desktop computers in their schools. Andalusia has international, national, regional, and local media organizations, which are active gathering and disseminating information as well as creating and disseminating entertainment.

Different newspapers are published for each Andalusian provincial capital, comarca , or important city. Often, the same newspaper organization publishes different local editions with much shared content, with different mastheads and different local coverage. There are also popular papers distributed without charge, again typically with local editions that share much of their content. No single Andalusian newspaper is distributed throughout the region, not even with local editions. Grupo Joly is based in Andalucia, backed by Andalusian capital, and publishes eight daily newspapers there.

The culture of Andalusia has been shaped by its particular history and geography, as well as its complex flows of population. Andalusia has been home to a succession of peoples and civilizations, many very different from one another, each impacting the settled inhabitants. All have affected Andalusian identity and culture, which was already delineated in the 19th century and diffused widely in the literary and pictorial genre of the costumbrismo andaluz. In the 19th century, Andalusian culture came to be widely viewed as the Spanish culture par excellence , in part thanks to the perceptions of romantic travellers.

In the words of Ortega y Gasset:. Andalusia, which has never shown the swagger nor petulancy of particularism; that has never pretended to the status of a State apart, is, of all the Spanish regions, the one that possesses a culture most radically its own. Throughout the 19th century, Spain has submitted itself to the hegemonic influence of Andalusia.

The dominant ideas have an Andalusian accent. One reads southern authors. One speaks at all times of the "land of the Most Holy Virgin Mary". The thief from the Sierra Morena and the smuggler are national heroes. All Spain feels its existence justified by the honor of having on its flanks the Andalusian piece of the planet. Around , like so many other things, this changes. The North sits up.

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Andalusia has been the birthplace of many great artists: Since the Neolithic era, Andalusia has preserved important megaliths , such as the dolmens at the Cueva de Menga and the Dolmen de Viera , both at Antequera. Some of the greatest architecture in Andalusia dates from the Muslim era: The traditional architecture of Andalusia retains its Roman and Arab roots, with a marked Mediterranean character strongly conditioned by the climate.

Traditional urban houses are constructed with shared walls to minimize exposure to high exterior temperatures. Solid exterior walls are painted with lime to minimize the heating effects of the sun. In accord with the climate and tradition of each area, the roofs may be terraces or tiled in the Roman imbrex and tegula style. Other characteristic elements are decorative and functional wrought iron gratings , and the tiles known as azulejos. Landscaping—both for common private homes and homes on a more lavish scale—also carries on older traditions, with plants, flowers, and fountains, pools, and streams of water.

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Beyond these general elements, there are also specific local architectural styles, such as the flat roofs , roofed chimneys, and radically extended balconies of the Alpujarra , the cave dwellings of Guadix and of Granada's Sacromonte , or the traditional architecture of the Marquisate of Zenete. The monumental architecture of the centuries immediately after the Reconquista often displayed an assertion of Christian hegemony through architecture that referenced non-Arab influences.

Seville and its kingdom also figured prominently in this era, as is shown by the Casa consistorial de Sevilla , the Hospital de las Cinco Llagas or the Charterhouse of Jerez de la Frontera. Andalusia also preserves an important industrial patrimony related to various economic activities.

Besides the architecture of the cities, there is also much outstanding rural architecture: The Sevillian school of sculpture dating from the 13th century onward and the Granadan school beginning toward the end of the 16th century both focused primarily on Christian religious subject matter, including many wooden altarpieces. Non-religious sculpture has also existed in Andalusia since antiquity.

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A fine example from the Renaissance era is the decoration of the Casa de Pilatos in Seville. Nonetheless, non-religious sculpture played a relatively minor role until such 19th-century sculptors as Antonio Susillo. As in sculpture, there were Sevillian and the Granadan schools of painting. The Museum of Fine Arts of Seville and the Prado [] contain numerous representative works of the Sevillian school of painting.

A specific romantic genre known as costumbrismo andaluz depicts traditional and folkloric Andalusian subjects, such as bullfighting scenes, dogs, and scenes from Andalusia's history. Its most illustrious representative was Pablo Picasso , one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. The city has a Museum and Natal House Foundation , dedicated to the painter. Andalusia plays a significant role in the history of Spanish-language literature, however not all of the important literature associated with Andalusia was written in Spanish. Before , there was the literature written in Andalusian Arabic.

Ibn Quzman , of the 12th century, crafted poems in the colloquial Andalusian language. Also of this generation were the Quintero brothers , dramatists who faithfully captured Andalusian dialects and idiosyncrasies. Certain Andalusian fictional characters have become universal archetypes: Ballads, lullabies, street vendor's cries, nursery rhymes, and work songs are plentiful. The music of Andalusia includes traditional and contemporary music, folk and composed music, and ranges from flamenco to rock. Conversely, certain metric, melodic and harmonic characteristics are considered Andalusian even when written or performed by musicians from elsewhere.

Flamenco, perhaps the most characteristically Andalusian genre of music and dance, originated in the 18th century, but is based in earlier forms from the region. The influence of the traditional music and dance of the Romani people or Gypsies is particularly clear. The genre embraces distinct vocal cante flamenco , guitar toque flamenco , and dance baile flamenco styles.

The Andalusian Statute of Autonomy reflects the cultural importance of flamenco in its Articles Guiding principles of public policy: Also within the Autonomous Community of Andalucia is the exclusive competence in knowledge, conservation, research, training, promotion and dissemination of flamenco as a unique element of the Andalusian cultural heritage. Prominent Andalusian rock groups include Triana and Medina Azahara.

The portrayal of Andalusia in film is often reduced to archetypes: These images particularly predominated from the s through the s, and helped to consolidate a cliched image of the region. During the dictatorship of Francisco Franco , this was the extent of the film industry in Andalusia. Counting together feature films, documentaries, television programs, music videos etc.

Andalusia has a wide array of social customs, many of which have their roots in the Islamic traditions integrated into the culture of the area under Muslim rule. Each sub-region in Andalusia has its own unique customs that represent a fusion of Catholicism and local folklore. Traditional dress in all areas of Andalusia tends to be colorful and involve various head coverings reminiscent of a Muslim past. The sombrero de Labrador , a worker's hat made of black velvet, is a signature style of the region.

The tablao flamenco dance and the accompanying cante jondo vocal style originated in Granada. They are believed to have their roots in oriental, Gregorian, Moorish, and Jewish music. This music is most often performed by the gypsy Romani , who are more numerous in Granada than anywhere else in Spain. Saetas evoke strong emotion and are sung most often during public processions. The region also has a rich musical tradition of flamenco songs, or palos called cartageneras. Seville celebrates Semana Santa , one of the better known religious events within Spain.

During the festival, religious fraternities dress as penitents and carry large floats of lifelike wooden sculptures representing scenes of the Passion , and images of the Virgin Mary. Sevillanas , a type of old folk music sung and written in Seville and still very popular, are performed in fairs and festivals, along with an associated dance for the music, the Baile por sevillanas. All the different regions of Andalusia have developed their own distinctive customs, but all share a connectedness to Catholicism and the region's Muslim cultural past. Andalusian Spanish is one of the most widely spoken forms of Spanish in Spain, and because of emigration patterns was very influential on Latin American Spanish.

Rather than a single dialect, it is really a range of dialects sharing some common features; among these is the retention of more Arabic words than elsewhere in Spain, [] [] as well as some phonological differences compared with Standard Spanish. The isoglosses that mark the borders of Andalusian Spanish overlap to form a network of divergent boundaries, so there is no clear border for the linguistic region.

The territory now known as Andalusia fell within the sphere of influence of ancient Mediterranean mythological beliefs. The Islote de Sancti Petri held the supposed tomb of Hercules, with representations of his Twelve labors ; the region was the traditional site of the tenth labor, obtaining the cattle of the monster Geryon. Traditionally, the Pillars of Hercules flank the Strait of Gibraltar. The present coat of arms of Andalusia shows Hercules between two lions, with two pillars behind these figures. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in Andalusia.

In , the proportion of Andalusians that identify themselves as Roman Catholic was While some trace the lineage of the Spanish Fighting Bull back to Roman times, today's fighting bulls in the Iberian peninsula and in the former Spanish Empire trace back to Andalusia in the 15th and 16th centuries. The oldest bullring still in use in Spain is the neoclassical Plaza de toros in Ronda , built in The Andalusian festivals provide a showcase for popular arts and traditional costume.

Festivals of a religious nature are a deep Andalusian tradition and are met with great popular fervor. There are numerous major festivals during Holy Week. The Andalusian diet varies, especially between the coast and the interior, but in general is a Mediterranean diet based on olive oil , cereals , legumes , vegetables , fish , dried fruits and nuts , and meat ; there is also a great tradition of drinking wine.

There are several Denominaciones de Origen , each with its own specifications including in just which microclimate region ham of a particular denomination must be cured. Confectionery is popular in Andalusia. Almonds and honey are common ingredients. Many enclosed convents of nuns make and sell pastries, especially Christmas pastries: Hot and cold soups based in olive oil, garlic, bread, tomato and peppers include gazpacho , salmorejo , porra antequerana , ajo caliente , sopa campera , or—using almonds instead of tomato— ajoblanco.

Wine has a privileged place at the Andalusian table.

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Andalusian wines are known worldwide, especially fortified wines such as sherry jerez , aged in soleras. Condado de Huelva , D. Montilla-Moriles , and D. Andalusia also produces D. Vinagre de Jerez and D. The traditional dress of 18th-century Andalusia was strongly influenced by majismo within the context of casticismo purism, traditionalism, authenticity. The archetype of the majo and maja was that of a bold, pure Spaniard from a lower-class background, somewhat flamboyant in his or her style of dress.

This emulation of lower-class dress also extended to imitating the clothes of brigands and Romani "Gypsy" women. Andalusia is also known for its dogs, particularly the Andalusian Hound , which was originally bred in the region. Dogs, not just andalusian hounds, are very popular in the region. Andalusian equestrianism, institutionalized in the Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art is known well beyond the borders of Spain. The Andalusian horse is strongly built, compact yet elegant, distinguished in the area of dressage and show jumping , and is also an excellent horse for driving.

They are known for their elegant "dancing" gait. In Andalusia, as throughout Spain, football is the predominant sport. Introduced to Spain by British men who worked in mining for Rio Tinto in the province of Huelva, the sport soon became popular with the local population. Real Betis and Sevilla FC. Betis won La Liga in —35 and Sevilla in the —46 season. The Andalusia autonomous football team is not in any league, and plays only friendly matches. In recent years, they have played mostly during the Christmas break of the football leagues.

They play mostly against national teams from other countries, but would not be eligible for international league play, where Spain is represented by a single national team. Unlike basketball, handball has never really taken off in Andalusia. There is one Andalusian team in the Liga Asobal , Spain's premier handball league: Andalusia's strongest showing in sports has been in table tennis. There are two professional teams: Cajasur is also one of the league's leading teams.

In all, Andalusians have won 6 gold medals, 11 silver, and 2 bronze. Seville has been a pre-candidate to host the Summer Olympics in two occasions, and , and Granada has been a pre-candidate to host the winter Olympics; neither has ever succeeded in its candidature. Other sporting events in Andalusia include surfing , kitesurfing and windsurfing competitions at Tarifa , various golf tournaments at courses along the coast, and horse racing and polo at several locations in the interior.

Also Andalusia has a collaboration agreement with Guerrero Mexico. A watchtower in Jerez de la Frontera. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the autonomous community of modern Spain. For the medieval Islamic state which covered most of Iberia, see Al-Andalus. For other uses, see Andalusia disambiguation. Autonomous community in Spain. Emblem of Andalusia and Flag of Andalusia. Al-Andalus and Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula. La Fuensanta , considered a quintessential rendition of Andalusian beauty.