More than 80 academics with PhDs from the broad spectrum of Communication, both from the universities that organize the course and other prestigious institutions, form the staff that imparts this doctorate, whose quality has been verified by several agencies. Almost 80 doctoral students have completed their first year, in this initial year of the course, having participated in a wide range of training activities provided by the universities where the doctorate is taught.
Almost two dozen chose the educommunicator line of study which ensures good quality future research in this field, which is in urgent need of good, solid investigation and the widespread publication of the results. In this context of change that is brought about by ICT, it can be asserted that it is the relationship of people to media and information which has undergone the biggest transformation, specifically with the arrival of media such as the Internet. Digital media allows some recipients to frequently occupy the role of senders, capable of transmitting and sharing content without renouncing the role of media consumer.
It is worth noting that this situation —and, indeed, the concept— cannot be generalized to include everyone in developed countries. When speaking of the marriage between the audience and different technologies, one cannot leave out young people as primary users of these technologies and also as the main participants in the content, which is produced and transmitted over the Web for sharing purposes. This digital Tsunami has necessarily brought about changes in different aspects of our existence, such as what has happened with the nomenclature of media, itself.
Throughout this process of change and adaptation to the new formulas of relating to the new media, three key activities can be seen: It is worth noting that none of these activities or essential elements in the relationship that is created between users and the particular media has isolated reasons for existing as far as digital natives are concerned.
Of course, both the creators and consumers of content have a distinct purpose— that of sharing it. This is the second of the key activities in the process of the prosumer. Introduction This is the second of the key activities in the process of the prosumer. Social networks play a fundamental role in this since they are created in a medium where little is rejected. As a matter of fact, problems arise precisely because young people do not comprehend where the boundaries [should] lie insofar as putting content in the public arena as, perhaps, adults do. We can list some positive examples of where sharing content is the essence of sharing.
For example, you can begin with Wikipedia, itself, which began in January of as a free and multilingual encyclopedia specifically founded on collaboration. Or, again, in when the term Web 2. Or in when YouTube, the website which allows for the sharing of digital videos, appears.
But sharing is participating. As a matter of fact, people start talking about the participatory culture of audiences. From feedback criticizing how a certain subject matter is dealt with to being a first-person witness of something that has been recorded, digital media has allowed people to feel as though they are being heard. They have found a way to make their words reach out. We want to make a distinction as to the third element, that of dissemination, to emphasize the opportunities that the new media affords the user as consumer and as producer of content reaching millions of people in a very short amount of time, e.
¿Cómo lo hacen?
Limits of time and space have been done away with; content is on the web and 2. If the internet produced important sociological changes, social online networks have not been far behind. Even though Facebook was not the first social network, it can be said that it has achieved a feat insofar as communication is concerned, especially for young people, since it is not just a method to alert people to events but rather events are created by the mere sharing of them on the web. Thus this world of change and adaptation in which we live is creating an unprecendented participatory culture for the younger audiences.
In this context it would seem that it is necessary for the media and related social institutions, themselves, to take on a corresponding role of being the socially-responsible party while at the same time insisting on the need to educate the young with a critical eye for confronting future media challenges. Media literacy is absolutely essential. The majority of articles dealing with this issue have the common theme of online social networks playing a primary role as the main medium representing the prosumer role of citizens and the participatory or reactive culture of audiences.
Development of media competency among the citizenry, especially youth and children so that they can approach media critically and actively is absolutely necessary in this society of media prosumers. As a matter of fact, several articles attempt to emphasize the role that the internet and, more specifically, online social networks play in the development of social and civic participation among young people. Given that this section of the population, or at least a grand percentage of them, feels the need to be constantly connected, these scholars investigate other variables, such as family relationships, that influence their use or abuse of the internet, turning them into prosumers without a critical perspective of their time investment in and their general use of the web.
The youngest users of intelligent mobile devices are turning out to be pioneers in new social, communication, and cultural uses of this technological tool. Such tools influence the vital experience of the user and the creation of communities around values, lifestyles, and brand idionsyncrasies.
For corporations and this is a subject that deserves further research virtual communities are very useful as they strive to foment client loyalty. Their article takes up the main disciplinary positions regarding the dichotomy between citizens and consumers and suggests that the different concepts of audience have a deep connection to the way in which the control of the media and the accountability of its operators is thought of in the public sphere.
The additional interesting point of the article is the comparative analysis it makes between the situation in Spain and Mexico. As the authors, themselves, mention, the conclusions derived from their analysis of the Spanish experience can serve as a model for other countries where the development of a social media audience is not quite as extensive.
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This research explores how Chileans between the ages of 13 and 17 consume news in a media context with multiple inputs, convergence, and mobile culture. The results show that the young people surveyed become informed mostly through social networks such as Facebook while their use of conventional media is in decline. What least interests them is traditional politics, which, according to them, is the subject most covered in the news. Their motivation in consuming information is related to the desire to defend their own points of view and to deliver information to others.
However, the influence of the media has not been accompanied by the promotion of media literacy. This paper discusses the results of a research project at state level, surveying a sample of 2. The objetive of the research project is to identify levels of media literacy amongst children and adolescents. It can be seen that a significant portion of the sample is proficient in the media, at an acceptable level. This would resolve the convergence of an urgent need to improve the training of young audiences as responsible citizens capable of consuming and producing media messages in a free, responsible, critical and creative way.
This will connect the educational and communicative domains, as various research studies have been proposing, backed by institutional initiatives, where edu-communication is forged as the necessary resource for obtaining a prosumer society. The term prosumer is not new. Therefore, a prosumer citizen will possess a set of skills that will allow him or her to perform a series of actions, as a media and audiovisual resource consumer, as a producer and a creator of critical, responsible and creative messages and content.
Toffler denominates this. The meaning, however, is far from the one adopted in this article, which defends a humanistic vision of a prosumer as producer and not a mere consumer. Contemporary society, more globalized, and paradoxically more private and individualized than ever, is shaped by prosumers of different natures, such as those labeled by a few specialized digital newspapers as—persuasive, middlemen, opinion leaders, apprentices, skeptics, innovators, social and critical- puromarketing.
But, what is the profile of the perfect prosumer? The prosumer should be a Selector of the content and resources that are adapted to the technological era and the new styles of learning, and a Unifier of the criteria for quality, equality, inclusion, and the maximal diffusion of the message. Another of the qualities that are inherent in the prosumer would be the capacity to become a Manipulator of the technological tools that are adapted to the new communications media, and to the characteristics of the new messages and media products, as well as an Identifier of stereotypes, bad practices, abuse and lack of veracity of some messages that are distributed through communication media and social networks.
A complete prosumer would be a Booster of the communication and interaction between emitters and receptors, the Organizer of the resources that are required for the production of creative, critical and responsible content, favoring democratic participation, and the Producer of new messages, shouldering the responsibility of caring for the technological, artistic, ethical and moral quality of the final product. Adding this is why articles that discuss active citizenship are media literacy to the school curriculum, from the first more frequently found Jenkins, In general, stages, is a necessary requirement for the achievement prosumers are also aware of the value of the informaof a prosumer society, a society that has been pushed tion that they are able to generate, and the power that for by different international institutions and organisms this value gives them.
But for preparation given to them in the school system and this use to be adequate, we have to equip the users family surroundings for shaping themselves at the same with media competency, doing this at different stages. The digital competency curriculum, as part of the lity and to establish certain generalities that could prebasic competencies, tries to develop abilities that are dict later behaviors in the participants, a survey was more related to the technological and digital sectors, so used. Another of the necessary requisites for attaining The population is made up of Spanish students media literacy is the improvement in the training for who were attending pre-school ages , 4th grade media education teachers.
More specifically, the sample, non-probabilistic or improve intercultural dialogue, due to the fact that, as intended, is distributed in table 1. There is no doubt that succeeding in making the new generations acquire an adequate degree of media competency is a challenge, making the knowing of the degree of media Table 1. Sample distribution according to province and educational stage. The objective posed in this research The procedure follows a series of phases that start study is to try to determine the degree of media comwith the design of the questionnaires, picking up from petency that the Spanish school-age population posthose already designed by the members of the Project sesses, to be able to respond appropriately.
Starting with this, the items were adapted accor2. In all of the questionnaiThe methodology used in this research study falls res, the validation was performed through the Delphi within what is known as empirical-analytical methodoTechnique, where all the members of Project took logy, based on experimentation with posterior statistipart, composed of 23 members, whose specialties cal analysis. They also belonged to all 10 participating provinces. In the second phase, a pilot study was carried out with all the questionnaires.
After its design on paper format, and the subsequent pilot study, the digital version was worked on for its implementation on-line. For this, the effort was focused on reducing the phrasing of the questions to their minimal expression, to provide an attractive web interface and easy navigation, and lastly, to use a graphic design that was adequate to the age groups of the test groups. In the third phase, we proceeded to finalize the design of the questionnaires.
Keeping in mind the pilot study and a second application of the Delphi Technique, we modified them accordingly, and proceeded with the application of the final instrument. In the provisional stage, as well as in the final stage, each questionnaire was accompanied by an evaluation rubric that measured the answers given by the students, in accordance to pre-established criteria that defined the degree of competency shown by the students.
Each question from the different questionnaires was evaluated as a function of the different competency levels that could be attributed to the answers offered by the participants. As for the reliability index, the questionnaires have given different figures, from 0. The application of the on-line questionnaires was done in successive phases as a function of the educational stage, but simultaneous to the 10 participating provinces, and always in the presence of researchers in the classrooms. The 40 educational centers were selected based on their availability, their type, and their internet connection.
After the application of the questionnaire, the resulting database was transferred, and the data encoding for each of the questionnaires was prepared. Lastly, the answers were re-categorized with the statistical program SPSS v. Results According to the objectives that guided the research study, three levels of media competency were established. Table 2 shows the designations to each level according to the educational stage of the participants. In graphical form, figure 1 shows how Primary School children mainly place themselves in the intermediate competency level, while the ESO students show the most polarization in relation to their competency levels, placing themselves primarily in the basic.
Pre-school children, as well as Baccalaurate students, show a similar tendency, where the basic and intermediate levels overcome the advanced level. Except for the ESO students, the rest of the school-age population show, on average, intermediate levels of media competency. By analyzing the results as a function of the established dimensions in the questionnaires, which correspond to the dependent variables, we highlight the most relevant results. The dimension that is related to Languages refers to the knowledge that the students possess with respect to the codes found in the audio-visual language, and the ability to use them to communicate; it also refers to the ability to analyze audio-visual messages, according to their sense and meaning, narrative structure, category and genre; and the ability to construct a.
In the ESO, The Technology dimension refers to the knowledge of the inner workings of the tools used in audiovisual and digital communication, and the ability to use them for communicating, and understanding how these messages are created. In this sense, the results show that even though pre-school-aged children habitually use technology-based machines, their use for educational purposes is limited to the family sphere, as only In Primary School, we observed that In the case of Baccalaurate students, The Reception and interaction dimension refers to the ability to identify audiences that are targeted by the communication media, as well as the ability to recognize themselves as an active audience; to the ability to critically evaluate emotional, rational and contextual elements that intervene in the reception and evaluation of audio-visual messages; as well as the knowledge of social joint-responsibility found in the content that reaches the audiences responsible organisms , and to show favorable attitudes by using these organisms.
The data obtained show that in Pre-school, the number of correct answers surpasses half of the sample. The students in Primary school find themselves correctly answering The Production and diffusion dimension is related to the knowledge of the functions and tasks of those responsible for the production of messages; knowledge of the different phases of the production and programing processes of audio-visual products; the ability to take advantage of technological resources to elaborate audio-visual messages, and to participate in the communications sphere, generating a participative culture and a responsible attitude; and to the ability to identify the different audiences targeted by the media.
We can interpret this by stating that they correctly master the knowledge and attitudes tied to this dimension, even though the technological manipulation for the production of new messages shows less satisfactory results. As for the results of the Primary School students, The ESO students are not able to reach an adequate level of media competency in this dimension, with the aspects related to composing a story that is visually well told 0. The Baccalaurate students also place themselves in inadequate levels of media competency.
For example, only The Ideology and values dimension is related to the capacity for comprehensive and critical reading of the audio-visual messages and of the ethical, ideological and esthetic values that they transmit, as representations of reality. We discovered that in Preschool, the number of correct answers to questions related to the recognizing of the sexist content of advertisements came only from about a quarter of those surveyed.
The Primary School children, for their part, correctly answered about A similar percentage was reached by ESO students Lastly, the Aesthetics dimension, which brings media competency of Spanish students are low, this together the ability to analyze, evaluate, and enjoy the being true of all the educational levels studied. After formal and topical innovations and the education in establishing the competency levels in each schooling the aesthetic sense of the messages; the ability to forstage, we can determine which dimensions are most mulate aesthetic judgments, of evaluating an audioinadequate, and therefore, the ones that require a grevisual product not only for the story it tells and preater curricular intervention to reach the media literacy sents, but also for the manner in which it is told or preobjectives.
In this way, the results demonstrate that the sented, and the ability to establish comparisons with dimension related to Audio-visual languages is the one other artistic manifestations: When starting with the hypothesis that the students would This, however, shows their show a limited level of competency with respect to their interest and ability to enjoy aesthetics. With respect to the Technology dimension, case of the Baccalaurate students.
Discussion and conclusions lower stages. However, when the questions delve into The results obtained in the research study allow topics related to greater proficiency in the use of techus to conclude that the level of media competency of nology, we see that the percentage of correct answers Spanish children and young people has not yet readecreases in all of the school stages.
We can interpret ched an optimum level, making it necessary to contithe results as showing that the use of machines or technue working so that the school curriculum caters to nological devices does not guarantee their adequate media literacy as a fundamental element in the shaping use, as far as that required to be media proficient. The of prosumer citizens that could lead to active participadimensions related to Reception and Production indition in the media, with a marked critical-constructive cate that the highest correct answer percentages are character.
Lastly, as for the Ideology project, as well as making available valid and trustand Values dimension, we find that a basic level exists worthy data-gathering tools to the scientific commuin all the school stages, even if greater training is need nity, that could be used to replicate the study in other as far as the moral behavior characteristics of prosueducational contexts. The samples used, without mers is concerned. In this sense, this research study becomes very revealing.
When starting with the hypothesis that the students would show a limited level of competency with respect to their relationship with the media, the results show that we find ourselves in a privileged situation, as far as the opportunity given to us by technology is concerned, and the educational possibilities that we find in them,. The researchers thank the students and teachers of the participating centers for their collaboration.
There is no doubt that succeeding in making the new generations acquire an adequate degree of media competency is a challenge, making the knowing of the degree of media competency that children and youth have indispensable. Once this is known, we can determine the actions to follow, going beyond previous studies that were focused on the evaluation of the degree of digital or technological dexterity, in order to attain a comprehensive competency development of the prosumer citizenship.
The conclusions extracted in this pioneering research study encourage us to continue working on the subject. For this, we hope to establish new lines of work, where we will try to count with the representation of the levels of media competency in the context of Latin American schools. This work will try to complement the research performed in other seven countries, where their respective projects have already started, and whose results will give us a global view of media literacy, which could be used to establish lines of action that could allow citizens to acquire an ade-.
Aularia, 1 2 , A Critical Review of the Evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 5 , Critical Citizens Education for Multicultural Societies. Interamerican Journal of Education and Democracy, 2 2 , Media Education Literacy in the World: European Researcher, 67 , Icono 14, 10 3 , La Tierra es plana. Breve historia del mundo globalizado del siglo XXI. Five Minds for the Future: Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education in the Twenty-first Century. Media Use and Attitudes Report. The Executive as Dropout. Media Literacy and New Humanism.
De cara al prosumidor. Nuevas audiencias, nuevas responsabilidades. El poder de las redes de negocios. Media and Information Literacy. El libro negro de las marcas. El lado oscuro de las empresas globales. El uso de Facebook en las protestas estudiantiles en Chile. In , Chile experienced massive mobilizations for seven months. During these events, Facebook was one of the digital social networks most widely used by the mobilized organizations.
However, most of the content published on this Facebook page was produced by traditional media, showing that conventional communication strategies of social movements are interrelated with new innovative practices. Therefore, this article rejects technological determinism, because it does not recognize the complex characteristics of student and youth movements. That day, the temperature was 4 degrees below zero and snow fell on the capital of Chile Cabalin, This is an example of the combination of traditional and new resources that are currently used by social movements, where digital networks have played a key role in their communication strategies Castells, One of the characteristics of these citizen mobilizations was the intensive use of social networks.
This view allows for the problematization of the notion that contemporary social movements are a consequence of new media on the internet. This causal relationship is associated with technological determinism, which does not recognize the complexity of social movements and their political, social, cultural and economic components Fuchs, However, it is impossible to deny that the internet has provided effective and innovative tools that allow social movements to mobilize supporters and to counteract hegemonic media trends.
Considering this point, this article analyzes the Facebook page of FECH, the most influential federation of students in Chile, to describe how this organization used this digital social network during the student movement. It concludes with final remarks. Young people have received special attention in academic work around new technologies because of the close relationship between youth and the Internet Tapscott, Young people interact with digital social networks more than any other social group.
This is a global phenomenon. For example, the youth in Asia share similar experiences via the internet with their peers in the United States or in other parts of the world Farrer, However, it would be naive to think that young people are experiencing a full development due to new technologies.
In fact, global inequalities are affecting many of them. Against this backdrop, new technologies have allowed them other avenues of expression and participation in society. One of the elements that helped to lopment of the protests. The students conChilean student movement, we can assume that its veyed a message that condensed the main problems of protagonists are part of this new generation. Mobilized youths were able to use the Young people interact with digital social networks more than internet as a space for the construction of meaning while on any other social group.
Online social netmany of them. Unemployment is highest amongst the young, works, as such, help to counteract hegemonic power relathey suffer from vulnerability and many are experiencing tions. In fact, they were able to tion, among other specific aspects of the neoliberalizaincorporate both strategies, making them more diverse tion of education on a global scale McCarthy, However, young people do participate through other methods.
The student demonstrations, marches, strikes and takeovers of educational establishments were accompanied by flashmobs, kiss-a-thons, viral campaigns, and other artistic activities, where students used both the physical and digital public space actively. Consequently, it is important to analyze how this generation of students displayed their actions through online social networks during the student movement.
With this objective in mind and without generalizing the results to all mobilized organizations, the Facebook page of the Student Federation of the University of Chile was utilized as a reference, as it represents one of the most influential institutions in the educational debate in Chile and its president in , Camila Vallejo, was one of the leaders with greatest public visibility in the media. The new information public space actively. Social networks can be useful for studying social interactions, relationships of belonging, identity and Contemporary Activism Gerbaudo, , formation and types of discussion, among other thewhich questions the overemphasis on digital social netmes Murthy, According to Coleman The students dis , there are at least three categories to study digital played their demands through a combination of both media: The first relates to the interest in the works, is not the message.
This means that for a identities, representations, meanings and collective social movement to be successful it requires, among commitments in digital media. Digital social networks and memes. Finally, the third approach focuses on the allow for that message to go viral, thus leading to mass social practices that occur in digital media, which impact, especially among the youth sectors.
This was involve economic, financial, cultural or religious understood by the Student Federation of the Uniaspects. This study uses the first approach. This last event was included to observe how the students addressed the success of the march the day after it occurred. This methodological design relates to the research question: To answer this question and describe the uses of Facebook, eight general categories were used. These basic categories are: The number of comments for each entry was considered to observe the interaction generated from the initial entry.
The following three categories attempted to describe the communication strategy used by the Student Federation of the University of Chile. In order to do this, the presence 1 or the absence 0 of these functions were considered. The presence of images was measured with the understanding that their addition can make an entry more powerful. The remaining two general categories attempt to describe content characteristics present in each of the analyzed entries.
It is important to note where the content originated. Also, I quantified if the content posted was produced by an organization not associated with the movement or by a traditional medium. To measure the interaction with other communication platforms, I quantified if the content posted was referring to a form of national, international, student or other digital social media for example, YouTube communication.
Thus, this category corresponds to: I measured whether the content published summoned participation in protest actions marches, strikes, etc. Also, I measured if the entry highlighted achievements or support of the movement balance of participation, emblematic backups, etc. Finally, other objectives that could reaffirm the definition of movement mobilization reasons or replies to or mentioning opponents government, police, etc.
This descriptive content analysis was complemented with textual analysis of the posts made by FECH to describe and understand how public content on their Facebook page was framed. The textual analysis followed the approach proposed by Norman Fairclough , who understands discourses as a facet of social life in interaction with other social dimensions. Discourse is, ultimately, a social practice Fairclough, This textual analysis was done to account for the broader use of Facebook, considering the importance of generating messages and meanings in the development of social movements Castells, Results Considering the eight general categories mentioned, posts were identified during the month of analysis an average of There were 47, approvals likes on the content posted and 8, comments.
In other words, each post generated on average Content The analysis shows that FECH used its Facebook page primarily as a source of information for the student movement. The vast majority of posts were accompanied by a comment made by FECH itself, which tried to explain, elaborate on or summarize the content posted. References to the leadership of the organization had even lower numbers. Camila Vallejo was practically never mentioned in the entries. Just 43 of the posts included some mention of the president of FECH. This result is striking because of the high public visibility of the leader, but it could be explained by the very nature of FECH, whose leadership is made up of a list of representatives who are voted in each year.
Thus, the organization is not serving a particular leader, but rather all student groups that make up its board. Another result highlighted is the use of content produced by some type of traditional media. The majority of posts incorporated content generated by an organization not related to FECH. This illustrates that the Facebook page was mostly used to respond to the content published on other media platforms. References to content generated by the University of Chile 4 , by another organization of the movement 7 , by the government 3 , or by an organization not directly linked to the movement 10 were scarce.
International media only appear 14 times, despite the wide coverage of the movement in various countries. In addition, consistent with the low number of images in the analyzed posts, there were only 28 occasions when YouTube was referenced. With regard to the purposes of each post, the use. Its main uses are: The remaining 47 posts were intended to explain the main reasons for the student conflict.
Textual analysis For textual analysis, posts were examined, which included a header generated by FECH. The vast majority of these texts were direct references to content posted, in an attempt to introduce and contextualize the information. Also, in these posts, additional data were added to those mentioned in the posted content or information spread by traditional media was rejected.
These types of messages were accompanied by explanatory notes. Through these means, the information available to participants of the movement spread and a counter-framing of news events published by traditional media Squires, was realized. This can be explained because the Facebook page was administered by the young professionals of the organization, who have knowledge about communication.
Or to call a protest activity during the Chilean winter: This discursive strategy was for public demonstrations and events, highlighting the also intended to motivate and add supporters to the positive results of the protest actions and support obtaidemonstrations organized. Thus, when there was an ned, calling for adhesion, and finally, acknowledging unauthorized march, which was violently repressed by and identifying the main detractors of the movement.
No repressive media Obviously, new information technologies are fundamental to that the government unleashes the development of the current youth movements, but canwill achieve [or] undermine the strength of our movement. During that success and scope of these movements.
In the case of the day, there was a greater Chilean student movement, its prolonged development is degree of violence against the student movement and Faceexplained by structural reasons associated with the book was used as a platform to denounce such actions: Messages written in capitalito the success of the mobilizations, facilitating the zed words by the administratransformation of many of the bystanders into activists tors of the Facebook page show that the emphasis of the of the movement.
Other common uses of the messages were to bro6. Conclusion adcast the activities of the movement, to gather inforAs noted, one of the most important organizations mation for the development of demonstrations across of the Chilean student movement used Facethe country or to reaffirm the protest actions. For book intensively, but this use replied to classic schemes example: Social movements use digihand, seeking feedback on the protest actions. In the case of FECH, the increased use that this organization gave to its Facebook page was made on the basis of specific mobilization strategies, such as the call for marches, debates and conferences, in addition to permanently highlighting its opponents as responsible the conflict.
This content, which often criticized the students, was recontextualized in the analyzed posts through explicit comments or direct calls to not believe the information published by traditional media sources. Along this line, the wisdom of one of the student leaders frames this idea saying: Social networking sites were not used only for this counter-framing, but also for communicating the message of the mobilized students. Obviously, new information technologies are fundamental to the development of the current youth movements, but cannot be considered exclusively as the factors that enable the success and scope of these movements.
In the case of the Chilean student movement, its prolonged development is explained by structural reasons associated with the reproduction of inequalities in the educational system and the political and cultural reconfigurations of the country. Nonetheless, Facebook and other digital platforms were key to the success of the mobilizations, facilitating the transformation of many of the bystanders into activists of the movement.
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How the Net Generation is Changing your World. American Behavioral Scientist, 57 7 , The Case of Chile. Journal of Communication, 57 4 , ABSTRACT This paper contributes to the analysis of the role that social networks play in civic, social mobilization and solidarity of Spanish young people, considering whether social networks are responsible for active social commitment offline or if they just intensify an existing or previous tendency towards social participation.
This research was undertaken by online questionnaire —Likert scale and multiple choice questions— in collaboration with the Spanish social network Tuenti where more than 1, young people took part. The study analyzes the forms of participation in solidarity actions and the influence of factors such as geographical, social or emotional proximity to causes on the degree of participation online and offline. The article shows that social networks have changed the meaning of participation. They are encouraging young people who were mobilized only in social networks, to take action, so it proposes in its conclusions the need to overcome the dichotomy that opposes online and offline activism and passivity.
Introduction Social networks should not be considered merely as technological tools for exchanging messages —even if at one point in time they were— but rather as contemporary means for communication, interaction and global participation. It is currently undeniable that their consequences have resulted in a change that goes beyond them. What occurred with the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami that devastated the Japanese coast in March marked a before and an after in terms of how social media are used. According to Tweet-ometer which measures Twitter activity , the number of Twitter messages originating in Tokyo those days surpassed 1, per minute, and they consisted primarily of messages sent by people who needed to know the location of others Google has launched the Person Finder service, a social tool that allows disaster victims to publish and receive information about others whose condition is not known.
Initiatives based on solidarity and participation, such as the fight against cancer, for example, highlight the importance being achieved by social networks in this area. Top athletes, singers and celebrities in general have used this tool to show their solidarity with various causes. These globally famous individuals are joined by thousands of users who show their support anonymously using online networks. However, there are those who go beyond simply stating their support in favour or against something, who go beyond exchanging messages in the various social networks, people who feel motivated to convey the values they defend —including solidarity— to the offline world through actions that take place beyond these networks, such as assisting efforts or carrying out actions that directly affect or have direct repercussions beyond these networks, such as economic contributions through networks to certain causes.
The value of social networks and cyberactivism What are the aspects of social networks that allow them to influence users that other mass-communication media alternatives, such as television, have not had in the past? The effects on the audience and their mobilisation through this medium has been studied for decades. The response links two obvious aspects: The creation of the World Wide Web in marked the start of a new era due to its impact on all social, economic and even political structures thanks to its extraordinary contributions in terms of communica-.
The expansion of this communication phenomenon was even more significant after the new millennium, when new tools that have favoured the exponential connection between audiences were developed, reinventing the classical paradigms for mass and non-mass communication. This has been possible thanks to the appearance and development of what are known as social networks.
Piden que retorne el curso de educación física a los colegios públicos
Users no longer play only the role of recipients a role that they had hardly left behind in the traditional mass-media communication process , and instead they alternatively assume the role of recipients and senders. Digital technologies have made it possible for users throughout the world to interact with each other and share opinions and experiences. Internet users have their own virtual identity that is developed through the set of platforms that comprise social media.
These new channels have changed the parameters of communication between individuals and groups, allowing dialogue to be democratised and multiplied exponentially. With the Web 2. The term Web 2. Aside from growing in parallel with the number of Internet users according to Internet World Stats , more than 2.
A good example is the witness. This makes it possible to conclude that the founEstablishing the concept of cyber-activism can be dation for active social participation online and offline as complicated as defining activism before the Internet. Thanks to social networks, pation of many individuals, have always existed, but young people have access to a multitude of possibilities digital technologies and the opportunities they offer for to participate actively in creating social changes, and interaction give users greater power with regard to these movements because they become content senders for Users no longer play only the role of recipients a role that mobilisation and the active collaborators that are necesthey had hardly left behind in the traditional mass-media sary as individuals for attaining communication process , and instead they alternatively assuthe overall objective.
This mobilisation and parme the role of recipients and senders. Within the strategy of communication, they hensive training of this generation as well as future have all become extremely powerful tools that are groones. In this context, the studies presented by 1. They analysed how young people experience worth considering: Are social networks responsible for democratic citizenship through both digital and tradipeople who are active online also displaying their tional media.
In order to understand what is occurring, it is important to take into consideration that the networks create paths towards active social participation, involving users in events for which in the past it would have been complicated to even be informed of, facilitating for organisers the dissemination and for recipients the information Rubio-Gil, As a result, users, who become active recipients that alternate this role with.
As Lim states, social networks have supported the change from online activism to offline protests and engagements. Methodology The initial hypothesis is based on the idea that the Digital technologies have made it possible for users familiarity of young people with social networks makes throughout the world to interact with each other and share them an ideal instrument for involving them in social particiopinions and experiences.
Internet users have their own pation. As a result, the general virtual identity that is developed through the set of platforms objective of research must be none other than to analyse that comprise social media. These new channels have how the participation of young people in social networks changed the parameters of communication between leads to an active social mobiindividuals and groups, allowing dialogue to be lisation online and offline in other words, through a virtual democratised and multiplied exponentially.
Participation within the networks activates a The research instrument used to perform the movement that frequently spreads because the aim is study was a survey, so an online questionnaire adapfor it to be extended Dalhgren, For participated to the conditions of social networks was created. The process of paign against hunger or to go out to the street and collecting this information relied on the collaboration physically surround the Congress building, passing of Tuenti, the Spanish social network par excellence, through intermediate initiatives such as collaborating to which has 10 million active users, that launched an find a missing person.
Afterwards, the SPSS statistics application was used for the data analysis. The results obtained were then presented and reviewed. Analysis and results When analysing the role that social networks play in the lives of young people, it is important to highlight that the networks, beyond allowing them to expand their social relations, represent a medium that allows young people to not only be informed of civic, political and cultural events, etc. As a result, with the aim of verifying this participation method, the research performed confirmed some of the descriptive data listed below. However, interpreting this data in dichotomous terms of mobilisation and indifference would be incorrect.
In order to understand correctly the scope of these percentages, certain clarifications should be made, without veering from the data provided by the study. Therefore, the figures invite us to deduce that young people are active in the networks, and that they are active in two ways: An especially significant aspect is the percentage of young people surveyed who say they use social networks to support solidarity campaigns At this point, the data shed light on the participation possibilities that the networks offer young people in order to show, online or offline, their solidarity and involvement with situations of social injustice that are more or less close to them.
In summary, the possibilities of promoting and channelling the social mobilisation of young people, especially as drivers of solidarity in this population group, which leads to our aim of knowing to what degree these possibilities are taken advantage of as tools for channelling solidarity in light of certain situations, and if so, how this solidarity is expressed. Specifically, the study posed various situations to the young people selected that would require them to respond with solidarity However, it can be misleading to think that this would not move to the offline social life since there are associations such as Greenpeace whose webpage recognises the importance of cyber-activism.
The organisation defines it in this manner: Instead, the corresponding context should be taken into consideration http: According to the study results, the majority of young people continue to participate through clicks from their computers, but as we have just seen, the effects of these actions are far from negligible. This is combined with the significant percentage of young people who seem to be involved in social and civic actions, and who take their solidarity actions beyond a click.
As a result, it can be deduced that this reflects the other side of the coin: Therefore, social networks cannot be considered simply a passing trend. They are a fundamental change in how we communicate and interact in a global manner. The added value they have contributed to certain social movements cannot be ignored. Ways of participating in actions of solidarity The behavioural differences shown by young people in situations that require their active social participation primarily respond to matters of proximity, including geographic proximity as well as what can be referred to as social proximity.
When expressing an active attitude that goes beyond social networks, young people tend to show more solidarity with situations that are geographically closer. Something similar occurred when they were asked how they would participate in a humanitarian campaign against poverty in Spain or in a humanitarian campaign against poverty in Africa. Of all the situations that appeared in the study, the case of the campaign against hunger in Africa is the one with the most responses for making an economic donation.
None of the other situations proposed for measuring how geographic distance influences participation obtained a higher percentage the average for non-participation in the situations was As a result, in a campaign against cancer, Humanitarian campaign against poverty in Spain. In fact, they go one step further and reflect that a significant percentage of young people participate in the networks with solidarity or civic purposes in mind.
In the first part of this article, we stated that social networks go beyond simply being a method or a medium for communicating, and that they are also a method or a medium for social participation and global activism. It was also believed that the networks have an advantage over other media in terms of immediacy and interactivity.
In light of the data and taking into consideration that the information for mobilising now reaches young people who in the past did not have access to it, it can be said that social networks are providing incentives for commitment and making it possible for young people who in the past did not mobilise to now take action, precisely because of the consequences resulting from the aspects mentioned at the beginning of this paragraph.
Interactivity entails an alternation in the roles of sender and recipient in the networks, but once again, the data collected goes further by stating that users do not simply receive messages passively but instead they are capable of responding to them. This shows that those users take the initiative in new messages which the spread action. In other words, young people generate responses, but they also generate questions, proposals and calls for action nearly one quarter of those surveyed confirmed this. The impossibility of maintaining a limited concept of activism in the networks should be understood within this framework, not just because of the evidence that a virtual action has real consequences, but because within the sample that has been collected, it is still necessary to address degrees of commitment and degrees of mobilisation as opposed to degrees of activism or passivity.
In summary, this refers to the need to. The study confirms that young people do not use social networks merely to expand their offline social relations. Networks offer an infinite number of possibilities for active social participation. It is necessary to show young people the options provided by networks as a resource for channelling actions of solidarity. The networks have changed the meaning of participation: The study confirms that circumstances exist that result in greater participation, and the door is open to discovering other variables that, aside from being collected, drive young people to be increasingly committed on a civic level, which will be addressed in future work.
Amnesty International and Greenpeace are already aware of the importance of social networks in encouraging the active social participation of citizens. In fact, Facebook has become a key tool for organising and coordinating civic protests in many cities around the world Lim, In this regard, this study could contribute to the developments in this field by considering certain variables that have an impact on online participation and the corresponding offline channelling. As a result, the geographic, social or emotional proximity will determine the commitment of young people in events that require their solidarity or cooperation.
With social networks, the power of bringing people together has grown and the cost of carrying out. XV Encuentro de Latinoamericanistas: Juventud y redes sociales. Motivaciones y usos preferentes. Ventajas e inconvenientes de la encuesta por Internet. Social Media and Social Movements: Kids Living and Learning with New Media.
Association of Internet Researchers. Clicks, Cabs, and Coffee Houses: Social Media and Oppositional Movements in Egypt, Journal of Communication, 62, Online Activism in Theory and Practice. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 4, 1. What Is Web 2. Nueva Revista, , Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. NCB University Press, 9 5. El caso Spanish Revolution. Las nuevas revoluciones de las multitudes conectadas. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 4, Strategies for Managing Context Collapse in the Workplace. Procedings of the 7th Annual iConference, ABSTRACT Universal access to the Internet among young people has been accompanied by new opportunities associated with online developments and practices, but the problematic use of the digital environment also involves threats.
This article combines a qualitative-quantitative approach, based on a competitive national research project, aiming to identify the main threats posed by digital immersion of Spanish youth between 12 and 17 years old. On the one hand, results obtained from this research confirm the discomfort experienced by young people when they have to be offline during a certain period of time, especially in those intensive users of social networks. On the other hand, it has been shown how damaged or conflicting family relationships lead individuals from 15 years old to spend more time connected to the Internet in an attempt to supplement or protest against their family interactions.
This study confirms several trends already mentioned in the specialized literature, and presents new findings that suggest possible future lines of investigation on early detection of cyberpathologies. Introduction In a very short period of time Internet has become widespread, especially among the young. Data reveals almost universal access, At the same time, there is a remarkable increase in the number of social networking site profiles. As of December 31st, , Facebook in Spain alone amounted to over 17 million Internet World Stats, , which represents Besides their extensive use of the Internet, the young are considered to be the age group that is most vulnerable to developing problematic Internet use as they are at a critical stage —adolescence— as regards defining their identities and in a period of insecurity, confusion and instability that can lead them to escape into the world of Internet and social networks with adults hardly noticing it.
This outlook has drawn academic interest to detect possible addictions, even if this term does not receive general consensus. Problematic use of or addiction to the Internet. Conceptualization and measurement issues The problem of referring to problematic use of or addiction to the Internet and identifying who is developing those behaviors stems from the different interpretations, sometimes blurred, applied to these terms. Among the many ideas he posed, Ortega y Gasset wrote: Thus, they learn their mission, which consists in keeping their numbers low while fighting the many.
The masses are against the new art, and will always be. He never abandoned his revolutionary stance as a critic, a journalist, a man of letters, and whatever else he was. It is important not to lose sight of the aesthetic concepts upheld by our subject of study, for this conditioned his artistic and political activity. As one reads on, it becomes ever so clear that politics and aesthetics are the two axes around which his whole life revolved.
There is perfect correspondence between the aesthetics that he advocates and the politics that he advances. From Critique to Theory: Four years later, he devoted his time to theoretical work and to writing introductory pieces for art exhibitions. However, is this what our critic meant to do or was he forced to? It might be thought that he broached the theory of art first and the history of art later because this allowed him to continue publishing his ideas.
His theoretical studies covered Argentinean art from the 19th Century to his own times. He produced a large number of introductory texts for catalogues. On Spilimbergo, he wrote: Pursuing the quest that began with his critical works, his books continued to posit aesthetic and technical issues. His theoretical works should not be examined separately from his critiques. His last writings show a similar structure to the one of his critiques: It should also be mentioned that he never entirely abandoned poetry. For example, in , he published several poems and short stories in Correo Literario.
The quest for commitment in art was still crucial. His posthumous work, published in , is of great importance for the purpose of analysis. The book offers a historical view of the arts in Argentina, including different pictorial, literary, and critical movements. To fulfill his purpose, he chose such works as suited the ideas he wanted to develop; i. It could be said that he made these works speak his ideas.
Among other things, the book speaks didactically of composition, drawing, the use of color, surface, and impasto. It thus provides the reader with the necessary tools to examine art. The prologue warns us that this is a book for the general public to appropriate the tools that will enable readers to appreciate art. Among other things, he wrote: It has been written for those who lack the indispensable knowledge but still would like [ His books bring us closer to his critical works.
He writes in the first person and takes a participative attitude toward immersion and the turn of the epoch. His theoretical works do not include texts that might shed light on his work as an art critic. No method is found. It is also striking that none of these works deal exclusively with aesthetics, a subject that he developed, posited, and brought into question in his critical pieces. In his theoretical writings, his prologues to catalogues, and his critiques pursue a constant, clear quest. All his writings are a means to shorten the distance between art and the general public.
He advocated and fostered an art of struggle which, at the same time, reflected reality and aided the reading of history. Such an art should serve as a reference for future generations in diverse aesthetic quests for the sake of the revolutionary cause. In brief, an art that showed reality without subjecting itself to it. Different Critiques, Different Policies: He was first a poet, a cultivated man who entered the arts from a different perspective. He then became a critic, an ideologist, and a theorist. He posited that art criticism should not be a matter for experts only but for the people at large: This is what he took and highlighted from Atalaya and his writings.
He knew too much, his independent judgement was dangerous, and his critical instinct and self-confident sensibility drove him to imprudently jump years ahead of others in the discovery of artistic values. That is why he was so close to the young. Few have enjoyed his enthusiasm, lit by a flame that would never burn out. He devoted night and day to studying. His marveled gaze at the parade of art, populated by books and paintings, was indeed unmatched. Exclusivity of forms and ideas.
A critic should inform, educate, and address the reader correctly. He should bring art closer to the public, only the public must be the people at large. He should work for an art free of elites, and this is the reason why he should write: It is the first time that he explicitly mentions what a critic should be like for his writings to be what he means: In this context, we should not restrict the meaning of art to the visual arts, but include letters and others as well. The interesting thing is that, considering his own political leanings; his aesthetic arguments do not walk the same paths.
ESPIRITUALIDAD Y COMUNICACIÓN
While it is true that Trotsky was dubbed an anarchist because of the kind of art that he advocated, we should know —we should understand —that aesthetic matters and what is demanded from art are not one and the same thing. The differences may diametrically oppose each other. This was coherent with their respective militancies, which in turn conditioned their critiques. These are only a few examples of his stark criticism.
Both men took advantage of artists and spaces as platforms to air their beliefs, and even used those in whom they were not interested if this gave them the opportunity to present their ideas. Atalaya sought to be known through his writings. His closeness to the field of art granted him access to a number of social actors with whom he could discuss politics based on arts. He completely agreed to become a mass leader, not as an individual, but through a group that might make his voice heard. This anarchist theorist regarded art as an experience, and confronted art received to art created.
He tended to see a creative artist in each individual. The fact that it was bent on destroying everything that separated art from life was indeed significant. The anarchist entrusted art with a political and social mission —not that this was the only one. Art was to evolve freely, without any constraints. This reflects the fruitful pluralism of the different literary trends. It extolled the power of creation. It differed from anarchism in its behavior and in the ways it protected artists and art, and it demanded something different from the different actors.
In the Marxist notion, art was not regarded as a mere mirror held up to reality. Marxists were well aware that, to a greater or a lesser degree, each artist stood for a distortion of a pure or a mixed class. Both critics used works of artists that served them to put forward their ideas, whether about art or politics. If we do not see this clearly, we may be led to confusion. To each of them, avant- and revolutions will part ways. Both selected a time span: Their critiques located and articulated the process and development of the arts in direct relation to the social context.
The praise of the spirit was crucial to the writings of both, but they pursued different ends. Their attitudes were coherent with their political leanings. Since they upheld different ideologies, an overview of their beliefs offers us a clear notion of the reason why revolution and avant- were considered from different perspectives.
To Atalaya, an artist mediates between nature and art. An artist, in fact, will propose an art that can effectively communicate ideas and spiritual content. On the other hand, our subject of study posited that an artist mediates between reality and revolution as he exposes his spirit in his creations. In this regard, they also based their conclusions on artists and works that lent themselves to strengthen their aesthetic and political arguments.
It is to be noticed that the word gained power through the image. These men made images speak in favor of their ideas and respond to what they wanted to transmit. Ever since the very beginning, Atalaya was extremely harsh on art critics. For example, he wrote: The other was an approach to the theory of art. However, Atalaya wrote reflexive pieces in which he delved further into issues he had developed before. He also wrote new pieces, though these were published after his death.
So far, the points of contact between both critics show that the two of them were attached to literature, both were active members of political parties and worked as journalists, their writings proved their social commitment, and both were immersed in theoretical and reflexive developments. In addition, both quoted foreign critics, such as Baudelaire. The anarchist critic said in one of his publications: Baudelaire, a Romantic believed to have initiated the so-called modern critique, produced several pieces of this kind.
He himself declared about critique: The latter sort, under pretext of explaining every element, remains detached from feeling; it neither loves nor hates [ It is also possible to sense how this manner of critique also makes use of some aesthetic features applied to artists and the arts. The former also referred to drawing in similar terms: The three critics we have been discussing have a number of things in common, but we should not forget that they came from different places, so they worked in different ways too.
It should be noted that the artists chosen to illustrate this work did not result from a random selection. Their presence here is justified by the fact that their publications supported some given movement. Thus, these artists are here because they express their inherent conflicts and thoughts regarding the problems of the times that they broached and in which they lived. Nevertheless, he has not been much studied this far. He abided by his ideals and convictions to the end of his life. The art that he advocated was young, revolutionary, spirited, and avant gardist.
These were the aesthetic postulates that defined his path. His life could be summarized as the life of a militant. The publication of his writings, poems, art criticism, and theory earned him a space in which to deploy and reveal his ideology. His ideas about politics and aesthetics remained the same from his first to his last publications. It is amazing that no contradictions ever tainted his beliefs. Even after his expulsion from the Party, his principles did not waver. His inclusion in the media not only enabled him to enter the art milieu but also to closely approach different actors and draw on their artistic and ideological notions.
Above all other things, I want to highlight the freshness of his renovated youth. We have by now crossed the threshold of the static garden with its songs and dreams. We are now in the vast world of deeds and battles. Our songs can no longer be soft, drowsy contemplations. They must turn into anthems, or banners, or marches.
An analysis of the publications to which he contributed allows us to follow his evolution. Contra and Unidad endowed his critiques with significant political content. His publications clearly expressed leftist thought, in a distinctly anti-establishment attitude. In addition to his Communist affiliation, his work in these magazines tinged his critique with a revolutionary hue that reflected Party activism.
Becoming a member of the Communist Party was a decisive factor to both his life and career. It was the turning point in his writing. In spite of his political commitment and his active participation in the Party —let us remember that he was an Argentinean correspondent in the Spanish Civil war —the Party turned its back on him. His expulsion set the guidelines for his future publications. His political beliefs were as firm as ever: Understanding his expulsion is a necessary step to understand his political, aesthetic, artistic, and social commitment.
Despite being forced to remain outside the Party, he did not seek new ideals, continued to find artists who might reflect his cause, and persisted in advocating the avant-. We may think of three pillars to represent his ideology: Art is the creature of a youthful and revolutionary spirit and of a fertile human soul capable of giving its best.
Such an art generates heroic, revolutionary feelings. It is at the service of society insofar as it tells that the artist stepped down from the pedestal on which he had been placed, that the artist will show and generously give his ability, creating the conditions for the public to understand what is read from the works.
When this is the case, the public will not only be reflected in such art, but also appropriate it. It is unnecessary to detail its purpose and composition, for they can be found in the daily press, but I would like to pass some remarks on the subject. However, it will not silence applause on this occasion: Every artist harbors the possibility of lasting fulfillment. So that it can develop to the full, it requires a favorable environment from an amiable, understanding, cultivated society; a society that is sensitive to manifestations of beauty.
Deep down, every artist knows the meaning of a timely handshake and the encouragement offered by an intelligent comment. The greatest incentive for those noble spirits beating with the noble, transcendental thirst for survival in whose virtue art blossoms is the feeling that their work does not fall into oblivion or indifference. These societies always have the necessary words in stock, and hold out their hands to artists, friendly hands that help them through sincere applause.
Such an attitude should neither surprise nor discourage us. Some people resemble concave or convex mirrors that distort images. It is clear to us that the upper classes are who they are because of their circumstances of birth and aristocratic spirit. If they truly aspire to fulfill their reason of being, they need our contribution as we need theirs. Thus, creator and observer complement each other in harmony, as we in fact create for the public. The feeling that we are in front of a most significant deed is justified by the following announcements: There will be lectures and auditions by and about.
Literary awards and book publications have been planned. There will be concerts, recitals, and other equally important activities. All of this deserves a hearty round of applause. So far, our artists and young writers have worked in the clutches of anonymity, or crushed by the indifference of a country that chose to ignore their existence.
Through meetings between artists and poets, the Florida Street palace will relive the amiable times when the arts thrived, and the days of yore when the elegant spirit of witty men and with cultivated women conversed in the salons of Buenos Aires. Nothing could be farther from pomp, from pretentious verbiage, from stylistic haughtiness than the naked, stark prose of this serene Franciscan, who administers a rare erudition acquired with Benedictine patience.
The public at large knew little or nothing about him. He did nothing to make his name known. Undazzled by the glare of the substantial daily circulation of the great newspapers, he opted for the anonymous pages of avant garde publications, those scorned revolutionary pages in whose small format words come to life to the beat of disinterested fervor, the heroic, exclusive vocation of forms and ideas.
This is the reason why his originals, drafted in the coarse yellowish paper of the editorial department, only appealed to the newspapers run by the young and the revolutionary workers, to the newspapers that were excommunicated by the unreasonable good sense of those who lack understanding.
His quiet, peaceful life met the parable of his destiny under the propitious omens of poverty, patience, faith, and friendliness. Whoever might think that he felt unhappy at the anonymity and poverty of his life would be wrong.
Nothing would be farther from his spiritual decorum. Like any other man, he had his share of grief. However, it was emotional grief, and he kept it to himself. Life could not inflict any other sort of pain to somebody who loved things on which time slides by without withering them. Atalaya was a believer. All in all, why should he have cared about poverty, about being unknown to the public at large, about the closed doors of the tycoons of journalism, if he was tightly held in the arms —a moving image now seen in perspective —of the unwavering friendship of a chosen few?
What did it matter, if he enjoyed true friendship, the treasure of the poor? Gawky and dowdy, coarse and hesitant in his speech, humble in his appearance of a poor proletariat journalist, few like him concealed such a wealth of gentleness, such an aware, demanding sensibility, such tenderness, a clearer innocence and a more generous, lucid thought. Literature and propaganda99 Perhaps it is necessary to pose the problem once more and reopen the discussion. Thirsty revolutionary writers insist on the untenable notion that art and propaganda are incompatible.
It is said —in fact, I myself have said it —that the doctrine imposes an inhibiting restraint on the ludic level of the interplay between fantasy and sensibility that art is made of. The argument is false. It does not stand the test of sophism. It is necessary to underscore that it is false. Today, amid the dangers of our uncertain, hard times, it is necessary to point out that a counterrevolutionary spirit inhabits such an argument. Which of these turn-of-the-century aesthetes, these pale greenhouse flowers, these evanescent prisoners of the ivory tower, has conceived of invalidating the Catholic literature of the likes of Claudel, Mauriac, Bloy, Maritain, Bernanos, Cocteau?
Nevertheless, their literature confessedly and openly serves a doctrine whose tyranny admits no transgressions of the dogma. This magnificent writer feared that the dominant ideological background and the polemic preoccupation might undermine the artistic value of his novel. In addition, he was right to think so, but not in the sense that would please unblemished aesthetes. The novel did not suffer. Yet it might have suffered, not because the author adopted a political stance, but because of the pettiness of that particular political stance.
In spite of this, the novel succeeded, and it deserves to have a place next to The Brothers Karamazov and The Idiot. What do the refined aesthetes say to this? Can good, true literature, the literature written by good writers, step down into the agitated world of the political struggles in which the noblest aspirations and the pettiest ambitions are debated? They will answer as they have answered before: Their argument could not be more naive.
The only possible explanation for such nonsense is the fact that they forget that a masterpiece is always an exception in its own rights. Educated in bourgeois classrooms and readings, the offspring of a bourgeois society that turned art into a vile, refined, and decadent turn-of-the-century form of entertainment, or else into an expression of intellectual meekness, at a certain point we came to believe in the impossibility of putting art at the disposal of some political or religious human aspiration.
The rhetorical assertion of aesthetic origin that art and propaganda move in different, exclusive spheres, may have been true in the past. Does Paul Valery, that quintessential bourgeois writer, not agree those literature sways between entertainment, teaching, propaganda, preaching, and exercising oneself as the others become excited?
By no means can art, the revelation of what is best and worst in man, not lend its powerful voice to the dominant preoccupation of our times. The French Surrealists, the strongest, most interesting group of contemporary artists, have understood so well the doom of present art that they have named their magazine Surrealism at the Service of the Revolution. Do those works not realize the possibility of art and propaganda that the bourgeois rhetoric finds incomprehensible? What cannot be combined between poetry and Communism? Peoples and races that have suffered and struggled for their consolidation, salvation, and liberty have had their literature, made by poets and writers who extolled their virtues, their shared aspirations, their sorrows, and their national hopes.
Think of all the peoples in history. Think of old Jewish literature and of incipient black literature, of Claude Mc Kay, Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, Contee Cullen, the colored poets in whose novels and poems the sorrows and anger of their hapless race moans and rages. Have the dreams, hopes, and sorrows of these peoples not been the most striking beauty features that have inspired their literature? If so, why should the international proletariat, larger than any known race, not have their own literature?
The only ones who do not admit this possibility are the enemies of justice, but justice, shaking with impatience, is waiting for its time to come in the passion of the young, whose mere existence dignifies the world. Consequently, the city worked a miracle: Pre-war, war, Revolution not the September Revolution , and post-Revolution scenes filmed from real life alternate with shots of people and places consecrated by the painful historic period that began in the bloody days of In brief, the film is no pamphlet but graphic, almost live information of a cinematic journey across historical events about which there is never sufficient, eloquent, or satisfactory documentation for those who aspire to comprehend it.
They have chosen to shut down the projector rather than allow the truthful information provided by the camera. They have closed their eyes in zoological stubbornness as a response to the transmission of facts achieved by the wonders of technology. To put it in the words of the Gospels, they have adopted the stance of those who have eyes but will not see and those who have ears but will not hear. In short, they have reacted to bleeding reality by adopting the method of struggle inherent to the class that wields political and economic power. The censorship of a strictly documentary, communicative, informational film is something to think about.
It may be viewed as either a symbol or a symptom. The bourgeoisie have closed their eyes to the catastrophic reality around them. Starvation in the city and the countryside alike, unemployment and war, impending or unleashed, have not succeeded in persuading the bourgeoisie that the world is unable to stand one more day of Capitalist injustice and chaos. They do not hesitate at the time of choosing between the fall of Capitalism and the loss of the so-called democratic liberties that they always regarded as inalienable.
That is why they are surrendering to fascism, the last hope of Capitalism. Fascism attacks the effects of contemporary unrest rather than its causes. It does not even brush on what should be turned inside out, the foundations of the social edifice, but focuses on the consequences of their crumbly state of repair. It is a desperate effort at underpinning a factory that is tumbling to pieces. Thus, it is easy to predict the fate of Fascism. The call to celebrate its victory in Italy, Germany, and perhaps Austria will soon be followed by its resounding collapse.
The un Contra, la revista de los franco-tiradores, Year I, 2, May, For the sake of human honor, a policy of open eyes will replace the policy of closed eyes. Man is moving toward the natural gravitation of the best, and this will ensure triumph. In the meantime, perhaps it is not entirely wrong of the bourgeoisie to veto and censor films and books that record the truths of the world. Truth, indeed, is always revolutionary.
But it would be wise to bear in mind that these truths that the bourgeois intend to stop raising fictitious dams has already conquered the best bastions, lies at the heart of the working masses, and beats in bourgeois moral and economic bankruptcy as well as in the clear will of a world that desires to organize itself under the rule of justice, something that is nowadays an alien entity. The Young and the Revolution If we abide by the evidence provided by literature, movies, and plays in an attempt to get to the bottom of the causes of political unrest, one conclusion overrides all others: Even if this is not their aim, literature, plays, and movies keep expressing the most formidable condemnation ever addressed to a society.
The leitmotiv is none other than the conviction that contemporary political institutions are broke. In the foundational economic field, the evidence of bankruptcy is even more conclusive. No one who thinks earnestly can deny that the bankruptcy is real. This is the first item in the distressing problem posed by the world to those who worry about its lot. Still, the most visible manifestations of our rejection of the society in which we live does not appear as a cold-minded, intellectual conclusion or as the outcome of a lifeless logic construct.
Rather, it is a feeling of deep antipathy, of disgust about a society whose moral resources have rotted away and whose political and economic mechanisms, with their hateful tangle of constitutions, codes, and laws, performs the inadmissible function of sustaining the preeminence of a social class whose only merit to enjoy such privilege lies in its capacity to appropriate and keep the goods of the land against all justice and under one single law: Should we be surprised that a social organization that behaves in such a way be hateful to most men, particularly to the young?
In principle, we do not imagine that the young connive with a world that they have neither chosen nor constructed. Should we be surprised that most young people in every country agree to reject the present state of the society, of its institutions, its hypocritical morality, and its ruthless capitalist materialism? Should we be surprised that the young, even if their view of the world may differ widely, coincide in their will to Contra, la revista de los franco-tiradores, Year I, 3, July, It is also found in the banners raised by groups whose ideology boasts of having overcome Communist and fascist materialism.
In France, the spiritualist sectors of Esprit, Combat, Reaction, and Orbe Nouveau speak of the Revolution, declare that it is immediately necessary, and have even systematized the philosophy of indispensable violence. However, -and this should be said right away — their Revolution does not have the typical features that point to obvious dangerousness. The Security Guards will not bludgeon them.
In spite of the inanity of their Revolution, of the metaphysical vagueness of the chimera they call revolution, the attitude of spiritualist groups entails a categorical rejection of the liberal capitalist society. Moreover, it shows that it is no longer possible to justify in the name of any principle. At least in this regard, they coincide with the extreme parties and finally understand that, far from being a fearful ghost, the Revolution is the only hope to save the world, the only possibility of cleansing it from moral, political, and social corruption and from the base materialism of merchants, all of which compose the organization and the framework of the bourgeois society.
Bourgeois democracy, Capitalism, Morality, and Liberty have become obsolete. Their institutions serve foregone needs. The new needs require a new Order. According to Philippe Lamour, the world is in a state of disgruntled revolution. Mature young people have understood this self-evident reality. Thus, they have embraced the cause of the proletariat, whose realistic ideology offers a solution to every problem. Others half-heartedly admit that there is a problem. They acknowledge that our society is broke, but do not risk stepping outside the safe ground of their spiritualist revolution.
Yet other young sectors, lacking in the most basic political common sense but driven by the primitive sportive aggressiveness typical of young animals, don a black shirt or a brown shirt, therefore serving the Capitalism that they pretend to reject, serving the great manufacturers, money lenders, and unscrupulous international merchants whose infamous interests they relentlessly defend. Last but not least, other young people, who do not deny the bankruptcy and congenital infamy of the bourgeois society, find that they can only contribute to its extermination by devoting themselves, in a matchless heroic attitude, to essential stylistic innovations and bold subversions that lethally endanger the unfair rule of current philosophy and rhetoric.
Our country certainly boasts of such daring revolutionaries. Should art be at the service of social problems? Borges evades the question, opting for going off at a tangent loaded with uncompromising humor. Is it possible to show leniency at such an attitude? Borges, a most influential writer among us, has committed a sin of frivolity. The question was posed in honesty and good faith. In honesty and good faith, then, he should have made an answer. Borges may have thought that both the questions and those who posed it insignificant. In truth, the question defines a serious, most important concern of a large number of people who are worried about the destiny of the world and who aspire to exert some influence in the accomplishment of its destiny.
In addition, this is definitely not insignificant, no matter how high someone may glide in the sky of concerns. It intentionally scorns and diminishes the scope of the problem. As ridiculous as art at the service of Reuter Soap or of the striped trousers worn by the swaggerers in a comic sketch. However, it is another matter. Borges cannot pretend not to know the difference. This phenomenon becomes a reality in the revolutionary feeling and ideology.
When Borges was asked whether art should be at the service of social problems, Contra meant to ask—and he could not have failed to understand it thus —whether he agreed that revolutionary thought and ideology possessed the human dignity to engender a form of art.
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Borges —a man who, like me, lives in the year —must have noticed that one type of society is collapsing while another struggles to rise from its ruins Borges. He must also be aware that the conflict for which so much blood has been shed, and we have not seen the end of it yet, has appeared within a minority with no respectable rights to the well being they enjoy, while there is a majority unjustly forced to toil and suffering.
The struggle is between these two groups, and it is bound to end either with the victory of the humiliated or with their prolonged slavery. This struggle has changed the character of the world. Its market at Contra, la revista de los franco-tiradores, Year I, 4, August, The lordship of bourgeois pettiness is now threatened, in the name of justice, by purifying, dignifying danger. An unprecedented storm is cleansing the face of the earth from the economic edifice raised by the sick mentality of lawyers.
Collective and private life is being shaken to the roots. An unprecedented Revolution has begun. The Masses and the Forces are speaking. In a world thus transformed by the action of a universal feeling of justice, are there no elements to do art? Moreover, once these elements have been put to use, can the artist remain strictly impartial, rigorously objective, icily isolated in the face of problems that so deeply affect every life?
Whether one gazes upon the world through the eyes of a common person or the eyes of an artist, impartiality is impossible. It is inevitable to take sides. One is in favor of the Revolution or one is against it. Art as purism is one way in which the counterrevolutionary spirit reacts. We have seen an instructive experience i this sense. With no exceptions, Pre-revolution Russian art-as-purists ranked with the white generals or, mostly, fled their country, and acted as enemy snipers.
He who does not put his intelligence, his art —i. There are no happy mediums. As long as one half of the world is launching an attack on the other half, there is neither possibility nor justification for impartiality. Borges will certainly not honor us by believing that the above is a product of our fertile imagination. He will not say that these are more or less literary whimsical fantasies. That these are real facts is confirmed day after day through an accumulation of revolutionary martyrdoms and, in Russia, confirmation of the struggle can be found in the indispensable annihilation of the bourgeoisie.
On the other hand, we believe that we are living an extraordinarily beautiful moment, since the rule of passion has superceded the rule of appetites. Even if the Revolution did not succeed in saving the world, the storm that sweeps away corruption to enthrone heroism would amply justify the effort. Religious, poetic fervor roams the world today. He who cannot see it lacks an important human and artistic sense. The aiape salon [ An accurate remark, indeed.
The paintings exhibited at the AIAPE Salon sharply contrasted with the blandness and lack of direction that were observed at the National salons. Our artists have a purpose and definitely know what they want. Many still have much to learn about technique, but on the other hand, they have something to teach to many impeccable technicians.
I am talking about a lesson of civil and technical courage, of decision, energy, youth, and human solidarity. Our artists know what world they want to depict and how they want to depict it. They have clear hopes and a strong will to transmit to other men… Their art is what art should be: The strength and optimism that pervaded the AIAPE Salon lead me to think that we are moving toward revolutionary art; that is to say, a type of art able to cope with new contents together with the new forms of expression required by such contents.
This learning is as necessary to their art as is industrial technology for the proletariat to build the edifice of Socialism. From a technical point of view, the road to art is marked by the teachings of the pictorial tradition, including cubism and subsequent trends and, from the point of view of content, by the drama of our contemporary reality. A few years ago, we would not have adopted such a grave, serious tone during a homage dinner for a poet.
However, times have changed. I feel bound to say that our life was never unworthy. Our eyes always focused on a goal that was worth achieving. We did not walk the path of unrest. Neither did we smile on stark injustice. At most, our song, like our youth, was carefree.
We gave our full attention to its music, to the charms of the road and to the joy of living and breathing under a benevolent sky and on an obliging earth. We need not regret much, then. If anything, we could lament having played when it was time to play and having pointlessly dreamed and toiled during that part of life that is reserved to songs and dreams. Still, we may well be proud of one thing. We may be proud of having awoken.
We may be proud of having awoken in time. With eyes and ears closed, we walked a merry path. We stepped on misfortune without seeing it was there, and although we were part of it, we nevertheless crossed the wood of clamors raised by this hapless world. There are two stages of youth: The other is awake. And I say that he who does not open his eyes in time grows old.
The magic spring of eternal youth lies inside us. It consists in opening our eyes and ears in time. Like Gide, the adolescent octogenarian. Immersion in life, being in touch with the rest of mankind, abandoning scornful, sterile isolation, fraternity, the dissolvement of the self at the grieving human table, all return man his enthusiasm, hope, and strength. Atalaya has also proved that, far from preventing consecration to mankind, consecration to beauty is the most beautiful parable for the flight of song when it hovers, above all dangers, in the wings of love for the oppressed, driven by an obstinate will for justice.
Paris, the capital of beauty, always sensitive to loveliness, awaits the heavy weight of the many who walk in mourning [ In compact groups of people, silent and expectant, Paris stifles its emotion at the corners, peeps out with devotion, [ Amid the two silent lines, moving and moved, writers, artists, and workers walk in silence [ Near the grave of Henri Boarbusse [ There we left her, under a multicolored blanket of spring flowers. Born in Roumania, she lived her radiant, industrious youth in Paris and died in Bruneta, Spain, enveloped in a hard atmosphere of heroism, hope, and love of liberty.
She was beautiful, very young, and very brave. Three times beautiful, then. Paris has understood her. Paris, sensitive to charm and smiles, even when they glow amid iron and fire. When Raquel Forner made her entrance in our artistic life she exhibited her first works in , young people were dominated by contempt for the story, for the theme. Rather than contempt, it was downright rejection. We should not condemn their attitude. It was an understandable and justified reaction to the excesses of gender painting, that style that intended to arouse the senses in ways that were alien to painting.
Yet, artists would not understand. It was imperative to return to the path of the eternal values in visual arts. The jungle of discursive banality had covered this path. With its preoccupation about the visual and chromatic aspects of objects in the simulation of reflected, actual light, Impressionism had won the first battle. Cubism —stark, ascetic painting reduced to incorruptible nakedness —marked the peak of the offensive.
On the debris of an outdated style, Cubism raised its solid walls and opened perspectives that allowed for breathing space. Again, young art possessed a clean, effective tool to start new undertakings. Raquel Forner, however, lived and studied in Argentina and abroad. She attended their exhibitions and closely followed the hectic work done in the laboratories of modern art. She was not a mere spectator, but an enthusiastic participant. From that moment until four or five years ago, her large images and her beautiful compositions aim only at solving problems posed by form and color. Naturally, a harmonious, underlying poetic sense can be perceived in her paintings.
In those times, her discourse achieved merry, melodious, fortunate brightness and transparency. Yet by that time the tide of events that was beginning to tear at and shake the world rose to its highest levels. Those were the days when the Spanish people were besieged, checked, and crushed by the international conspiracy of active and passive forces that sought to destroy human dignity and happiness.
Bombs and grenades mercilessly exploded in the heart Ars magazine, April-May, Naturally, the fearful outbreak reached the nobler sensibilities and strew anguish in the kinder hearts. The smoke of gunpowder that rose from the battlefields and the angry, clenchfisted clamor of a people balefully attacked reached the towers that had so far remained insensitive. Art spoke out and intervened. While in Paris Pablo Picasso screamed his tears in the colossal Guernica, in Buenos Aires, in the quiet halls of the Muller Art Gallery, a woman —Raquel Forner— formulated, in a series of drawings and oil paintings, the hardest, the most bleakly beautiful, human, and artistic statement ever made in Argentina against a temporarily triumphant injustice.
It cannot but be regarded as a major event in the latest history of our visual arts. She was a genuine artist of indubitable worth, an artist who, through the categorical discourse of her works, reinforced a truth with suggestive outcomes. Art can have a deliberate content. Regardless of its intrinsic value, art can serve to as a language expressing a thought or an artistic emotion, either of which are no more and no less than human. In fact, this was not the first time that such a statement was made in our country. All these works reinforce the principle of possibility of a rich kind of art filled with transcendental meaningfulness.
At the heart of these works, there lie a distinct sociopolitical thought and an emotion of deep human significance. Through the exhibition of her works, Raquel Forner reasserted such a principle. As she confided to me in the course of an interview, pure painting and pure art had had their inescapable reason of being. Still, the subject matter —the story, as artists tend to call it, had stifled the visual.
Painting overcame its sickly condition through Impressionism and Cubism. Now it was prepared to become, once more, a language. In the said interview, she told me, regarding this issue, that the literary —the anectdotic came first. Behnd it, perhaps not even there [ Impressionism, Cubism, and Surrealism have fulfilled their cleansing mission. They have returned to the realm of the visual arts. We may, again, use painting as a means to express such dreams and ideas that prompt our concern.
Of course, this does not entail neglecting visual values, casting aside the recovery or return to the visual art achieved by modern art. The grief oozed by the peoples that had. Her exhibition was the artistic materialization of her feelings on the subject. How did she come to express and reveal it? If Raquel Forner had limited her manners of expression to those to which she considered to be a rigorously realist notion of art, she might not have made a point of her dramatic eloquence.
The war atmosphere in the cities, fields, and desperate people because of iron and fire cannot be expressed by the same devises through the tools provided by the national Anthem. The distorted underlying feature, born under heart-wrenching noises lay nearer is closer to an anguishing dream and of nightmares than to more or less placid everyday life. In order to convey the unreality in the real, Raquel Forner has resorted to the wealth of memories with which certain new art schools reveal the world of dreams.
The mutilated corpse of a child lies on the laps of a mother. Nevertheless, the child is in fact a doll. A cold, uncanny light streams down on a real landscape.
Victory is a painful, torn, bullet-ridden plaster cast more painful than a human being might against a sky background of scattered cataclysms and executions. This is a firm first step toward the kind of art we dream of. The shapes he chooses are approximative. Something similar happens with the colors of his human figures. The color of the faces and skin has no representational or quality value. Because of their form and color, his human figures look like dolls made of non-human materials. The faces are a case in point. Soldi depicts them in such a way that he creates the illusion of artificial life.
His singers, dancers, acrobats, and actors have been stopped in the middle of some movement, as if they were dolls or dummies. We can still enjoy the experience, of course. We are watching dolls. Figures of some other unknown material. Yet they impress as being alive, animated with some kind of strange human life, often deeply moving. Soldi will tell this story: He worked in Italian opera theaters. Ever since I can remember, I frequented the shadowy world behind the stage.
My first visual impressions, my first memories, are singers, actors, and dancers in bright, colorful costumes, moving or twisting in theatrical poses. Much poetry and painting is nothing but a creation or a recreation of the things that dazzled the artist as a child and are now gone. Much of the emotion and tenderness in existing works sit on nostalgia for the innocent paradises of childhood. Would his beautiful automatons suddenly appear to our eyes as stark Surrealist figures? A naked electric bulb hung from ceiling over the singers That was a warm light At the same time, a beam of daylight sneaked in through a skylight.
In contrast to the warm yellow color of the electric light, natural light seemed cold, unearthly My retinas have forever retained the twofold-light atmosphere, its unforgettable beauty Soldi speaks slowly, elegantly. His movements and his speech show the calmness typical of manual workers. His built and his manners convey the modest naturalness of the popular class. Nevertheless, he does speak words that reveal the refined, poetic spirit so characteristic of his paintings. As my final inspiration came very late, I suppressed parts of my speech.
In order to breach the gap, I am writing to you now. In the first place, let me tell you that everybody was delighted that you had come. I feared that we would reach the end of the discussion without your contribution. Still, I am afraid that your intervention does not help solve the difficulties; it rather makes them more serious [ I insist that your mistake lies in thinking that the issue of cultural heritage, as far as the Modernists are concerned, is just a search for new means of expression.
This is not what defines Modernism. An appreciation of Modernist schools and of any other school at any time should be based on the notion of art advocated. In this sense, there is no denying that Modernism is characterized by its dehumanization of art, with the entire irrational, desperate burden this entails. Some comrades are embittered because Soviet critic Kemenov quotes psychiatrists in relation to some Modernist exhibitions.
Would you say that the open declaration that someone might well spend his whole life transcribing the words of the insane proves mental and moral health? You pose this as matter of fact, as a didactic rule to train poets and artists. What can be inferred from your statement is that the only way to write good poetry is to first go through Modernist drunkenness, with all its distortions and anti-humanism. On the other hand, can that refinedly perverse, mystic poet who flirted with death be a good critic of art? You advocate total freedom for artists and writers.
Anything goes, without restraints. Neither Lenin nor Engels agrees [ No rules are involved there, and if this is what you mean by freedom, it is welcome. However, can we, as cultural avant-gardists as well, permit the propagation of irrationality, anti-humanism, and reaction in the name of liberty? I apologize for my delay in answering your affectionate letter. Several reasons prevented me from doing so at once.
One is that I hoped we could meet personally. There is so much to exchange about this compelling issue! It is not that. I regret their attitude. And I do not regret it because of the Modernists, but because I do not believe in the possibility of a revolutionary, Communist, our art unless we make use of the aesthetic and technical tools provided by the great artistic and literary experience of our times. In short, I think that, from the artistic point of view, our words lack validity unless they are part of the artistic discourse of these times. Ortega y Gasset in a famous essay which I always thought lacked consistency because of its overblown generalizations.
Is this phrase applicable to the whole of modern art? Is Expressionism, that delving into the essential realities of human nature and psyche through the expressive exasperation of form, dehumanized? Is Surrealism, that artistic journey in the human domain of dreams, in the indistinct subconscious drives, in the hidden depths of nerves and spirit, if you will, dehumanized?
In my opinion, these tools prove positive; that is to say, they can be used for the realization of revolutionary art. I believe that they express the new world through an outdated language. It would not be hard to prove, without a shadow of a doubt, that the paintings belong in the turn-of-the-century Naturalism, within its aesthetic and technical constraints I still have much to discuss with you about other aspects of the things I have mentioned here, and about other issues that I have not even brushed on in this letter. But as it is too long already, I will end it now.
He uses the adequate resources to endow his paintings with variety and carefully handled compositive elements. For example, Cristo muerto, with a little scene of the Function in the foreground on the overbearing Christic scenery of a mountainous landscape in the vast background is quite representative of his best qualities. There, indeed, lies not only the legitimacy of a respectable expressive technique but the spirit of emotional communication mentioned at the beginning of this article. The intelligent beholders were struck by a painting Cultura magazine, Continente magazine, March, It was an outstanding, brilliant, sober piece.
It soon became known that the artist was extremely young. This encouraged many to hope for great future works. I myself wrote a critique about how interesting that painting was for the good [ It was evident that the artist was exploring, questioning, and testing At the same time, fulfilling the most optimistic predictions, the works showed his already well-known sensitivity to color and pictorial matter, his loving knowledge of forms, and his lyrical drive [ Yet it is related to painting or, at least, to the criticism of painting.
This work has a more modest [purpose] and reach. This book is not addressed to artists, nor does it intend to offer notions unknown [ The analytical process will allow them to evaluate the indispensable factors to formulate an appreciation, always a problematic decision, and to give a rational explanation for the impressions or emotions aroused by the object.
Therefore, it goes without saying that this book is not addressed to specialists but to neophytes, to those who wish to learn rather than to those who have already learnt. The author, poorly gifted and no doubt a poor apprentice in these matters, knows that he can only hope to aid his readers to direct themselves toward the apprehension of an art work. Likewise, the author is aware that a more compreensive understanding will be the natural consequence of a refined perception that is acquired only after long hours of study and frequent visits to the works themselves, in addition their related queries.
Preface, To the Reader, This is the most esteemed stimulus for those who devote their lives to the exacting undertaking of creating art. But exception made of the alert raised by three then unimportant critics Atalaya, Leonardo Extraigo y Arturo L. This was not the case when, in September , Emilio Pettoruti, back from his fruitful sojourn in Europe, held his first solo exhibition at Witcomb Art Gallery. Most likely, never before or after did an art exhibition garner [ The disagreements between avant-gardists and [ It is true that the milieu was prepared for what was coming.
However, when one is immersed in history, pitching battle ensures victory. The Argentinean exhibition in Rio do Janeiro Even in the specialized media, Argentinean public opinion lacks a clear idea about the importance and scope of our participation in the Exhibition of Contemporary Argentinean Art held in July at Rio de Janeiro Museum of Modern Art. Our names and works became known. Of two hundred works, the exhibition surmised a brief yet intelligent sample of our developments in painting, sculpture, and etching over the last forty years.
Informalism, defined by Neo-representational traces evoking a Surrealist and Expressionistic view. Painters Victorica, Spilimbergo, and Pettoruti represented us [ Little was known about the rest; I mean, about the extent, complexity, and variety of our contemporary art, so rich in trends and personalities. The large exhibition organized by the Argentinean Embassy in Rio became thus an enlightening event.
Through the works exhibited, Brazilian critics, artists, and amateurs have discovered our current art, taking due note of its merits and characteristics. They have thus become aware of its modernity, balance, operational responsibility, general aesthetic dignity, and the spirit that, through the works, speaks of Argentinean capability —sic- to absorb European culture at is highest levels.
It cannot be denied that we are the offspring, the consequence, of European culture, and I do not believe that we either could or should aspire, as far as art is concerned, to become something else. Just as our political institutions, our technology, and our schools of thought express that culture, so we should express it in the field of art.
No doubt —at least I do not doubt —that we contribute our particular features, as we do in the variety of Spanish that we speak. The Brazilians noticed this in our painting, sculpture, and etching. We sould feel pleased.