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Migration in the 21st Century: Political Economy and Ethnography
By re-addressing the question of the relationship between changes in global capitalism and migration, the book aims for a timely intervention into the debates on migration which have come to be one of the most contentious emotionally fraught issues in North America and Europe. Panoptics of Political Economy: Migration and Development Without Methodological Nationalism: Theorizing Transnational Movement in the Current Conjuncture: With Crossings In My Mind: In Search of Hope: Constructing a "Perfect" Wall: Race, Class, and Citizenship in U. Her brother had moved north for love, then called Ruth 21 to tell her about the money.
Her 24 father was born on a reserve in New Brunswick, her mother on a reserve in 25 Quebec. She spent most of her childhood and young adulthood in Boston, 26 where her father worked as a boat mechanic.
She came 29 north, and was immediately hired by the sub-contracted fi rm responsible 30 for mine catering. With the collapse of 37 primary and secondary processing industries in the region, workers have 38 been taking their skills on the road, many sending remittances back East. For those from the East, the high wages of the 41 North are attractive. High rents, however, drain most of the wage and 42 therefore many commute by season, or by two-week cycle. Eventually he moved north. He encouraged his wife to do some upgrading to try for a 2 higher-paying job in the mines.
Ruth is but one example.
In 12 her class of ten students, only half were from the immediate region. In simple terms, a dramatic 18 downturn in international diamond markets as part of the broad economic 19 downturn caused considerable slowdown in all three operations. Planned underground 27 expansions for each mine were put on hold. Two of the three operational 28 mines had been functioning at peak production and were about to exhaust 29 open pit operations. Plans to move into underground methods of diamond 30 harvesting was now seen as a risk for capital, as transition costs would be 31 high, and profitability questionable.
Despite these facts, the course went 32 ahead with a few adjustments to the funding formula. Once in camp, the group 36 was told that there had been changes to funding structure. Each indi- 37 vidual would have to pay for their fl ights over and be reimbursed by their 38 band council later. Not being from the Territories, Ruth did not qualify 39 for such funding opportunities.
She was never made aware of this until 40 she arrived on the spot. She spoke with her husband on the telephone that 41 night. Together they decided it would be worthwhile to take out a loan so 42 Ruth could continue. His estimate 3 was that hiring would begin again in six months. A month after the course 4 ended, Ruth called and asked if I could help her apply online for a job.
She 5 heard one of the mines was hiring. She also wanted to send out resumes and 6 cover letters to a few other leads in transportation. As we reread 8 our draft, it occurred to me that something may be missing. The following 9 conversation ensued: Do you want to say you are an Aboriginal woman? Why would I do that? Do you think I should? Well, technically they are supposed to give priority hires 14 to Aboriginals and Northerners.
Yeah, but I am not from here. Right, but you have lived here for three years so that makes you 17 a Northerner.
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Ok, so I should say I am a Northerner. I have been trying to figure out how these catego- 21 ries work for the past year. It might look 23 like I am trouble, you know, demanding. What do you think? We could say that a copy of your license and indian 25 Status Card are available upon request. More points means they have a better chance of 29 winning bids. The socio-economic assessment process, much like 36 Northern migration research, takes the categories Aboriginal and North- 37 erner as axiomatic objects.
I checked 41 in with her a month later. She had had no responses. Two years later, she is 42 now working for herself cleaning private homes in town. My husband and I are going to go to Boston on holidays. There is good-paying, 2 steady work for my husband here. Back home you never know, and wages 3 are less than half what they are here. Plus there is all the overtime. It adds 4 up. Ruth and 13 Hope show us that while capital is adept at harnessing expended popula- 14 tions to these ends, it cannot single-handedly produce or reproduce them.
Establishing sovereignty and dividing labor pose a dialecti- 18 cal challenge to state and capital. The social process of differentiation aims 19 to meet this dual challenge.
Migration in the 21st Century: Political Economy and Ethnography - CRC Press Book
The history between Hope and Ruth is meant 20 to elaborate how citizenships and locality, as means of differentiation, are 21 used by state, capital, and social actors in different, and partially incom- 22 patible, ways. As a result, forms of social reproduction are destabilized 23 and draw attention to a core contradiction of liberal citizenship, namely 24 unequal inclusion.
The changes which situate Ruth and Hope within and against 29 categories of indigeneity reveal how, in the fi rst instance, states reproduce 30 locality to maintain sovereignty and make resources available to capital. The effects 34 are that these populations increase local competition over resources which 35 drive wages down and cost of living up.
The contradiction is that existing 36 defi nitively local populations need to increasingly rely on the state for 37 social reproduction. At moments of economic decline, the state becomes 38 invested in very strict versions of the local. While 2 it may be tempting to conclude that citizenship is merely in need of fur- 3 ther refi nement, or better clarity of conditions of use, Saskia Sassen 4 makes the following argument: This incompleteness makes it possible for a highly 8 formalized institution to accommodate change—more precisely, to 9 accommodate the possibility of responding to change without sacri- 10 ficing its formal status.
The state has to keep making profitable 22 opportunities if it expects capital to work as colonizer—this means giving 23 it cheap labor and resources on the one hand, and then dealing with the 24 mess left behind when capital produces its inevitable contradictions and 25 makes it impossible to make a profit even with cheap labor and resources 26 times of recession and depression. In the end, maybe John Hope figured it 29 out by getting a job in education, and melding the two worlds, but only 30 individually and then his difference disappears—he went unmarked on 31 the census.
However, hope is sustaining, the idea 34 that they might fi nd a point of steadiness amid the wild ride of capitalism, 35 which even the state cannot tame. But as Gramsci makes clear, this is an 36 individual hope, one for Hope and his wife, or Ruth and her husband, but 37 not for indians in general. In the preface to Living Indian Histories: The trade of furs did occur before European occupation.
The scope of the 5 trade and its economic functions are beyond the scope of this paper. Argu- 6 ments range from formalist neoclassical interpretations by Innis to 7 more substantivist interpretations by Rich Later, White tried 8 to bridge the divide between market-trade and gift-trade debates by provid- ing a nuanced picture of the complex ways in which native populations fit 9 new economic relationships into existing cultural patterns.
A numbered Treaty was not offered to the people of the Great Slave Lake area 11 until , when prospecting had begun in earnest in the area. Modern land claims are the second phase 17 of state centralization in the Canadian North. Treaty-making was the fi rst. In July , the Dene Nation passed the Dene Declaration, which at once 22 affi rmed their solidarity across these groups and their right to self-determi- 23 nation Watkins Throughout the s and early s Dene Nation Leader George Erasmus adopted a nationalist framework for political mobi- 24 lization and continued to underscore the danger of fragmentizing policies 25 and continued to lobby the state on behalf of the larger region.
While criticisms are emerging Caine and Krogman , rarely is 36 it noted that these same processes have transformed much of the discussion 37 around development from questions of indigenous land and livelihood to 38 questions of labor. The Comprehensive Land Claims Policy, passed under the Conserva- 2 tive government of Brian Mulroney, redefi ned land claims such that land and 3 self-government claims would be settled simultaneously. The bottom line of the intent of these programs was made clear at a min- 8 ing industry conference I attended in You have to know.
Who are the 12 opposition? Photograph, Author, June 6, Other economic impacts were also observed in adjacent industries. Smaller 14 industries whose primary clients are the mines cut labor costs, and sub- 15 contractors found their services no longer needed. It is important to underscore that Ruth and the other candidates who moved 21 on to the fi nal phase all had partners or in one case parents who had steady 22 incomes.
The program drained surplus capital from those households that had it avail- 24 able. Field notes, Author, June 9, Field Notes, Author, June 12, Can I borrow this item? Can I get a copy?
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Can I view this online? Enter at own risk? Khory International migration into the 21st century: Members of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori communities are advised that this catalogue contains names and images of deceased people. Book , Online - Google Books. Emigration and immigration -- Economic aspects -- History -- 21st century. Emigration and immigration -- Political aspects -- History -- 21st century. Immigrants -- Social conditions -- 21st century.