In addition, we know that each student reading this book has a unique set of personal and work-related experiences, capabilities, and career goals. On average, a person working in the United States will change jobs 10 times in 20 years U. Bureau of Labor Statistics, In order to succeed in this type of career situation, individuals need to be armed with the tools necessary to be lifelong learners.
So, this book will not be about giving you all the answers to every situation you may encounter when you start your first job or as you continue up the career ladder. Instead, this book will give you the vocabulary, framework, and critical thinking skills necessary for you to diagnose situations, ask tough questions, evaluate the answers you receive, and act in an effective and ethical manner regardless of situational characteristics.
Throughout this book, when we refer to organizations, we will include examples that may apply to diverse organizations such as publicly held, for-profit organizations like Google and American Airlines, privately owned businesses such as S. We will also refer to both small and large corporations.
About This Book
Keep in mind that some of the small organizations of today may become large organizations in the future. For example, in , eBay Inc. Regardless of the size or type of organization you may work for, people are the common denominator of how work is accomplished within organizations.
Together, we will examine people at work both as individuals and within work groups and how they impact and are impacted by the organizations where they work. Before we can understand these three levels of organizational behavior, we need to agree on a definition of organizational behavior. Organizational behavior OB is defined as the systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within the organizations where they work.
As you will see throughout this book, definitions are important. They are important because they tell us what something is as well as what it is not. For example, we will not be addressing childhood development in this course—that concept is often covered in psychology—but we might draw on research about twins raised apart to understand whether job attitudes are affected by genetics.
OB draws from other disciplines to create a unique field. For example, when we review topics such as personality and motivation, we will again review studies from the field of psychology. The topic of team processes relies heavily on the field of sociology. In the chapter relating to decision making, you will come across the influence of economics.
When we study power and influence in organizations, we borrow heavily from political sciences. Even medical science contributes to the field of organizational behavior, particularly to the study of stress and its effects on individuals. Those who study organizational behavior—which now includes you—are interested in several outcomes such as work attitudes e. A distinction is made in OB regarding which level of the organization is being studied at any given time. There are three key levels of analysis in OB. They are examining the individual, the group, and the organization.
OB matters at three critical levels. It matters because it is all about things you care about. OB can help you become a more engaged organizational member. Getting along with others, getting a great job, lowering your stress level, making more effective decisions, and working effectively within a team…these are all great things, and OB addresses them! It matters because employers care about OB. These are all things we will cover in OB.
Finally, it matters because organizations care about OB. The best companies in the world understand that the people make the place. How do we know this? For example, every Whole Foods store has an open compensation policy in which salaries including bonuses are listed for all employees.
There is also a salary cap that limits the maximum cash compensation paid to anyone in the organization, such as a CEO, in a given year to 19 times the companywide annual average salary of all full-time employees. Research shows that organizations that are considered healthier and more effective have strong OB characteristics throughout them such as role clarity, information sharing, and performance feedback. In the rest of this chapter, we will build on how you can use this book by adding tools to your OB Toolbox in each section of the book as well as assessing your own learning style.
In addition, it is important to understand the research methods used to define OB, so we will also review those. Finally, you will see what challenges and opportunities businesses are facing and how OB can help overcome these challenges. OB Toolboxes appear throughout this book. They indicate a tool that you can try out today to help you develop your OB skills. Throughout the book, you will see many OB Toolbox features. Our goal in writing this book is to create something useful for you to use now and as you progress through your career.
Sometimes we will focus on tools you can use today. Other times we will focus on things you may want to think about that may help you later. As you progress, you may discover some OB tools that are particularly relevant to you while others are not as appropriate at the moment. It is not surprising that, on average, the greater the level of education you have, the more money you will make. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Organizations value and pay for skills as the next figure shows. Education and training have financial payoffs as illustrated by these unemployment and earnings for workers 25 and older.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, http: Tom Peters is a management expert who talks about the concept of individuals thinking of themselves as a brand to be managed. Further, he recommends that individuals manage themselves like free agents Peters, ; Peters, The following OB Toolbox includes several ideas for being effective in keeping up your skill set. Adapted from ideas in Peters, T. Brand you survival kit. Retrieved July 1, , from http: A key step in building your OB skills and filling your toolbox is to learn the language of OB. Once you understand a concept, you are better able to recognize it.
Once you recognize these concepts in real-world events and understand that you have choices in how you will react, you can better manage yourself and others. An effective tool you can start today is journaling , which helps you chart your progress as you learn new skills.
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For more on this, see the OB Toolbox below. Created based on ideas and information in Bromley, K. Engagements in reading, writing, and thinking. The emotionally intelligent manager: How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership. The benefits of journaling for stress management. Retrieved January 27, , from About. As teachers we have heard this question many times. The answer, as you might have guessed, is no—OB is not just common sense. As we noted earlier, OB is the systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within the organizations where they work.
Systematic is an important word in this definition. It is easy to think we understand something if it makes sense, but research on decision making shows that this can easily lead to faulty conclusions because our memories fail us. We tend to notice certain things and ignore others, and the specific manner in which information is framed can affect the choices we make.
Therefore, it is important to rule out alternative explanations one by one rather than to assume we know about human behavior just because we are humans! Go ahead and take the following quiz and see how many of the 10 questions you get right.
- The Ups and Downs in Life!
- 1.2 Understanding Organizational Behavior;
- Thailand - The Ups and Downs Continued.
- Trends in Organizational Behavior, Volume 8: Employee Versus Owner Issues in Organizations.
- The Long Mile: The Shango Mysteries!
If you get them all right, you are way ahead of the game! Please answer the following 10 questions by noting whether you believe the sentence is true or false. This book is about people at work. Organizations come in many shapes and sizes. Organizational behavior is the systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within the organizations where they work.
OB matters for your career, and successful companies tend to employ effective OB practices. Steve Jobs drops from no. Fast Company , The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal , 38 , The second coming of Apple.
Fortune , , The war for talent. Harvard Business School Publishing. Retrieved January 28, , from http: The brand called you. Building profits by putting people first. Harvard Business School Press. Putting people first for organizational success. Academy of Management Executive , 13 , 37— Retrieved December 8, , from the U. Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site: Trends in Organizational Behavior, Volume 8: Employee Versus Owner Issues in Organizations.
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Understanding Organizational Behavior | Organizational Behavior
Description How to keep up to date with the current developments and issues in the study and practice of organizational behavior? That is the challenge for students, academics and practitioners. This series complements the standard tests of OB and the more comprehensive, historical review volumes, by offering concise, critical and stimulating accounts of the main issues and developments in topics of current and ongoing importance in OB.
Whether employees should be stakeholders in their businesses and the relationship between employees and owners in general is a fast-growing topic and owners in general is a fast-growing topic and is explored in this volume of Trends by distinguished academics who are at the forefront of this important field.
Topics discussed in this volume: Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site.