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THE Italian Alphabet contains twenty-two letters, which the modern Romans, following the Latin, name and pronounce as follows: Figur e Nome Pron. Figur A e a Name Pron. And of such ones, there are many so ignorant, that do not know even the ah-bee-chce 1. He might thiirk so, if looking at you at the same time, he should think that you had learned your a-b-c. And caused so many convents to be built as there are letters in tho a-b-c. Buffalmacco will be captain.

X is sometimes translated into s or 55, and sometimes into cc ; as, Jlcciocchb io prima esmplo So that I might first set the dea a tutti vol. Un giovane lor nipote, che They sent a young man, avta nome Alessdndro, mandd- nephew of theirs, called Alex- rono. S6pra gli alii palagi, e so- It [the wind] leaves it [the pra V ecctlse torn la Idscia.

Idghi Jhtr- I see far from the Avernian nt, Stigi. Fallenstein, ' Wallenstein ' ; Galles, ' Wales. E has two sounds, one open, the other close: J is sounded like ee in English ; or like i in the English word machine ; as, inwo, een'-no, hymn ; fate, lee'-tay, strife. O has two sounds, one open, the other close: O open is sounded like o in the English word cord; as, fcofta, lot'-tdh, blow ; rof-sah, rose.

O dose is sounded like o in the English word bone ; as, folia, foU-lah, crowd; or a, o'-rah, hour. U is sounded like oo in the English word ooze ; as, uso, oo'-so, use ; tvtto, toot 1 -to, all. But at the end of words, or when it ends a syllable, or when preceded by another conso- nant, or when doubled, it has a rolling sound to which there is nothing similar in the English lan- guage, and which can be acquired only by oral instruction ; as, peR, pay? S in the beginning of words, or when preceded or followed by another consonant, or when dou- bled, is pronounced sharp, like s in the English words saint, pulse, discount, assembly; as, santo, sahn f -to, saiit ; film, jayV-sah, mulberry ; sea, ay'-skah, bait ; lesso, lays' -so,.

Between two vowels, and in the last syllabic of all substantive and adjective nouns that end in ise, uso, usa, it is pronounced flat, or soft like z ; or like s in the English word rose ; as, viso, vee'-zo, visage ; palese, pah-lay f -zay, manifest ; abuso, ah-boo'-zo, abuse ; confusa, con-foo 1 -zah, confounded. In the last syllable of all adjective nouns end- ing in , osa, it is pronounced sharp ; as, virtuoso, veer-too, o 1 '-so, virtuous ; maestosa,? Z cannot be submitted' to certain rules. It can only be said, that, in the beginning of words, or when single, it is pronounced flat, or soft like ds in the English word Winnsor ; as, zodiaco, dso-dee' ,ah-ko, zodiac ; zanzdra, dsahn-dsah' -rah, gnat.

In the last syllable of words ending in dnza. J is considered as a vowel in Italian. H has no sound. It is only used to denote the hard sound of the consonants c, g, before the vowels e, i; as, in CHerico, kay f -ree-ko, clerk ; cuitdrra, kee-tahr' -rah, guitar ; gutzzo, gty'-tso, Moor; gniro, gee f -ro, dormouse: And in each case it is a sign, a mark of distinction rather than a letter. Cc followed by the vowels e, i y is pronounced like tch in the English word WTCH ; as, accento, aht-chayn'-to, accent; accidio, aht-chee' -dee,o, slaughter. Followed by the vowels ia, ie, zo, w, it is pro- nounced like gui in the English word cuic?

Gl followed by the vowel i: It has the same sound in the words, ahn 1 -glee, Englishmen ; ahn f -glee,ah, England. They are generally di- vided into two classes, the long and the short. Triphthongs are generally classed with the short diphthongs, and are pronounced, dio gAio, gah',yo, gay; Ui miEi. Every vowel always preserves its proper sound, inde- pendently of the consonants which accompany it.

E and O open, mean, 'honey', 'a peach', 'theme'; ' neck', ' the bar', ' void': In all Italian words of more than one syllable, there is always one, upon which the voice, in pronouncing the word, is heard stronger than upon the others. This, which is generally effected by raising the voice upon that syllable and letting it fall upon the rest, is com- monly called the tonic accent of the word.

After the preposition per, for, by, or through', whether the nouns begins with z, s: In the plural, however, if the noun begins with any consonant but z, or s followed by another consonant, we may use indifferently, either gli or li ; as, per GLI boschi, through the woods ; per LI regni, through the regions. La and le, are put before all feminine nouns begin- ning either with a consonant, or a vowel; as, LA Reina, the queen ; LE cortesie, the courtesies: One brother abandoned the other, and the sister the broth- er, and oftentimes the wife her husband.

And what is more, the fath- ers and the mothers shunned to visit and serve their chil- dren. The queen could not be sat- isfied with hearing of the no- bleness and the courtesies of the young king. The king was not long in get- ting up, whom the noise of the beasts and of those who loaded them had already awakened.

They had accused the in- nocent man on a false suspi- cion. And complains of love, that has so sharp spurs, and so hard a bit. Her eyes shone more than the star. In the time of fabled and false deities. I sing the pious arms. Del bel paese Id dovx J L si suona. Holding always the sick man by the arm. Then for her love condescend to our desires. Let us pass through thy se- ven regions.

Thy soul is by vile fear as- sailed, which oft, So overcast a man, that he recoils From noble undertaking. The thoughts are arrows, and the countenance a sun, and the desire fire. Zephyr returns, bringing back flowers, and herbs, his sweet family. From your eyes the mortal blow issued. Of that fair land where si is spoken. When the articles il, lo, la ; i or li, gli, le, are im- mediately preceded by the prepositions di, c of;? Union of the Prepositions DI. D6i, di, ddi, nei, coi, pei, sui, frdi or trdi, followed by a noun beginning with a consonant, drop the i, and take an apostrophe instead of it ; as, DE' prati, of the meadows ; A' cdnti, to singing ; DA' varenti, by the relations ; NE' Giardini, in the gardens ; co' Raggi, with the rays ; PE' Monti, through the moun- [tains ; su' itibri, upon the books ; TRA' wri, amongst the flow- [ers.

CON LO splendore, with the [splendor: As in the bright clear sky, the stars are the ornament of the heavens, and in the spring the flowers are of the meadows, and the verdant shrubs of the hills, so witty sayings are the or- naments of praiseworthy man- ners and fine conversations. And having become more gay, they arose and gave them- selves once more to playing, singing, and dancing.

When you enter into the gardens, extending your deli- cate hand, you cull the roses, and leave the thorns. Shady woods, where strikes the sun, which renders you with its rays so lofty and noble. Behold the beast with sharpened tail; I saw Solon with the other six of whom Greece boasts. A del suo Fattore i red. And then I passed to the land of Abruzzi, where men and wo- men go in wooden shoes up over the mountains. I leave the gall, in quest of the sweet fruit, which has been promised to me by my faithful guide.

Thus would that thou, O heart, hadst still preserved some of the beautiful footsteps, here and there, amongst the flowers and the grass. It passed through my eyes to my mind. It was the day when the rays of the sun grew pale, through pity for his Maker. He arrived in the wood, shady on account of its leaves.

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With the splendor which brings her beauty. Do not wonder in error with the ignorant. The English indefinite article a, an, is expressed in Italian by the indefinite pronouns un, uno, una, accord- ing to the rules already given with regard to the articles il, lo, la, ' the' ; as, UN wercatdnte, a merchant ; UNO spirdglio, a breathing-hole ; UIT A Fiamma, a flame ; UNA zeba, a goat. Uno, like lo, before a noun beginning with a vowel, drops the o, but takes no apostrophe instead of it ; una drops the a and takes an apostrophe ; as, UN uomo, a man ; UN' bmbra, a shade ; UN Arrwre, a love ; UN' bra, an hour.

There was in Paris a great merchant. Arriguccio was a haughty and strong man. In which grotto came some light through a breathing-hole, opened in the mountain. One will, one love, has al- ways kept us bound an'd united, and the same day gave us to the world ; may it please you, then, since the same hour takes us from it, that one same flame should consume us. I gave him some bread and some cheese. One of the domestics of Mes- ser Neri kindled the fire, and having put the frying-pan up- on a trevet, and having put some oil in it, he began to wait that the young women should throw into it some fish.

He proposed that the honors [should be rendered! Non pcrdondndo, come in dltri csercitiym. It appeared to him that he heard era subitamente decapitdto. Having entered into the tower, she began to weep. Per the pain he felt, he began to roar, so that he seem- doldr. Fleeing through the woods. He was Fu seen by veduto da to come venire a companion compdgnofm. Having found in the garden some capons, some wine, and Trovati 6rto,m. Nouns ending in o are of the masculine gender ; as, Ubro, book ; specchio, mirror ; oriuolo, watch ; scrittoio, scrutoire. Erato, Erato ; dtropo, Atropos ; Metto, Alecto: Some nouns of animate beings ending in o, in the feminine change o into a; as, Colombo, pigeon ; Colombo, hen-dove ; cavdllo, horse ; cavallA, mare ; gdtto, cat; gattA, she-cat.

But, then, we meet in'Italian with many nouns, which, in composition, are made to end with a consonant ; and this on principles, which will be explained in Part IIP. Nouns formed of a verb and a noun ; as, pascibietola, logger- santinfizza, hypocrite: The nouns, diota, idiot; eremita, hermit; anacoreta, anchorite; pocrita, hypocrite; apostata, apostate; patriotta, patriot; deicida, deicide ; parriclda, parricide ; regicida, regicide ; raticida, fratricide ; omiclda, homicide ; matricida, matricide ; intagonista, antagonist; regalista, royalist; monopolista, monopo- [list; Deista, Deist ; ateista, atheist; Calvinista, Calvinist; Are of the common gender.

The book and he who wrote it were [to us] Galeotto. The inhabitants of this castle with arms in their hands reach- ed the shore. Such that at a distance sounded in the valleys like a sad echo. Perhaps I shall tell the truth and it will appear false, that 1 felt myself drawn away from my own body. He was the greatest and the wisest lawyer, that had been seen until his time. My master in liberality does not yield to that monarch. And with such figuring of Pa- radise, The sacred strain must leap, like one that meets-A sud- den interruption to his road.

Ribald, hypocrite, mocker of God, who 'add five to that of others, and take out six. Now finish that long discourse that thou hadst begun about that man. Words, which the Holy Ghost put into the mouth of the ignorant man. And a she-wolf who seemed to be laden with wants of every When lo! For my wide theme so urges me on. That thou mayest be relieved from this fear. The beautiful planet that in- vites to love, made all the orient laugh.

I bequeath, moreover, a cope of crimson silk stuff. The drama is a poetical composition to be represented. Without which, I did not rest a moment. When shall come the Power adverse to them. Nouns ending in e are some of them masculine, and some feminine ; as. Those ending in ge, le s me, re, se, nte, are generally masculine ; as,?

The nouns, I6gge, law, faldnge, phalanx ; laringe, larynx ", indolej disposition ; prole, offspring ; pelle, skin ; bile, bile; voile, valley; ipirbole. The nouns, dice, elk ; pesce, fish ; mdntice, bellows ; eodice, code ; cdlice, chalice ; vortice, vortex ; pepe, pepper ; presepe, stable ; recipe, recipe ; vdte, bard; Idtte, milk; limite, limit; breve, a brief; conclave, conclave; architrave, architrave; erzne, hair ; cdrdine, hinge ; confine, confine ; disordine, disorder ; glutine, glue ; pettine, comb ; lastone, stick ; mattone, brick ; paragone, comparison; are masculine.

Names of animate beings, ending in c, are generally of the common gender ; as, Uprv, hare; strpv, snake. The noun dimdne, when it means i to-morrow', is masculine ; but when it signifies 'the beginning of the day', is feminine. Ed evvi, oltre a questo. Lo stolto semprc procrdstina di far btne, dicendo: Ennius sang of him a rude song. This was well f rtified by a ditch, and by a good hedge. I beheld a throng upon the shore of a great stream. Having locked the cell with the key, he went directly to the chamber of the Abbot.


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And there, besides this, the air is a great deal more fresh. But when the air began to be good. And having entered into the clear fountain, she plunged herself into the water. They sat around the fountain. I do not beliewe a serpent, who has a heart so cruel. Knowing thee to be not a dove, but a venomous serpent, I intend to persecute thee with all my power. The fool always delays to do good, saying: When I awoke before the morning, I heard my sons sob in their slumber.

He recollected that she ought to have a scar, like a cross, above the left ear. Its bed and sloping sides, and both the margins, were petri- fied. After that she came to the margin of the high bank, we escaped by swimming. Sending five hundred Ghi- belline foot-soldiers from the territory of Florence. Wretched more than any other, thou art made a servant. Giacomino had in his bouse an elderly servant maid. A man who had come to a happy end. This was the end of the Em- peror Henry. His host desiring to be paid, he first gave him that one.

Thus he fell in with our for-j lunate army. He collected a fine, large and powerful army. From Mr Annibal Ruccellai, you may hear the order which I have given to him. If we should consider with sound mind the order of things. Nouns ending in i are some of them masculine, and some feminine ; as, eclissi, m. Nouns of dignity, as, ball, bailiff; pdri, peer; guardasigitti, keeper '[of the seal: Nouns formed of a verb and a noun in the plural ; as, lavaceci, dunce ; graffiasdnti, hypocrite ; guardaportoni, porter - r leccapidtti, glutton ; cacciadidvoli, exorcist; cavadenti, tooth draw- [er: And the following, alealt, alkali ; ambdssi, ambs-aces ; zdnni, merry-andrew ; abbicci f alphabet ; barbagidnni, owl ; soprattieni, delay ; cremisl, crimson ; diesi, diesis [in music] ; appigionasi, notice of [a house to let: Ma tdli cose hdnno piu DEL Ayyi,esondison6ste.

It announced a great drought in the following summer,and af- terward at the opposition of that eclipse, a great abundance of water. That, which our physicians call crisis. His famous peers surround him. The physician went to meet them, wishing God would give them a good day. A greater exorcist is not to be found in Tuscany, But such things more become a merry-andrew, and are in- decent. We will commence from the beginning of Genesis. That he should leave them one per centum of what they have, and that they should earn that one by the sweat of their brow, as is commanded in Gen- esis.

The dill is warm, and it is an herb whose seed is called by the same name. I have thought, that it is now proper to moderate, with some restraint, the warm im- pulses of his youth. Adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, when used substantively, are of the masculine gender ; as, lello, beautiful: The names of the days of the week, except Dome- nica, Sunday'; and those of the months, are masculine ; as, Mercoledl, Wednesday; Sabato, Saturday; Sprite, April; dgosto, August.

Names of trees are masculine ; as, olmo, elm-tree; mirto, myrtle-tree ; no'ce, walnut-tree;, limone, lemon-tree. Queraa, oak-tree ; vite, vine ; ginestra, broom ; are feminine. Some masculine nouns, when used to denote a femi- nine object, take a different termination; as, amico, friend, m. IL D6vE w ho gia pensdto. Son certa DEL si.

When women arrive at forty years they lose the beauty of youth. The queen turning to Filo- mena, ordered her to continue. I have already thought of the where. I should be happy to know the when. Do not trouble yourself about the how, I will tell you the why. I am certain of the. Every one answered in the negative. Even Wednesday, and Fri- day, and Saturday. The Vine among us is very well known. Infra molte bidnche colombe aggiugne. I keep for thee mulberries, al monds, and plums.

He am I, who fruit from evil garden brought ; And here my fig is with a date repaid. And the author of this coun- sel was one who was named Polisso. Woman is the generic name of the female of the human species. I recollect to have made the lion eat of the flesh of the li- oness. Amongst many white doves a black crow adds more beauty than a white swan. Feminine nouns, ending in 0, e, form the plural by changing 0, e, into i; as, mdno, hand; mdm, hands; drtE, art; drti, arts; fontE, fountain ;. The following nouns in the plural have an irregular formation: Ed io 9 l provdi sul primo uprir DE' Fi6ri.

Some horses are destined for burden, others to the carriage. The earth is divided into seven climates. I should have already with my own hands laid in the ground thes wearisome limbs. Let one of these nights close these two fountains of tears. And of that [wine] he should give half a tumbler to each man at the first course. And this is to be in extacy. The cranesJiave a king, and all serve him. Of which animals, the spe- cies are almost infinite.

Tutti iREGidel mondo sono All the kings in the world mino a vostro sposo. Perche addiv6nne, che i su6i. Wherefore it happened, that gli dsini, le pecore, per li cdmpi the oxen, the asses, the goats,. Having asked Madonna Gia- comina to lend him one of her rings, there took Catharine to wife. That long war, in which was made the rich booty of the rings.

She caused to be brought the two boiled capons, and many fresh eggs. They let Calandrino go with the greatest laughter in the world. The spirit freed from the beautiful limbs. Tiberius celebrated so much the more his exploits in the se- nate. They lived like beasts on fruit and mast. E-INA, Fire is increased by wood, e qudnte piii ce ne metti mag- and the more you put on, the giore si fa. Independently of the change of termination, there are in Italian many nouns, which in the plural undergo a certain change of orthography.

The following nouns, cdrico, charge ; fondaco, warehouse ; pdrroco, parson ; stdmaco, stomach ; mdnico, handle ; traffico, trading ; in the plural make, cdricm, charges ; fdndacui, warehouses ; pdrrociii, parsons ; stomacni, stomachs ; mdnicui, handles ; tradings ; dbbligo, obligation ; ripiegOj expedient ; catdlogo, catalogue ; impiego, employment ; gastigo, punishment; intrigo, intrigue ; obbligui, obligations j ripidgm, expedients ; catdlogni, catalogues; impiegui, employments ; gastigRi t punishments ; intrigui, intrigues.

Several other nouns in co,go, are indifferently written with or without the h ; as, mendzco, beggar ; equivoco, equivoque ; didloGO, dialogue ; apologue ; [ For a list of Nouns ending in co, go, and making the plural in ci, t, or eftt, ghi, see APPEKVIX D. II dl che costei ndcque eran le stelle In Lu6aHi alii ed eietti. The sages went away, and returned to their dwellings. In dangerous diseases we are accustomed to have re- course to excellent physicians. Laying upon them great imposts of money. These having spread them- selves through the small house, and having laid down their lan- ces, it happened that one of them threw his lance into the hay.

Che giova dunque, per che tut- ta spdlme La mia barchetta, poicht infra gli sc6GLi E' ritenuta. Donne, n6i sidmo gidvani roRNAi. Dell' drte nostra buon maestri assdi. Jlppresso costdro le sirdcchie e le M6GLI loro, tutte di brimo vestite. Already on the summit of the highest mountains appeared the rays of the rising light. They prefer the merry odes and the lascivious elegies to all the other studious arts. I used to be one of the eyes of your head, I seemed to hear, wherever I turned, the bellowings, the bowlings, and the cries of dif- ferent and very ferocious ani- mals.

What does it avail to spread all the sails of my bark, if she is impeded among the rocks. Ladies, we are young bakers very well skilled in our art. Who, being well skilled in liberal pursuits, greatly honored learned men. After them came their sisters and their wives, all dressed in mourning. Italian nouns are varied by means of certain preposi- tions placed before them ; viz.

The nominative, or subjective, and the accusative, or objective, are distinguished by the place they occupy in the sentence. Proper nouns are generally varied with the prepositions only: When common nouns are used in an indefinite sense, they are varied with the prepositions and the pronouns uno, una, ' a 'or an' ; alcani, alcune, ' some'.

Variation of a Proper Noun. Masculine Noun, beginning with a Consonant, varied with the article iL Singular. Masculine Noun, beginning with a Consonant, varied with the article lo. Masculine Noun, beginning with a Vowel. V amico, the friend ; gli ani i, the friends ; f Poss. V amico the friend ; gli amwij the friends. Feminine Noun, beginning with a Consonant. V dnina, the soul ; le dnime, the souls ; Poss.

V dnima, the soul ; le dnimc, the souls. Variation of Common Nouns used in an Indefinite Sense. The country of the studio bella letter a. The fable of the frogs. The virtues of the Jlmazone. The hatred of the enemies. The poets of the Romdno. Ha comprdto cavdlLo principe per a small sum of money. The fortune is sometimes piccolo, somma da. He proposed the model of the future miglitir sdrte. The prince took the public frescamente spiaciute. The cries and the bowlings of the ravages spread the strido e urlo salvdgio spdrsero - terror among the Europeans.

Thousands of people, who terrore Europto. Gva promesso, fra acclamazione moltitudine. Thetis, wishing to render Achilles invulnerable, dipped him Tetide, bramdndo di rtndere Jlchille i-nvulnerdbile, immerse? They conducted him to the spot, and by threats and condussercfi Lol sito, e eon mindccia t promises they disposed him to ascend the walls. Weeping, she I fell Piangendo, J si Lascio cadert 2 and humbly asked his pardon perdondnzcfi auu. Calandrino waited all the following evening with his Calandrmo stette tidta contrivances to artificio per catch piglidre vegnente 2 bat.

Adjectives ending in e, are of the common gender ; as,J f modo cortisE, m,, courteous , m. Adjectives ending in a, form the plural by changing a into e ; as, preziosA,. Italian adjectives agree with their substantives in gen- der and number ; as, uomo dotto ed ammaestralo, a learned and well-instructed man ; bwhiA. Rice HI dttlc prede de' Fio- rcntini. Chc stinieresti pieno di tesoro, Sporte son piene di vesciche r. Let the clemency, and sin- cere love, which the said king bore to our community, be manifest.

This nature with its Maker thus conjoined, Created first was blameless, and good. O courteous Mantuan soul. In a doubtful condition so faithful counsel. He undertook to persuade Tiberius, that he should live in some delightful place, ont of Rome. Therefore, as far as I can conjecture, which is what pru- dentmen call to guess, you ap- pear to be greatly in love. Wise Virgin, and one of the beautiful number of the blessec prudent virgins.

And she found in that chest many precious stones, some set, and some not set. Enriched with the booty of the Florentines. Many clergymen, even from distant parts, began to come to see the servant of God. By one same sin polluted in the world. Those chests of silver, which you would imagine to be filled, with treasures, are baskets fill- ed with empty bladders.

So mighty sages tell, that the Phoenix dies, and springs forth- with renascent. A man learned in Holy Writ, and well instructed in the Christian faith. This is my sister, born of good and virtuous people. How many brave men, how many fair women, how many pretty youths, the coming evening, supped in the other world with their departed friends! Sometimes these comparatives are formed by the adverbs meglio. Sometimes come, l as ', and qudle, l as ', 'like. Often the adverbs cosl and tdnto are suppressed, and the comparative is formed by the use of their correlatives only ; as, T cosi] bianco COME we're, white as snow ; fattenderb [tanto] QUANT o I will wait for thee as long as thou wishest.

I saw her again, more beau- tiful and legs proud. None ever lived more happy than I. And hoping to come to a bet-; ter harbor, he conducted me up- on more than a thousand rocks. Know that those chambers, are not less odoriferous, than are the boxes of drugs jn yourj shop. That, which was more valu- able than another ten thousand pistoles. I am indeed one of the worst- married women in the world. There is a young woma here below more beautiful than a lamia.

He fled from the altar worse more violently than a bull. Thou art wise, and under - standest better than I can speak. Turning to me with aspect as glad as fair. If I had so beautiful a dress as she. May God make him as strong in his loins as I am. As much as the Marquis was famous among the knights, the lady was beautiful among the other ladies.

I am as much more blind than thou as I am more enamoured. She r bore this vexation so much the more impatiently, the less she felt guilty. The Florentines were as pleased with the arrival of the knights, as if the Duke had come in person. Demetrius, our friend, used to say, that it happens with th words of foolish persons, as it does with the sounds which the wind makes. UANTE etla nclla memdria mi vitne. And as the excessive cold last night injured me, thus the heat begins now to annoy me greatly. In the morning we must go to church, and there say fifty Paternosters and as many Ave- Marias.

He saw himself paid in such money as the provisions had been sold for. A garment of linen very fine, and white as snow. I will wait for thee willingly as long as thou wishest. She appeared to him a great deal more beautiful than he had imagined. Much more fair and much -more dear, than we are. Whence she became far more brisrht than she had been. See Sampson a great deal more strong than wise. They are much less able than men to bear. He has no other more children than him. I know not, who. Peter, who had more desire of eating than of sleeping", Pietro, che aviva vdglia mangidre dormire, asked whether there was any thing for I supper.

We domanddva se vi fosse alcuna cosa da cena. Who I would fare I prodezza, tesoro, c sapere n6i. In this me, se quel dendro fossero miei? He began stagione n6tte sono lungo dl: Comincw to coast along the Barbary, robbing every- one who a costeggidre Barberia, rubdndo ciascuno che was less powerful I than he. I I do not poteva meno lui. It appeared that she was chi I pente 2 si. She afflicts more than she con- bidnco. None in this wretched world was so miserable as I Niuno questo sciagurdto mdndo fu miser o w am. Am' I not as beautifulf as is the wife of.

Who commended him so much as thou? The master gave as much faith to the words of Bruno, as maestro diede fide parola Bruno, was due I to any truth. I will defend her certainly a 4 fuggire 5 l potei z. The more the heart is excited, the less can the cuorfr commosso, pud man express I his feeling. I'o voglio anddre mtgsa, and recommend myself to God as much as I can. I His , I La sua joyful. A great deal more pure conosciuta. They relate also, that among them was Hercules, the strong- est of all men. Love, bear in mind against a future day, Man is the stronger and will have his way!

She Art fain that I relent? Nay, better 'twere to die Or e'er a modest maid be scorned by such as I! Last evening hitherwards I saw thy footsteps fly: This is my answer, flatterer, know withal Such words from thee belike me not at all! I weep remembering thee in loneliness apart!

No lady in my life was cherished as thou art. Was half as well-beloved, O rose divine, And I believe one day thou wilt be mine. She If it so came to pass, down-fallen were my pride, That to enhance thy fame my beauty should abide! Indeed I'd shave my head before this could betide, And to the shelter of a convent flee, From thy unwelcome wooing to be free.

He If thou to be a nun, proud maid, didst flee away, Thy convent I would find, and where I was I'd stay ; To win so fair a boon right gladly would I pay: I'd be there at the dawn and twilight hour, Until at last I had thee in my power. She Alas, most hapless maid, destined to suffer wrong! Let him go seeking through the world so wide, He'll find a lovelier lady for his bride. He Calabria, Lombardy and Tuscany all through, Constantinople, Rome, Pisa and Genoa too, Babylon, Barbary, I've searched and searched anew, But found no woman lovely as thou art, Dearest and sovereign lady of my heart.

She Since thou dost love me so I need no more repine, Go ask me, love, of both mother and father mine ; If they thereto agree lay thou my hand in thine, Then in the abbey take me soon to wife, And I will do thy bidding all my life! Dato aggio lo meo core in voi, madonna, amare, e tutta mia speranza in vostro piacimento!

Valimento mi date, donna fina, che lo mio core ad esso voi s' inchina. Madonna, unto thee my heart's true love is given, And for thy pleasure, see, my every hope hath striven! Madonna, I from thee will never more depart. I love thee tenderly, O apprehend my heart! Madonna sweet, give virtue unto me, And let this heart of mine be bowed to thee! Tis fitting I should bow before so fond a boon, And I am tempted now to hope that very soon My jocund courage be renewed, my hope as well: Lo, I in loving thee, into thy power fell ; Thy face is in my sight like to a shining sphere Wherein I seek delight, Trusting my service here Be pleasing unto thee who art the flower Among all women and hast richest dower.

Than others rarer far, more virtuous as well ; No men on earth there are who can appraise thy spell, Thou art so passing fair ; no woman, nay, trust me, Can match thee anywhere, whatever her degree. Nor can her wit compare with thine, O lady queen. Light heart consoled I bear Because of thy kind mien. Madonna, though to gladness I am fain Yet wiser he who doth his mirth restrain. Santus, santus, santus Deo qui in Vergine venisti, salva e guarda l' amor meo poi da me lo dipartisti: La croce salva la gente e me face disviare ; la croce mi fa dolente, e non mi vai Dio pregare.

The ships now gathered into port Will hoist their sails again. Full many a wight afar will go To lands beyond the sea: Alas, so deeply versed in woe, What will become of me? To other countries they are borne Yet tell me not a word, So I remain behind forlorn, The while my sighs are heard Tormenting me all through the night, Tormenting me by day ; Nor heaven nor earth I see aright, I know not where I stray. O high and mighty potentate, God of awe and fear, 1 pray Thee be compassionate Towards my love so dear! The cross that saveth everyone Doth lead me from the way ; The cross for me hath sorrow won, In vain to God I pray.

Brought me to such a plight? Oi alta potestade, temuta e dottata, lo mio dolze amistate vi sia raccomandata! Quando la croce pigliao certo no lo pensai quelli che tanto m' amao ed i' lui tanto amai, eh' i' ne tuie battuta e messa in pregionia e 'n celato tenuta per la vita mia. O certes then I did not know, When he the cross was fain To clasp, he who did love me so And whom I loved again, That it would deal a blow so sore And hold me captive fast In prison-close for evermore Until my life were past.

The ships at anchor lie, but soon To sea they will put out, And with them will depart my boon And other folk no doubt ; O Father, Who createst all, Bring them to port again Who serve Thy holy cross withal And thereto are right fain! But, sweet, since thou dost understand My sorrow, fashion, pray, A sonnet, to the Syrian land Then let it find its way, Because henceforward rest to me Nor day nor night doth bring, In lands that lie beyond the sea My life makes tarrying!

Madonna Assai son gemme in terra, ed in fiume ed in mare, eh' hanno vertute in guerra e fanno altrui allegrare ; amico, io non son dessa di quelle tre nessuna: Per voi perisco amando se no mi soccorrete. Ma s' tu credi morire innanzi eh' esca V anno, per te fo messe dire, come altre donne fanno. Si vuimi dar conforto, Madonna, non tardare: Madonna Se morir non ti credi, molt' hai folle credenza, se quanto in terra vedi trapassi per sentenza. Ma s' tu se' dio terreni non ti posso scampare: XlIIth Century Lover Ogem so soft and rare, O dainty little fay, Thou dost more virtues wear than any tongue can say ; By loveliness in thee, by grace of God, O save, Thou canst not help but see that I am, love, thy slave!

Madonna The earth hath many a gem, the river and the sea, And virtue strives with them, though some they please, pardie! But in these three nowhere, O friend, have I a place: Go, seek thy gem elsewhere and in another face. Lover Madonna, too severe is thy reply I wot, I have no ship to steer, a diver I am not: To search where thou hast told, therefore I cannot go, If aid thou dost withhold, thy love will lay me low.

Madonna If thou to death dost cleave because of this essay, Then I will not believe that love o'er thee had sway: But should'st thou choose to pass before the year is through, I'll have them say a mass as other women do! Lover O dainty little lass, save me from mortal pain. For never did a Mass bring dead men back again: If thou would'st me console, Madonna, do not tarry, If I should die, my soul I'd have no masses harry!

Madonna If thou from death wouldst flee, thy thoughts are wildly cast, All thou on earth dost see must pass away at last: But if a god art born, I cannot run away ; Since altars have thy scorn, respect the laws, I pray! Pregovi in cortesia che m' aitate, per Dio, perch' io la vita mia da voi conosca in fio. Questo adimando a vui e facciovi feruta: Madre pietosa, a noi cara consorte, ritraine dal seguir sue turbe e squadre. Cotal rimedio ha questo aspro furore, tal acqua suole spegner questo foco, come d' asse si trae chiodo con chiodo.

For God's sake aid bestow, I beg thee courteously, Because full well I know thou hast my life in fee! Madonna Thou castest pity's spell with sweet and humble art, Thy faith hath served thee well, I love thee from my heart To teach me thou hast known, pleading so skilfully, Now I am all thine own, what more would'st have of me? Lover Neither for gold nor place, Madonna, do I care, Commend me to the grace of whom art well aware.

Lady, I ask of thee this favour, only this, Thou art his own, and he knoweth my life is his. Guittone d'Arezzo, O glorious Mother of sweet Jesus, by Whose sacred death, us from Hell's portals freeing, Wiped out the sin, O Lady of the sky, In which our primal father had his being, Ah, see Love with his arrows sharp and bold, What grievous fate he goadeth me unto! O piteous Mother, dear ally, withhold His unruly squadrons, let them not pursue! O grant to me the love which is divine And draweth up our souls to Paradise, So I may loose these passionate bonds of mine.

Herein the balm for this wild fury lies, This water doth to quench this fire avail As in a plank a nail drives forth a nail. Che lo mio padre m' ha messa in errore, e tenemi sovente in forte doglia: Rustico di Filippo, Quando Dio messer Messerino fece ben si credette far gran maraviglia, eh 5 uccello e bestia e uom ne soddisfece, eh 5 a ciascheduna natura s' appiglia: XlIIth Century What time the world doth put forth leaves and flowers To all true lovers fuller joy belongs, They go awandering then through garden bowers Where little birds are warbling their sweet songs: Then care-free folk their time in love employ, And every lad doth serve with eagerness, And every lassie doth abide in joy, But tears have I in plenty and distress, Because my father doeth me great ill, And causeth me full often bitterest rue, Since he would marry me against my will And I have neither heart nor mind thereto.

Thus in great misery I pass the hours, Nor am I comforted by leaves and flowers. Rustico di Filippo, When God created Messer Messerin' He thought He'd worked a miracle indeed, Goodwill of bird and beast and man to win He took a hint from every kind of breed: His throat was modelled in a duckling's way, His limbs were the giraffe's to contemplate, Human he was, at least that's what they say, According to his cheery crimson pate.

He seemed a crow when he began to sing, In learning he was certainly an ass, And, judging by his dress, he was a man. Him God created when it came to pass He'd nothing else to do and hence did plan To prove His skill creating this strange thing! Accorri, Donna, e vide che la gente l' allide: Iuda si 1' ha venduto ; trenta dinar n' ha 'vuto, fatto n' ha gran mercato. Vergine O Pilato, non fare '1 figlio mio tormentare: Omo che se fa rege, secondo nostra lege contradice al senato. Vergine Prego che m' entennate, nel mio dolor pensate: Nunzio Traggon fuor li ladroni, che sian sui compagnoni.

Run, Lady, run and see, they smite Him cruelly, Dead He must surely be, they scourge Him without rest! Virgin Nay, how can this be so, Who doth not evil know, Christ, my hope here below, by mortals sore-distressed? Herald Madonna, now behold, betrayed He is and sold ; For thirty pieces told Judas hath lined his nest. Virgin O Magdalene, speed, speed, grief burdeneth me indeed, Christ mine own son they lead as 'twas to me confessed! Virgin O Pilate, not by thee, tormented let Him be ; He shall be proved by me most wrongfully oppressed. Crowd Crucify Him, crucify! Who raised Himself on high The senate doth defy ; so is our law confessed!

Virgin Nay lend your ears again and muse upon my pain, Haply you may be fain to change what you professed. Herald The thieves dragged hither see to bear Him company! Vergine O croce, che farai? Nunzio Succurri, piena de doglia, che '1 tuo figliuol se spoglia ; e la gente par che voglia che sia en croce chiavato. Vergine Se glie tollete '1 vestire, lassatemel vedire come '1 crudel ferire tutto F ha 'nsanguinato. Donna, li pie se prenno e chiavellanse al lenno, onne iuntura aprenno tutto 1' han desnodato.

Virgin O son, O son of mine, O lily-flower divine, O son, whence shall a sign come to my heart distressed? O son, O happy-eyed, why hush Thee in such wise? And why Thyself disguise before Thy mother's breast? Herald Lady, the cross is nigh, the people bear it by, Where the true light doth lie, there shall it rear its crest. Virgin O cross, what doest, say? Who then with us shall stay, like Him so wholly blest?

Herald O mournful one, run where thy son hath been stripped bare. To nail Him they would dare unto the cross to rest. Herald Woman, one hand is laid upon the cross and stayed ; With a great nail fast-made, for they did strike their best ; The other hand they hold upon the cross unrolled, While anguish all untold is kindled in His breast.

Woman, see even now His feet are nailed ; ah, how His limbs are wrenched, I trow to meet the awful test! Figliolo, mio deporto, figlio, chi me t' ha morto, figlio mio delicato? Meglio averien fatto che '1 cor m' avesser tratto, che nella croce tratto, starce desciliato. Cristo Mamma, o' sei venuta? Vergine Piagno che m' aggio anvito figlio, patre e marito: Vergine Figlio, questo non dire, voglio teco morire, voglio teco partire, fin che mo m' esce '1 fiato. Ch' una aggiam sepultura, figlio de mamma scura, trovarse en affrantura matre e figlio affogato!

Cristo Mamma, col core affletto, entro a le man te metto de Ioanne mio eletto ; sia el tuo figlio appellato. Better indeed had they carried my heart away, Nailed to the cross to-day I should have been more blessed! Christ Mother, whence art thou here? Virgin 1 weep, for they have ta'en son, father, spouse again ; Whose stroke doth deal Thee pain?

Art stripped at whose behest? Christ Mother, why dost complain? Here in the world remain To soothe my comrades' pain, those whom I have caressed. O let the grave be one, sad mother with her son, Dead mother with her son, gathered to the same rest! Christ Mother, my heart dismayed between thy hands is laid, Let son of thine be made, John whom I loved the best! Thy mother, John, behold, in mercy her enfold, Pity in thee be bold, for her heart is distressed!

Virgin O son, Thy soul is flown, a frenzied woman's own, Hers who is lost and lone, son of a heart distressed! Che morto ha figlio e mate, de dura morte afferrate ; trovarse abbraccecate mate e figlio a un cruciato. Guido Guinizelli, Voglio del ver la mia donna laudare, et assembrargli la rosa e lo giglio: Verde rivera a lei rassembro e 1' a' re, tutti colori e fior, giallo e vermiglio, oro e argento e ricche gio' preclare ; medesmo Amor per lei raffina miglio.

O son so fair and white, whose face was once so bright, Why did the whole world's spite so sorely Thee molest? O sweet and kind Thou art, son of this sorry heart, O with what cruel art, son, hast Thou been oppressed! Mother and son even so one cruel death do know, One cross hath laid them low, in one embrace they rest. Guido Guinizelli, IN verity I'd sing my lady's praise, With rose and lily-flower her face compare: Like to the morning star her beauty's rays, Like to a saint in heaven, ah, wond'rous fair!

Green shades are like her and the breeze as well, All hues, all blossoms, flushed and pale, beside Silver and gold and rare stones' lustrous spell ; Even Love himself in her is glorified. She goes her way so gentle and so sweet, Pride falls in whomsoever she doth meet, Worthless the heart which scorneth such delight!

Ungentle folk may not endure her sight, And a still greater virtue I aver: No man thinks ill hath he but looked on her. Amor per tal ragion sta in cor gentile per qual lo foco in cima del doppiero splende a lo suo diletto, chiar, sottile: Fere lo sole il fango tutto '1 giorno, vile riman, ne '1 sol perde calore: Neither before the gentle heart was Love, Nor Love ere gentle heart by Nature made.

Created was the sun, And lo, his radiance everywhere held sway, Nor was before the sun ; Love doth unto all gentleness aspire, And in the self-same way Doth clarity unto clear flame of fire. Love's fire is kindled in the gentle heart, As virtue is within the precious stone ; From out the star no glory doth depart Until made gentle by the sun alone. When the sun hath drawn forth By his own strength all that which is not meet, The star doth prove its worth. Thus to the heart, by Nature fashioned so Gentle and pure and sweet, The love of woman like a star doth go.

The reason Love in gentle heart doth stay Is why the fire unto the torch-head flies, Burning as he doth fancy, bright and gay, And were too proud to do so otherwise. But Nature's cruel scheme Contrasteth Love as water, flame ; as heat, Quelled by the cooling stream. In gentle heart doth Love his bower divine, Since like with like must meet, Thus diamonds in the iron of the mine. Upon the mire the sun sheds his bright rays, That is still vile, nor doth the sun turn cold: Let no man think that he May be possessed of gentleness, although He boast a king's degree, Unless a gentle heart be found in him: The water is aglow With stars, and yet the heavens have not grown dim.

God the Creator in heaven's mind of grace Shines brighter than before our eyes the sun ; There it is given to see Him face to face, Whence in their beauty the skies, serving one Just God, to Him do turn And the blest end of primal love fulfil. Thus the truth which doth burn In my sweet Lady's eyes she should make clear, Of her own gentle will.

To him who in her service tarries near. My Lady, God will say: E cantine li augelli, ciascuno in suo latino, da sera e da matino su li verdi arbuscielli. Angelica sembianza in voi, Donna, riposa. Dio, quanto aventurosa rue la mia disianza! Fra lor, le donne, dea vi chiaman, come siete ; tanto adorna parete eh' eo non saccio contare ; e chi poria pensare — oltr 5 a natura? Oltr' a natura umana vostra fina piagenza fece Dio, per essenza che voi foste sovrana. The birds make it their song As each doth please, At eve and dawn among The verdant trees: And all the world doth sing, For now's the time When 'tis a fitting thing Thy cherished prime To vaunt, O thou who art a heavenly — treasure.

An angel's face indeed, Madonna, thine ; O God, good-chance did speed Desire of mine! Queen among women, thou Art honoured so, Such is thy beauty, how Should my heart know To frame thy praise and taste thy godly — pleasure? Not earthly grace can be Thine own, I ween, God truly fashioned thee For sovereign queen: O let sweet providence To me be kind, Nor take thy image hence. Out of my mind. Cavelli avea biondetti e ricciutelli e li occhi pien d' amor, cera rosata: Per man mi prese d' amorosa voglia e disse che donato m' avea '1 core. I found a shepherdess in forest glade Lovelier, methought, than any star to see ; Her rippled tresses wore a golden hue, Her eyes were bright with love, her cheeks flushed deep As roses are ; the while she tended sheep, Her feet were bare and sprinkled o'er with dew ; She sang as maids in love are wont to do, Adorned with every grace she seemed to be.

I greeted her forthwith in Love's own name And asked her if she chanced in company ; She answered gently that alone she came Awandering through the wood, and thus spake she: She took me by the hand in tender way And said that she had given her heart to me ; She led me underneath a verdant spray, Where flowers of every colour I could see ; So fond, so blithe was everything anigh 1 thought the god of love himself stood by.

S' i' fosse morte, andarei da mio padre ; s' i' fosse vita, fugirei da lui ; similmente farla di mi' madre. S' i' fosse Cecco com' i' sono e fui, torei le donne giovani e legiadre, e vecchie e laide lasserei altrui. There is no being upon earth below So rich as thou in loveliness and grace: Who feareth love, from fear doth straightly go When he hath been consoled by thy sweet face.

The maids who tarry in thy company For thy dear sake are pleasing in my sight, And I would beg them of their courtesy To honour thee each one with all her might And 'neath thy sway contentedly to fall, Because thou art the mistress of them all. All heads chopped off, and so an end to bother! I would go seek my father were I death ; But were I life from him I'd flee away ; And I'd behave the same towards my mother ; If Cecco, as I am and draw my breath, I'd choose such ladies as are young and gay, Leaving the old and ugly to another. S' i' fossi sufficiente di raccontar sua maraviglia nova, diria come natura 1' ha adornata ; ma io non son possente di saper allegar verace prova: Ben dico una fiata levando gli occhi per mirarla fiso, presemi '1 dolce riso e li occhi suoi lucenti come stella.

Allor bassai li mei per lo tuo raggio che mi giunse al core entro in quel punto eh' io la riguardai. Ballata giovincella, dirai a quella eh' ha bionda la trezza, eh' Amor, per la sua altezza, m' ha comandato i' sia servente d' ella. Whose merry-hearted youth is framed to please, O Love, with ease Proveth how from her virtue sweetness flows. Had I but power To laud her virgin wonder, I would show How Nature decked her in all wond'rous ways ; But I've no dower Of wisdom whence truth may be proven, so Speak thou, O Love, and worthier her praise.

But how to gaze On her I once did turn my eyes, the grace Of her sweet face And starry eyes beholding, I will tell. Then I lowered mine, Because this heart was pierced with radiancy In the same moment I beheld her face. Go, little song, And unto her of the gold curls draw nigh, Saying almighty Love hath willed that I To her belong. Sorbi e pruni acerbi siano lie, nespole crude e cornie savorose ; le rughe sian fangose e strette vie, le genti ve sien nere gavinose, e faccianvesi tante villanie che a Dio et al mondo siano nogliose.

Dante Alighieri, Donne, eh' avete intelletto d'amore, i' vo' con voi de la mia donna dire ; non perch' io creda sua laude finire, ma ragionar per isfogar la mente. With unripe medlars and sour cherries too ; Each narrow pathway mud-bespattered wends, With swollen throats and grimy faces go The uncouth country-folk and wreak on you Such villainy as God and man offends. Dante Alighieri, O ladies who are learned in Love's lore, I fain would tell you of Madonna ; nay, I think not to complete her praise to-day, But reason so my mind unburdened be.

Know this, whene'er I count her virtues o'er, Love makes his presence felt in tenderest way. If only more of valour in me lay I would speak out and no heart go hence free ; But such proud words shall not go forth from me Lest my speech fall a prey to coward-fear. I will but speak of her sweet nature here, Regarding her in all humility. With you, dear Dames and Damozels, because 'Tis matter for none other ears save yours.

Color di perle ha quasi in forma, quale convene a donna aver, non for misura: Then God is heard, Who knows my Lady: Now I would have you know her virtues rare ; " Believe me, who would be a lady fair Hath but to walk with her, for on the way Frost-bound are all ungentle hearts by Love And each hard thought doth freeze and perish there, Whilst who hath strength the sight of her to bear Becomes ennobled or doth pine away. When she hath found one worthy to withstay Her sight, she unto him her virtue gives, Thus working his salvation, whence he lives In humbleness and pardoneth alway: This blessing lastly God accordeth still, Who hath conversed with her need fear no ill.

And from her eyes whenever they do move Flame-kindled spirits issue forth of love Who smite the eyes of those beholding through Unto their hearts. O Song, when I release thee, well I know With many ladies will thy converse be: I do exhort, since I created thee, For Love's own tender daughter, simply sweet, To say beseechingly where thou dost go: Thou wilt find Love with her: A maiden in the spring-time of her years, Compassionate and dowered with every grace, Was with me when I cried on Death for aid, And seeing these eyes of mine so dim with tears, And hearing the wild words I cried apace, Suddenly fell a-weeping, sore afraid ; Then other ladies gathered there and made Conscious by her who mourned of my presence, Took her from thence: And, drawing near so I might understand, One of the band 47 e qual dicea: Elli era tale a veder mio colore, che facea ragionar di morte altrui: Then, casting from me my strange revery, I called upon my Lady piteously.

Alas, my voice so dolorously was bound, So broken with my grief's tempestuousness, None heard save I within my heart her name ; Whereon Love bade me turn myself around Towards those standing by me, none the less Though in my face was manifest my shame. So direful was my pallor, in the same Moment they all began to speak of death Under their breath, Saying among themselves: Poi mi parve vedere a poco a poco turbar lo sole ed apparir la stella, e pianger elli ed ella ; cader gli augelli volando per V are, e la terra tremare ; ed omo apparve scolorito e fioco, dicendomi: Vieni, che '1 cor te chiede.

Even as I looked the sun concealed his face, A star up into the high Heavens leapt, And they both wept ; Then the earth trembled, and the birds, skybound, Dropped to the ground ; And one appeared to me in grievous case: Hast thou not heard? Like rain of manna, I became aware I Of angels floating upwards to God's throne: Before them all a little cloud did go I And voices crying " Hosanna " thrilled the air. By women's hands a veil was softly thrown About her, in humility she lay: Then I, beholding her so meekly dressed, Grew meek as she, and in my sorrowing Said: Ora, s' i' voglio sfogar lo dolore, che a poco a poco a la morte mi mena, convenemi parlar traendo guai.

Blessed is he who sees thy loveliness! Pith none save you! I will tell, weeping for rue, low she departed heavenwards suddenly ind left sad Love discomforted with me. Poscia piangendo, sol nel mio lamento chiamo Beatrice, e dico: But they who know How she went hence and how she looked before, Searching 'mid memories of long ago, Are heavily bowed with sorrow, sob and sigh, Bereft of comfort, and are fain to die.

My mournful soul is shaken with long sighs Whene'er it happeneth that my thoughts incline Towards the Lady who hath broken my heart ; And many and many a time in me arise Such passionate longings that this blood of mine Is changed in my face. If thought depart Not suddenly from me, in every part Sorely am I afflicted with distress, And in my anguish do cry out aloud And am so bowed, For very shame I covet loneliness. Then, tearfully divided from the crowd, I call on Beatrice, saying: And even as I call, she comforteth.

Through mournful sighing and despairful tears My lonely heart doth sicken unto death Till those who hear me wax compassionate ; And what hath been the story of my years, Since my sweet Lady in new life drew breath, No mortal tongue could fittingly relate. Ma qual eh' io sia, la mia donna il si vede, ed io ne spero ancor da lei merzede. Pietosa mia canzone, or va piangendo ; e ritruova le donne e le donzelle, a cui le tue sorelle erano usate di portar letizia ; e tu, che se' figliuola di trestizia, vatten disconsolata a star con elle.

Iwish, friend Guido, that I might with thee And Lapo by a miracle alight Upon a vessel sailing out at sea Obedient to our will, the winds despite ; Then neither storm nor destiny unkind Would lead us on our journeying astray, Nay, rather would we crave, being of one mind, For ever in such company to stay. I wish the good magician would consent To bring us monna Lagia there, no less Than monna Vanna and her who did win The thirtieth place ; our leisure would be spent Talking of love ; they would rejoice therein And we, I doubt not, share their happiness.

A chi era degno poi dava salute con gli occhi suoi quella benigna e piana, empiendo il core a ciascun di vertute. Allegro mi sembrava Amor tenendo meo core in mano, e ne le braccia avea madonna involta in un drappo dormendo ; poi la svegliava, e d' esto core ardendo lei paventosa umilmente pascea: Forth from her eyes there issued such bright fire As seemed to me a spirit wrapped in flame: Seeking her face, emboldened by desire, I knew an angel's features were the same.

And she, with kindness and calm courtesy, Saluted them whom fortune did so bless, Thus moving every heart to tenderness. I trow that up in heaven a star was born And came to comfort us on earth forlorn ; Who tarrieth near to her, thrice happy he! To passionate soul and gentle heart I bring A greeting fair in Love, the master's name, That peradventure happening on this thing Each may discover meaning in the same.

It was in course of time the hour of three, When every star in heaven doth shine most bright, That Love appeared before me suddenly ; Even now remembering it I quake with fright. Gleeful Love seemed, within his hand was laid My heart, within his arms my Lady, she Was folded in a mantle and was sleeping ; He wakened her and fed her sore afraid Upon my burning heart most tenderly, And then I saw him turn and go hence weeping. Cavalcando 1' altr' ier per un cammino, pensoso de 1' andar che mi sgradia, trovai Amore in mezzo de la via in abito leggier di peregrino.

Ne la sembianza mi parea meschino, come avesse perduto segnoria ; e sospirando pensoso venia, per non veder la gente, a capo chino. O hear how Love hath honoured her, mine eyes Beheld his very self lamenting sore Over the lovely face of her who died ; Often he cast his glances to the skies, Wherein the gentle spirit evermore Of her who looked so gaily doth abide. As sullenly I rode the other day, Because the journey did not like me best, I found Love in the middle of the way, And he was lightly as a pilgrim dressed. In beggar-wise methought he seemed to go, As if despoiled of his high majesty ; All comers he avoided, head bent low, And ever and anon sighed pensively.

Beholding me, he called upon my name, Saying: E simil face in donna omo valente. Aiutatemi, donne, farle onore. Even as the Sage expounded in his lay, And this cannot without that other stay, As reasonable heart from reason cannot part. Nature made both out of her tenderness, Love for the master and the heart his nest Where he may, sweetly slumbering, take his rest Sometimes for a long while, sometimes for less.

Then beauty in pure woman's form doth move, So pleasing to the sight that in the heart Springeth a yearning after all delight That lingereth there, the spirit which is Love Awaking out of sleep ; with equal art In lady fashioneth a worthy knight. Within my Lady's eyes abideth Love, Hence where she looks all things must needs grow kind, And when she passeth all men glance behind, And those she greeteth such fond raptures prove That from each downcast face the colour fades And every fault repentance doth inspire: Before her flee presumptuousness and ire ; Help me to do her honour, gentle maids!

The heart which heareth her when she doth speak Becometh, through her virtue, pure and meek, Hence praise to who beholds her first is due ; The vision of her softly smiling face In neither speech nor memory hath place, It is a miracle so sweet and new. Then, as he tarried, I beside my Lord, Gazing towards the region whence he came, Beheld Madonna Vanna drawing nigh, With her Madonna Bice she did bring, One with the other marvellous to see ; And, if so be my memory do not lie, I heard Love say: She passeth, hearing how she is admired, I Benignly, all regardless of her worth ; It is as if she were a thing inspired, A miracle by heaven shown on earth.

She is so beautiful to see that by , A glance the heart is soothed in such sweet way i As only he who knows can truly say: And from her lips a spirit seems to move, A spirit filled with tenderness and love, For ever saying to the soul, " Ah, sigh! And a new wisdom learns from Love in tears, By which he may attain unto the skies.

When he hath reached the bourn of his desire Of lady throned in glory he hath sight. To whom his pilgrim spirit doth aspire, She shineth with so wonderful a light ; On seeing her thus and telling it to me, His accents are too subtle to bear sense Unto the sorrowful heart that yearns to hear ; Yet often of my gentle one doth he Hold converse, often naming Beatrice, whence I understand full well, O ladies dear!

Cino da Pistoia, The loveliness, the glances soft and clear Of sweetest eyes that e'er unveiled their glow, Lost unto me, make this my life appear So grievous that in heaviness I go ; Instead of the gay thoughts I used to know, Because of love for her, Now at my heart's core stir Thoughts that of Death are born By reason of this parting whence I mourn. In the beginning, Love, alas, alas, Why didst not wound me so that I might die? Why didst not part from me, O Love, alas, The tortured spirit whereon I rely?

In this my sorrow unconsoled am I: O dolenti occhi miei, non morite di doglia? Amor, ad esser micidial pietoso t' invita il mio tormento: Love, I have seen thee in those tender eyes, Thinking on which to-day I am as slain: Such mighty hosts of sorrow do arise In memory that my soul cries out for pain, Because, alas, Death doth not part us twain, Even as I find me here Parted both from that dear Face and from all delight, Because of the great strife 'twixt black and white.

When haply I would greet with courtesy Some gentle lady, lifting up my eyes, , I feel that all my valiancy doth flee ' And cannot stem the tears that in them rise,! Calling to mind that now Madonna lies i Far distantly from me ; O mournful eyes, will ye Not die for very rue? I used to be one of the eyes of your head, I seemed to hear, wherever I turned, the bellowings, the bowlings, and the cries of dif- ferent and very ferocious ani- mals.

What does it avail to spread all the sails of my bark, if she is impeded among the rocks. Ladies, we are young bakers very well skilled in our art. Who, being well skilled in liberal pursuits, greatly honored learned men. After them came their sisters and their wives, all dressed in mourning. Italian nouns are varied by means of certain preposi- tions placed before them ; viz. The nominative, or subjective, and the accusative, or objective, are distinguished by the place they occupy in the sentence.

RECONDITE HARMONY. Essays on Puccini s Operas

Proper nouns are generally varied with the prepositions only: When common nouns are used in an indefinite sense, they are varied with the prepositions and the pronouns uno, una, ' a 'or an' ; alcani, alcune, ' some'. Variation of a Proper Noun. Masculine Noun, beginning with a Consonant, varied with the article iL Singular.

Masculine Noun, beginning with a Consonant, varied with the article lo. Masculine Noun, beginning with a Vowel. V amico, the friend ; gli ani i, the friends ; f Poss. V amico the friend ; gli amwij the friends. Feminine Noun, beginning with a Consonant. V dnina, the soul ; le dnime, the souls ; Poss. V dnima, the soul ; le dnimc, the souls. Variation of Common Nouns used in an Indefinite Sense. The country of the studio bella letter a. The fable of the frogs.

The virtues of the Jlmazone. The hatred of the enemies. The poets of the Romdno. Ha comprdto cavdlLo principe per a small sum of money. The fortune is sometimes piccolo, somma da. He proposed the model of the future miglitir sdrte. The prince took the public frescamente spiaciute. The cries and the bowlings of the ravages spread the strido e urlo salvdgio spdrsero - terror among the Europeans.

Thousands of people, who terrore Europto. Gva promesso, fra acclamazione moltitudine. Thetis, wishing to render Achilles invulnerable, dipped him Tetide, bramdndo di rtndere Jlchille i-nvulnerdbile, immerse? They conducted him to the spot, and by threats and condussercfi Lol sito, e eon mindccia t promises they disposed him to ascend the walls. Weeping, she I fell Piangendo, J si Lascio cadert 2 and humbly asked his pardon perdondnzcfi auu. Calandrino waited all the following evening with his Calandrmo stette tidta contrivances to artificio per catch piglidre vegnente 2 bat.

Adjectives ending in e, are of the common gender ; as,J f modo cortisE, m,, courteous , m. Adjectives ending in a, form the plural by changing a into e ; as, preziosA,. Italian adjectives agree with their substantives in gen- der and number ; as, uomo dotto ed ammaestralo, a learned and well-instructed man ; bwhiA. Rice HI dttlc prede de' Fio- rcntini. Chc stinieresti pieno di tesoro, Sporte son piene di vesciche r. Let the clemency, and sin- cere love, which the said king bore to our community, be manifest.

This nature with its Maker thus conjoined, Created first was blameless, and good. O courteous Mantuan soul. In a doubtful condition so faithful counsel. He undertook to persuade Tiberius, that he should live in some delightful place, ont of Rome. Therefore, as far as I can conjecture, which is what pru- dentmen call to guess, you ap- pear to be greatly in love. Wise Virgin, and one of the beautiful number of the blessec prudent virgins. And she found in that chest many precious stones, some set, and some not set.

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Enriched with the booty of the Florentines. Many clergymen, even from distant parts, began to come to see the servant of God. By one same sin polluted in the world. Those chests of silver, which you would imagine to be filled, with treasures, are baskets fill- ed with empty bladders.

So mighty sages tell, that the Phoenix dies, and springs forth- with renascent. A man learned in Holy Writ, and well instructed in the Christian faith. This is my sister, born of good and virtuous people. How many brave men, how many fair women, how many pretty youths, the coming evening, supped in the other world with their departed friends! Sometimes these comparatives are formed by the adverbs meglio. Sometimes come, l as ', and qudle, l as ', 'like. Often the adverbs cosl and tdnto are suppressed, and the comparative is formed by the use of their correlatives only ; as, T cosi] bianco COME we're, white as snow ; fattenderb [tanto] QUANT o I will wait for thee as long as thou wishest.

I saw her again, more beau- tiful and legs proud. None ever lived more happy than I. And hoping to come to a bet-; ter harbor, he conducted me up- on more than a thousand rocks. Know that those chambers, are not less odoriferous, than are the boxes of drugs jn yourj shop. That, which was more valu- able than another ten thousand pistoles.

I am indeed one of the worst- married women in the world. There is a young woma here below more beautiful than a lamia. He fled from the altar worse more violently than a bull. Thou art wise, and under - standest better than I can speak. Turning to me with aspect as glad as fair. If I had so beautiful a dress as she. May God make him as strong in his loins as I am. As much as the Marquis was famous among the knights, the lady was beautiful among the other ladies.

I am as much more blind than thou as I am more enamoured. She r bore this vexation so much the more impatiently, the less she felt guilty. The Florentines were as pleased with the arrival of the knights, as if the Duke had come in person. Demetrius, our friend, used to say, that it happens with th words of foolish persons, as it does with the sounds which the wind makes. UANTE etla nclla memdria mi vitne. And as the excessive cold last night injured me, thus the heat begins now to annoy me greatly.

In the morning we must go to church, and there say fifty Paternosters and as many Ave- Marias. He saw himself paid in such money as the provisions had been sold for. A garment of linen very fine, and white as snow. I will wait for thee willingly as long as thou wishest. She appeared to him a great deal more beautiful than he had imagined. Much more fair and much -more dear, than we are. Whence she became far more brisrht than she had been.

See Sampson a great deal more strong than wise. They are much less able than men to bear. He has no other more children than him. I know not, who. Peter, who had more desire of eating than of sleeping", Pietro, che aviva vdglia mangidre dormire, asked whether there was any thing for I supper. We domanddva se vi fosse alcuna cosa da cena. Who I would fare I prodezza, tesoro, c sapere n6i.

In this me, se quel dendro fossero miei? He began stagione n6tte sono lungo dl: Comincw to coast along the Barbary, robbing every- one who a costeggidre Barberia, rubdndo ciascuno che was less powerful I than he. I I do not poteva meno lui. It appeared that she was chi I pente 2 si. She afflicts more than she con- bidnco. None in this wretched world was so miserable as I Niuno questo sciagurdto mdndo fu miser o w am. Am' I not as beautifulf as is the wife of.

Who commended him so much as thou? The master gave as much faith to the words of Bruno, as maestro diede fide parola Bruno, was due I to any truth. I will defend her certainly a 4 fuggire 5 l potei z. The more the heart is excited, the less can the cuorfr commosso, pud man express I his feeling.

I'o voglio anddre mtgsa, and recommend myself to God as much as I can. I His , I La sua joyful. A great deal more pure conosciuta. They relate also, that among them was Hercules, the strong- est of all men. They were the most beau- tiful and the most graceful children in the world.

And I have taken a nest-full of turtles, the most beautiful in the world. The most perfect amongst so many, and so beautiful coun- tenances. Who were thy ancestors? Therefore he neither treats with due reverence his superiors, nor with due mildness his inferiors. I shall be the most happy and the most contented manj that can be found under the stars. He was the most wise, and the most wary man ever was in the world. The most beautiful flower of our age. That fire, which I thought would be extinguished by ma- turer age.

This one suffered much in his time for the love of a very beautiful person. Having caused to be made a very rich crown of gold and of precious stones, in order to crown himself king of Lombar- dy. Through their singular piety towards this Holy See, and to- wards us all, its most faithful servants. Archytas, a very celebrated architect amongst the ancients. Rhubard is for them a very wholesome medicine.

The Duke of Ghelderi, his most severe enemy. Nor doubt I at all, that there are many, who will say, that the things which 1 have said are very full of words and idle stories. News is very rare to be found. And one day, very near that room, they began to'talk among themselves. IOR modo di qudllo, che ho w trattdto. He thought the prince happy above every other one. An exceedingly coarse and uncouth man. Make me, O you who can, extremely blessed lady, worthy of his favor.

Grieved beyond measure, without any delay, he did that which the king wished. He had a horse, and caused it to be flayed all alive by his servants. He came near dying, and became very small. It went on sailing very slow. He saw his shadow extreme- ly beautiful. Next whom came Biancafiore so very beautiful, that every comparison would fail. Wherefore he experiences exceedingly great pains in his stomach. I could not act for the wel- fare of my brothers with greater interest, nor in a better manner than that in which I have acted.

In company with the worst spirit of Romagna I found such an one of you, as, for his do- ings, even now in soul is plung- ed in Cocytus. Whence in the smaller circle is eternally consumed. Which from the superior to the inferior part gives its sweet and harmonious sound. The cellars full of the best wines. Having been in his life a very bad man.

The greatest power of the solar rays. The smallest alterations of cold. Let the strongest of all the Romans come forward. He caused, in Ftce, one of the most which - had ever been seen. He was the most amusing man in the world. She is the most happy woman in the world. The planet most remote from the earth. The stone in reaching in the water made a pietra giungindo dcqua flee very great noise. He is a very austere man. E'gli e acre 2 uomo. They would commit themselves celebre poeta. I will be the best husband in the world. He was I'o sard marito mondo.

E'gli era ie worst man, that I perhaps ever was born. The highest j colpa. THERE are three kinds of augmentatives ; those that express bigness or grandeur ; those that express vigor or beauty ; and those that express contempt. When a feminine noun takes the termination one, in the aug mentative, it becomes masculine; as, donnA, f. To express vigor or beauty, we use otto, occio, fo the masculine, and otta, occia, for the feminine ; as, gidvanv, youth; giovanoTTo, handsome an [vigorous youth bellA, fair ; bellbcciA, very fair ; gratidE, large ; grandbi'TA, handsome anl [large!

We can join the augmentative termination of bigness o that which expresses contempt, and that of contempt to that of bigness ; and thus form a double augmentative ; idmo, man; omAccio, bad man; owiAcciO'NE, a very [bad man ; ibaldo, ribald ; ribaldbNV, great ribald ; ribaldoNA'CCIQ, very [great ribald. Ring the large belt The valorous and handsoin and vigorous youth Alcibiade was very famous. I had a pan very handsom and large. She is very large and firn well-limbed, and gay. He made of them a famou bad book.

I was not born of the drej of the populace. Julian led the gladiator Appollinaris the rowers, not captains, but as licentious, an slothful men, like their rabb] It followed, that these vei bad men were ungrateful fort benefits received from Jupitt That very great ribald oft! The kitchens of the great sudicio'2 fdntcl cucina jttons are always filled I with I cooks.

Take that large cup, and wash it well. Tu a fine large woman. He had in that chamber a donna. This great fool cca. Questo pecora wants to teach me how to know -mi vu6l far conoscerc he thing's, as if I were born yesterday. Each of cdstf, crime sc io fossi ndta ieri. They opened a large box Aveva 1 spdda. Aprirono cdssa of I their father. I speak only of ungrateful, and very del I Idro 2 pddrel I'o pdrlo s6lo ingrdto, e oud men. Ring the large bell, behold the council of perbo. Sundte campdnttj ecco consiglio e widows, that enter, People, that are born of the uregs veddva, che entra.

Gente, che e ndta feccia 'the rabble. I 1 never saw I men so very handsome. She would appear to you a fine large woman. Si spdrsero per quelto ciurma. Diminutives may be divided into four classes, viz. To express smallness or prettiness, we use the ter- minations ino, etto, ello, uccio, uzzo, for the masculine, and ina, etta, ella, uccia, uzza ; for the feminine ; as, Of boy ; fanciuttixo, little boy ; rusctllo, brook ; ruscelteTTo. Some feminine nouns take the terminations ino, etto, ello.

Sometimes we make use of the diminutive termination to diminish the augmentative; and when we wish to express contempt for the object represented by the name already diminished, we augment the diminutive ; as, Iddro, robber ; ZadroNE, highwayman ; fodrowCE'LLO ; [pilferer ; ZdwiA, lady ; damiizzA, petty lady ; damuzz A'CCIA, [pretended lady. The hoary and white-headed poor old man moves on. O poor little fool, you don't know what has been done.

For you hated me from the time I was a little boy. Discovered not by sight, but by the sound of a small brook that descends there. He saw a mouse enter through the little window. That divine, pretty little mouth. I doubt whether it is not somewhat slightly damp. From the first story of this small house we descend into other rooms under ground. What else have we to do, but to bring him into this little cottage. He climbed the fig tree, and reached the small door. A poor little man of low condition. Have you ever thought of these wretched little women? He is a certain despicable puny fellow, that there is none of you, who on seeing him would not dislike him.

And they send to you, ac- cording to their whim, despi- cable ignorant men as well as great and learned. Tra veccia, t I6glio, f.

Verdi -La forza del destino -ouverture (ed. 1862)

Se non m' avessi dato tal BACi6zzo. A genteel, agreeable little girl.

A good, poor little man. The young ones [of the dove] yet very young. With a pretty little mouth. These wretched widowed women. Having a small light in hi hand. With her white hands. Between vetch, darnel, shavings, and small pieces of straw. If thou hadst not given me such a cordial smacking kiss Of a taste bitterish, very acrid, and penetrating.

He returned to the court more pale, and wretched than ever. They have brought me here the pretty little book of enig- mas of Mr Coltellini. Having obtained somewhat of the character of an uncouth pretended lady. Then I gave her many little kisses one after another. Be assured, that I love you hugely. The little boy took out all the flowers, that he giovine trdsse tutto fiore t che egli With a pretty little mouth, Con b6cca t had in the little basket.

Like the little sheep that fuor di mdnof strdda. The other was a child discrete rzso. Who is this contemptible little man, that has come Chi e questo insult to adir I us in ci 1 5 r a torn little cap. Thus the blind little Cost cieco master. When cardinal numbers are used as substantives, all but tre and those ending in i, are made to vary. He lived twenty-six years. II detto anno ADD!

Che 6ra e f Sono LE Q. He sent one hundred and fifty of his horsemen against the Florentine host. They adored their gods, with- out idols, for more than one hundred and seventy years. Inclination and reason have 'striven for seven after seven years. Ferrara, 24th June, On the 18th December. On the 14th January. On the 12th of March of the said year. What o'clock is it? It i four o'clock. Behold night, behold two o'clock, behold four o'clock. Take one pound of mutton. And we say two fives, two sevens, three nines, because these numerals, when thej stand as substantives, are de- clined.

They were eighteen thous- and in number. Give to father Carrara, in my behalf, a million millions of salutations. ZIA, the seventeenth folly. None waited for the second, nor the third [stripes. And in the first days we were born in the divine bosom. The fourteenth condition, which the confession ought to have, is that of being early. The seventeenth folly, is that of those who desire to flee. Pdio, Colle a pair ; ctive. Philenus' and Thyrsis both new lovers.

Both sages told the truth, therefore he gave to both. And let the heart bear pun- ishment for both eyes, which led me to the road of love. Then both [women] entered into the ditch. Finally both turned to the seat of justice. He seized me with both arras. The confine of both hemi- spheres. On account of which both shores trembled. Both [hogs] fell dead to the earth. It is at your choice, to take which of the two [things] you like best, or both.

She is called Sofronia, he Olindo, both of the same city and of the same faith. He sent Mando his suo five hundred horsemen cavdllo brother with six cohorts, and fratello coorte, e to I Terra di Lavoro. He passed pidngere questo peccdto di. Metellus was already in Lombardy I with j cavaliere. And this was four hundred years comprdre podere. One hundred and o anno. He sent one hundred and fifty I of I sagittdrio. They went to Messina the twenty-fourth of December. He was baptized I on the sixteenth, in St.

The first of the month I will pay you. I He arrived -. A twelve o'clock I I went to see I our ambassador. Salute him I for me I a thousand ducdto mncitore. Here begins the eleventh book. He arrived happily Qui commcia 2 libro. Contradicendo himself in the fourteenth chapter. II bit I both I my Jlveva legdti i pitde. They entered both I into I the garden. Conjunctive pronouns are derived from the personal pronouns, and are divided into conjunctive, properly speaking, and relative conjunctive pronouns.

Personal pronouns are varied with the prepositions only. The pronouns esso, essa, are used sometimes to express the self-same, the very object of which we speak ; and then they are elegantly supplied by the words desso, dessa, but in the subjective only ; as, in ESSA luce, in that very light ; ESSO Messtr Teddldo, the same Messer Tedaldo ; tu non par DESSO, thou dost not seem thyself; el?

In familiar conversation, the Italians very often employ lui, and lei, as subjectives, instead of egli and ella ; but this usage, though authorized by some writers, ought never to be followed in the written language. The pronouns zo, tu, egli, ella, esso, are often used as mere expletives ; as, 5' io moinssij io, if I should die ; tu di 1 tue parole, TU, thou mayest say what thou [pleasest; EGI. I k una compassione a it excites pity to see him ; [vedtrlo, JELLA non andra cosi, it shall not be so ; dndiamo con 6s so lui, let us go with him.

I'o is sometimes written f ; and egli, eglino , are con- tracted into 6i, and often written e' ; as, i' non so ridire, I cannot say ; EI dtbbe avtr inteso, he must have heard ; EI sigittaro in sulla spiagga, they leaped upon the shore ; E' penso, he thought ; domandb chi tffossero, he asked who they were, When the pronouns me, te, se, are preceded by the preposition con, 'with', we often transpose the preposi- PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

We find in the classics ndsco, vosco ; used for on not, e with us 1 , and con voi, ' with you' ; but these expressions have become obsolete. Italian personal pronouns are very often suppressed, the termination of the verb being sufficient to indicate the person ; as, andidmo [n6i] a Roma, let us go to Rome ; [egli] domandbchifossero, he asked who they were.

J himself, I se sttssi, m. Laonde E' gli PEN so di volere la seguente mattzna ristordre. In that very light 1 saw other luminaries. Although the eldest was not arrived to the age of eighteen, when this same Messer Tedal- do died very rich. Thou dost not seem to me thyself. It is she herself, she is yet alive. What would he do if I should die? Thou mayest say what thou pleasest; as for me I shall never consider myself safe, if we do not enchant her.

It excites pity to see him. Let us go to Roms with him. I cannot say how I entered it. He must have heard, that thou speakest of him. Wherefore they leaped all upon the shore. Therefore he thought to restore them on the following morning. Having led tke gentlemen in the garden, he courteously asked them, who they were. Miofiglio otf , e per che non e TECO?

And as a proof of this, I will take with me those things which are the most dear to her. Where is my son, and why is he not witk thee? That day when I left my lady serious and pensive, and my heart with her. I know not myseif what I want. And thou, thyself, sometimes seemest to me the shield of my glory. But how is it, that so great a rumor does not sound through other messengers, or. Not like a flame which is extinguished by force, but like one which consumes itself.


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I know, better than any other man, how to do so, dltro udmo, far that which I please. Iddio mdi non amcL me for this sin. Thou wilt ask quisto peccdto. You appear lei se vudl nulla. Without expecting any reprehension from pardla? Senza attendere ripfensione you. The magistrate begun to have pity Podestd. We are ready I to I do it, since adoperdtcfi lal. She would drive me out of the place 2 vfi. I have spoken I to him of you. You promised I to me I to faccidmo lavorw. It is he, himself. Many years they have not passed. They went with him.

II have - - Anddron: She herself has brought I them I to me. Thou hast said it thyself. Mi, ti, ne or ci, ui, are applied to animate beings only ; the others may be applied both to animate and inanimate beings. If the conjunctive pronouns mi, ti, ct, vi, li, lo, le, la, si, ne, are followed by a verb beginning with a vowel, they commonly lose the i and take an apostrophe in its stead; as, M' hA rotto, c' immdlle, L' offendtva, N' Avrtmmo, he has bruised me ; thou suckest us ; he offended them ; we should have from him. The pronouns mi, ti, ci, vi, si, ne, are often used as mere expletives ; as, io MI 5o?

You can take away from me all I have, and give me, like one of your men, to whomso- ever it pleases you. If my fault appeared to thee so great, that neither my bitter tears, nor my humble prayers, can move thee to pity, at least let this single act of mine move thee. To send him out of our house, so infirm as he is, would be in us a great fault. Your wisdom, more than our foresight, has guided us. Being in want of a good sum of money, there came into hi mind a rich Jew.