Rien ne va plus dans les petites paroisses de Yorkshire Dans ce livre, il est aussi question de la modernisation qui arrive et bouleverse tout. Citations et extraits 34 Voir plus Ajouter une citation. Signaler ce contenu Voir la page de la citation. Les collines en sont noires: Madame Bovary Gustave Flaubert. La Petite Fadette George Sand.
Il contient plusieurs illustrations. Cette collection contient plusieurs auteurs contemporains comme par exemple Cipolla, J. Bernhard, Baudrillard, Virilio, Maffesolli, Rosset, etc. Petite mise en garde, cependant: Werber avec 5 citations, D. Weyergans avec 1 citation, A.
Albee, Jacques Sternberg, L. Asimov en fait, peu d'auteurs de S. Citation analysis is currently the best way to evaluate a publication's impact upon a research community. Although it has its limitations, citation analysis assumes that an article's citation count is directly related to the interest that article has generated within the scientific community.
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Those articles that have generated debate, stimulated further research, or altered how we view or treat patients with certain maladies are cited more heavily. PubMed, while easy to use and free, does not perform any computations based on citation analysis and thus cannot provide the user with a dynamic, upto-date measurable assessment of the current and historical research efforts of a particular topic.
Although one can refine their search based on certain criteria, the output by PubMed is ultimately volumetric only. Although some have been skeptical about the fact that it does not provide a list of its sources and uses a proprietary undisclosed ranking algorithm resulting in a wide coverage [ 4 ], studies have shown that most citations are scholarly [ 5 — 7 ]. One can browse a ranking of publications based on a specific journal e. In addition, Google Scholar can provide a bibliometric measurement for a selected author or journal.
In , Plikus et al. Several studies have established landmark articles within various specialties using citation analysis, including anesthesiology [ 9 ], critical care [ 10 ], dermatology [ 11 ], emergency medicine [ 12 ], forensic science [ 13 — 15 ], ophthalmology [ 16 ], orthopedic surgery [ 17 ], otolaryngology [ 18 ], pediatric orthopedic surgery [ 19 ], plastic surgery [ 20 , 21 ], urology [ 22 , 23 ], and neurosurgery [ 24 , 25 ]. Recently, we published the top overall most cited articles and the top 50 most cited articles over the last decade — from pediatric neurosurgical journals [ 26 ].
A comparison was made to time-adjusted and non-time-adjusted citation rankings. We present the second part of our pediatric neurosurgery citation analysis research. Table 1 shows the keywords used in each topic search. These keywords were modified based on the methods of Ponce et al. A total of 14, articles were identified in this search. These articles were then ranked in descending order by citation count and reviewed to determine if they were related to clinical pediatric neurosurgery.
All basic science, imaging, histology, pathology, and pharmaceutical articles were excluded. We excluded articles from pediatric neurosurgical journals: An additional search was performed using the same criteria to identify the top 50 most cited articles over the last 10 years — This search returned a total of 10, articles. The adjusted citation count can be viewed as the average number of citations that paper has received each year since it was published. The following information was obtained from each article: The abstract or—when necessary—the entire article was read in detail to determine these characteristics and categories.
The top overall most cited works within pediatric neurosurgery are listed in Table 2. The top 50 most cited works within pediatric neurosurgery over the past decade — are presented in Table 3. List of top most cited journal articles.
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The first rank represents the descending rank order by raw citations. List of top 50 most cited journal articles in pediatric neurosurgery from the years — Forty-four journals provided all the articles in the top list: Journal of Neurosurgery 20 articles , Neurosurgery eight articles , and Journal of Clinical Oncology six articles contained the most articles in the top The number of authors ranged from 2 to 38 with a mean, median, and mode of 7, 6, and 5, respectively. Articles per year for a the top list and b the top 50 list. Article counts by country of origin for a the top list and b the top 50 list.
Based on the OCEBM Levels of Evidence Classification System, two articles were classified as grade 1, nine articles were classified as grade 2, 26 articles were classified as grade 3, and 52 articles were classified as grade 4. Article counts by topic for a the top list and b the top 50 list. Two papers had greater than citations, five had greater than , 11 had —, and 54 had — The average adjusted citation count was 9.
The original contribution papers with the highest combined score i. Thirty-one journals provided all the articles in the top 50 list. Journal of Neurosurgery ten articles and Lancet Oncology four articles contained the most articles in the top The number of authors ranged from 1 to 19, with a mean, median, and mode of 7, 6, and 6, respectively. There were four articles classified as grade 2, 15 articles classified as grade 3, and 21 articles classified as grade 4 papers OCEM levels of evidence.
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One paper had greater than citations, four papers had — citations, and 14 papers had — citations. Citation analysis is a useful method of quantifying the impact an article has made upon a scientific community. There are several reasons for this. The first is that pediatric neurosurgery is a young and very small field compared to others. Publication of pediatric neurosurgery journals began no more than 50 years ago, the readership is small, and consequently the impact factors IF of the journals are low: Childs Nervous System 1.
The second reason is that many of the articles that we found in this current study were authored by non-neurosurgeons e. The journals they chose to publish in have a much wider audience and higher IFs than pediatric neurosurgery journals. Nonetheless, many of the articles in our two lists were published in neurosurgery journals: This marked difference in journal impact factors demonstrates the need to be responsible when performing citation analysis.
Much in the same way as it is inappropriate to compare the bibliometric profiles of different researchers e.
In , the Journal of Neurosurgery—Pediatrics was created as a sister journal to the Journal of Neurosurgery. Many of the Journal of Neurosurgery articles in the top and top 50 lists in this paper would likely be published in Journal of Neurosurgery—Pediatrics today. By comparison, Neurosurgery has not subdivided into subsidiary sister journals. In our top list for this current study, there were eight articles published in Neurosurgery , with an average citation count of range, — , much higher than the average citation count of 90 for the top list of only pediatric neurosurgery journals.
Also, there were no Journal of Neurosurgery—Pediatrics articles in the previous top list and only one in the top 50 list.
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These findings would suggest that there was a loss of readership when the Journal of Neurosurgery—Pediatrics was created. The topics that appeared most frequently in the top articles in dedicated pediatric neurosurgical journals were hydrocephalus and oncology.
By comparison, oncology and trauma were the most common topics in this study. This is an expected finding. Hydrocephalus is a disease that is treated almost exclusively by neurosurgeons, unlike other multidisciplinary areas such as trauma and oncology. The levels of evidence based on the OCEBM guidelines were generally higher in this study as compared to our first study.
Thirty-seven papers were levels 1, 2, or 3 compared with only 12 in our first study. One major reason for this is that the competition to get a paper accepted in a high-impact journal is intense, forcing authors to increase the quality of their submission.
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Specific search terms were used to delineate articles related to pediatrics and neurosurgery. We excluded articles related to basic science, histology, radiology, and pharmaceutical sciences. The process of excluding articles is inherently subjective and was done by consensus. There is no doubt that some of the excluded articles, while not directly related to clinical pediatric neurosurgery, have influenced the practice of pediatric neurosurgery.
A notable example would be the growing literature on the molecular profiling of pediatric brain tumors [ 29 — 31 ].
The top overall articles in pediatric neurosurgery from non-pediatric neurosurgical journals and the top 50 most cited articles over the last decade are presented in this paper. The number of citations for these lists of articles is on average higher than articles from pediatric neurosurgery journals due to the fact that many of these articles are intended for a broader audience and are published in journals with higher impact factors.
Furthermore, there is some evidence to suggest that pediatric-specific articles may have lost some exposure within the academic community when placed into pediatric-specific journals compared to when they were kept in general neurosurgical journals. The responsible use of citation analysis should involve comparing journals with similar intended audiences.