These days they are also visible in parts of the former West Berlin. Even to this day, 25 years after the two cities were reunified, the people of East and West Berlin have noticeable differences between each other, which become more apparent among the older generations. The two groups also have sometimes-derogatory slang terms to refer to each other. Both sides also engage in stereotyping the other. A stereotypical Ossi has little ambition or poor work ethic and is chronically bitter, while a stereotypical Wessi is arrogant, selfish, impatient, and pushy.
At the time of German reunification , East Berlin comprised the boroughs of. The Fernsehturm TV Tower is visible in the background. The Bode Museum at the northern end of the Museum Island , From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see East Berlin disambiguation. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. July Click [show] for important translation instructions.
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A model attribution edit summary using German: Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[: Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. For more guidance, see Wikipedia: The recent football World Cup in Russia has provided a boost to the Russian economy, with fans from all over the globe descending on host cities to watch their national team.
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The service sector saw the greatest impact, according to IHS Markit's survey data, with business activity and new orders expanding strongly in the event's build-up. However, the survey data have also signalled the re-emergence of weaker underlying domestic demand conditions, with panellists linking this to a softer pace of economic expansion.
Manufacturers in particular have not fared well, with industrial production growth easing throughout the second quarter. The latest dip in overall performance was exacerbated by a second consecutive monthly fall in new orders. Despite the July PMI surveys recording the first monthly deterioration in manufacturing performance since April , a rise in service sector activity during the month helped the Russia Composite PMI Output Index signal a moderate rise in overall activity.
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However, the increase was the weakest for 26 months. Following a boost to new orders during June, all sub-sectors reported an increase in new business in July. The latter registered the most notable change following the World Cup, with the pace of expansion easing for the third successive month. This could have a major impact on Russian economy. In the New Producers scenario we have assumed the most positive prognoses for oil production expansion in Iran, Iraq, Brazil and gas production expansion in Iran, Qatar, Turkmenistan and recently discovered fields in East Africa.
What is more, the cheaper new supplies will temporarily push out part of Russian and US supplies, particularly in the period after that Russia and the US will recover market share. Russia could lose 70 billion cubic metres bcm per year, roughly a third of its current exports. Thus, the key risk for Russia in the New Producers scenario is not so much to be found in the price level, but in the shrinking market niche that is left for Russian oil and gas exports.
The main hypothesis for this scenario is changing demand patterns in Asia. There are some grounds to expect that China and India may follow a somewhat different scenario than generally expected, and one of the reasons for this is changes in the coal market. Coal is the main element in the energy mixes of these two countries, and both may encounter supply shortages due to peaking of domestic production not so much because of resource scarcity, but mainly due to infrastructure constraints and growing production costs.
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Against the backdrop of continued rapid growth in energy demand in these countries, they will be faced with an energy shortage, which will have to be covered by imported coal or alternative energy sources. This will most likely lead to increased consumption of gas, nuclear energy, and renewables, but also increased imports of coal in total mln t per year and gas bcm per year , leading to radical changes in world trade in both coal and gas markets.
Out of all potential coal suppliers, Russia has the best opportunities of increasing the production and export of coal, with the main limitation being the cost of transportation. But Russia should be able to increase its exports several times over. Thus, the Other Asia scenario is much more optimistic for Russia in terms of external market conditions — the increased capacity of foreign markets and the expansion of particularly Asian demand for Russian energy resources will boost the development of all sectors of the energy industry.
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The Russian oil industry did not suffer heavily from the global financial crisis, thanks to newly introduced tax incentives and reduction in prices resulting from the devaluation of the rouble. Thus, the economic environment remained sustainable for the oil companies. The subsequent rise in global oil prices even allowed for the revival of their investment programmes.
Nevertheless, Russia will not be able to keep oil production at current levels. Large-scale investment in exploration and new technologies will be needed. In the Baseline scenario, production of oil and gas condensates reaches a peak and gradually declines, from mt million tonnes in to mt by and then to mt by Figure 5. Oil refining volumes in Russia will also decline after This will be caused primarily by a glut of oil products on the European market.
After , a gradual recovery of primary oil refining in Russia is expected up to mt by Figure 5 — Oil and gas condensate production in Russia by key producing regions, Baseline scenario and Other Asia scenario. Reduction of the level of production and the aforementioned increase in refining volumes projected in the Baseline scenario will lead to a drop in Russian crude oil exports from mt in to mt in There will also be a change in the destination of exports: This means that we foresee a period of weakening interdependence of Russia and Europe in the liquid fuels market.
One more noteworthy point is the increasing concentration of assets in the hands of state-controlled companies. Unlike the oil sector, the Russian gas sector was affected considerably by the global financial crisis.
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This was further exacerbated by price levels, which did not recover sufficiently in external markets and slowed down in the domestic market.