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Applications for Industrial - download pdf or read online "This booklet offers one of many clearest remedies of correlations and regression of any facts publication i've got noticeable. Theory, Method and Applications by Sally Wiggins Discursive Psychology is a theoretical and analytical process utilized by lecturers and practitioners alike, broadly utilized, although frequently misplaced in the complex internet of discourse research.
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Instead of attaining mature desires, such as those presented above via internet which can be attained on one's own, intrinsic motivation can be used to assist extrinsic motivation to attain a goal. For example, Eli, a 4-year-old with autism, wants to achieve the goal of playing with a toy train .
To get the toy, he must first communicate to his therapist that he wants it. His desire to play is strong enough to be considered intrinsic motivation because it is a natural feeling, and his desire to communicate with his therapist to get the train can be considered extrinsic motivation because the outside object is a reward see incentive theory.
Communicating with the therapist is the first, slightly more challenging goal that stands in the way of achieving his larger goal of playing with the train. Achieving these goals in attainable pieces is also known as the goal-setting theory. Intrinsic motivation can be long-lasting and self-sustaining. Efforts to build this kind of motivation are also typically efforts at promoting student learning. Such efforts often focus on the subject rather than rewards or punishments.
Efforts at fostering intrinsic motivation can be slow to affect behavior and can require special and lengthy preparation. Students are individuals, so a variety of approaches may be needed to motivate different students. It is often helpful to know what interests one's students in order to connect these interests with the subject matter. This requires getting to know one's students. Also, it helps if the instructor is interested in the subject.
Extrinsic motivation comes from influences outside of the individual. In extrinsic motivation, the harder question to answer is where do people get the motivation to carry out and continue to push with persistence. Usually extrinsic motivation is used to attain outcomes that a person wouldn't get from intrinsic motivation.
Competition is an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives. The most simple distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is the type of reasons or goals that lead to an action.
While intrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, extrinsic motivation, refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome. Extrinsic motivation thus contrasts with intrinsic motivation, which is doing an activity simply for the enjoyment of the activity itself, instead of for its instrumental value.
Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be and were rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition. In one study, when children were given mild threats against playing with an attractive toy, it was found that the threat actually served to increase the child's interest in the toy, which was previously undesirable to the child in the absence of threat.
While many theories on motivation have a mentalistic perspective, behaviorists focus only on observable behavior and theories founded on experimental evidence. In the view of behaviorism, motivation is understood as a question about what factors cause, prevent, or withhold various behaviors, while the question of, for instance, conscious motives would be ignored. Where others would speculate about such things as values, drives, or needs, that may not be observed directly, behaviorists are interested in the observable variables that affect the type, intensity, frequency and duration of observable behavior.
Through the basic research of such scientists as Pavlov , Watson and Skinner , several basic mechanisms that govern behavior have been identified. The most important of these are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. In classical or respondent conditioning , behavior is understood as responses triggered by certain environmental or physical stimuli. They can be unconditioned , such as in-born reflexes, or learned through the pairing of an unconditioned stimulus with a different stimulus, which then becomes a conditioned stimulus.
In relation to motivation, classical conditioning might be seen as one explanation as to why an individual performs certain responses and behaviors in certain situations. In operant conditioning , the type and frequency of behavior is determined mainly by its consequences.
If a certain behavior, in the presence of a certain stimulus, is followed by a desirable consequence a reinforcer , the emitted behavior will increase in frequency in the future, in the presence of the stimulus that preceded the behavior or a similar one. Conversely, if the behavior is followed by something undesirable a punisher , the behavior is less likely to occur in the presence of the stimulus. In a similar manner, removal of a stimulus directly following the behavior might either increase or decrease the frequency of that behavior in the future negative reinforcement or punishment.
If a student starts to cause trouble in class gets punished with something he or she dislikes, such as detention positive punishment , that behavior would decrease in the future. The student might seem more motivated to behave in class, presumably in order to avoid further detention negative reinforcement.
The strength of reinforcement or punishment is dependent on schedule and timing.
A reinforcer or punisher affects the future frequency of a behavior most strongly if it occurs within seconds of the behavior. A behavior that is reinforced intermittently, at unpredictable intervals, will be more robust and persistent, compared to one that is reinforced every time the behavior is performed. In addition to these basic principles, environmental stimuli also affect behavior. Behavior is punished or reinforced in the context of whatever stimuli were present just before the behavior was performed, which means that a particular behavior might not be affected in every environmental context, or situation, after it is punished or reinforced in one specific context.
The various mechanisms of operant conditioning may be used to understand the motivation for various behaviors by examining what happens just after the behavior the consequence , in what context the behavior is performed or not performed the antecedent , and under what circumstances motivating operators.
Incentive theory is a specific theory of motivation, derived partly from behaviorist principles of reinforcement, which concerns an incentive or motive to do something. The most common incentive would be a compensation. Compensation can be tangible or intangible, It helps in motivating the employees in their corporate life, students in academics and inspire to do more and more to achieve profitability in every field.
Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as delay lengthens. From this perspective, the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant. Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behavior of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable.
Incentive theory is promoted by behavioral psychologists, such as B. Incentive theory is especially supported by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism, meaning that a person's actions always have social ramifications: Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories, such as drive theory, in the direction of the motivation.
In incentive theory, stimuli "attract" a person towards them, and push them towards the stimulus. In terms of behaviorism, incentive theory involves positive reinforcement: As opposed to in drive theory, which involves negative reinforcement: For example, a person has come to know that if they eat when hungry, it will eliminate that negative feeling of hunger, or if they drink when thirsty, it will eliminate that negative feeling of thirst.
Motivating operations , MOs, relate to the field of motivation in that they help improve understanding aspects of behavior that are not covered by operant conditioning. In operant conditioning, the function of the reinforcer is to influence future behavior. The presence of a stimulus believed to function as a reinforcer does not according to this terminology explain the current behavior of an organism — only previous instances of reinforcement of that behavior in the same or similar situations do.
Through the behavior-altering effect of MOs, it is possible to affect current behavior of an individual, giving another piece of the puzzle of motivation.
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Motivating operations are factors that affect learned behavior in a certain context. MOs have two effects: When a motivating operation causes an increase in the effectiveness of a reinforcer, or amplifies a learned behavior in some way such as increasing frequency, intensity, duration or speed of the behavior , it functions as an establishing operation, EO. A common example of this would be food deprivation, which functions as an EO in relation to food: The worker would work hard to try to achieve the raise, and getting the raise would function as an especially strong reinforcer of work behavior.
Conversely, a motivating operation that causes a decrease in the effectiveness of a reinforcer, or diminishes a learned behavior related to the reinforcer, functions as an abolishing operation, AO. Again using the example of food, satiation of food prior to the presentation of a food stimulus would produce a decrease on food-related behaviors, and diminish or completely abolish the reinforcing effect of acquiring and ingesting the food. If the CEO already has a lot of money, the incentive package might not be a very good way to motivate him, because he would be satiated on money.
Getting even more money wouldn't be a strong reinforcer for profit-increasing behavior, and wouldn't elicit increased intensity, frequency or duration of profit-increasing behavior. Motivation lies at the core of many behaviorist approaches to psychological treatment. A person with autism-spectrum disorder is seen as lacking motivation to perform socially relevant behaviors — social stimuli are not as reinforcing for people with autism compared to other people. Depression is understood as a lack of reinforcement especially positive reinforcement leading to extinction of behavior in the depressed individual.
A patient with specific phobia is not motivated to seek out the phobic stimulus because it acts as a punisher, and is over-motivated to avoid it negative reinforcement. Sociocultural theory see Cultural-historical psychology also known as Social Motivation emphasizes impact of activity and actions mediated through social interaction, and within social contexts. Critical elements to socio-cultural theory applied to motivation include, but are not limited to, the role of social interactions and the contributions from culturally-based knowledge and practice.
Sociocultural theory predicts that motivation has an external locus of causality, and is socially distributed among the social group. Motivation can develop through an individuals involvement within their cultural group. Personal motivation often comes from activities a person believes to be central to the everyday occurrences in their community. Although individuals will have internalized goals, they will also develop internalized goals of others, as well as new interests and goals collectively with those that they feel socially connected to.
However, motivation can come from different child-rearing practices and cultural behaviors that greatly vary between cultural groups. In some indigenous cultures, collaboration between children and adults in community and household tasks is seen as very important  A child from an indigenous community may spend a great deal of their time alongside family and community members doing different tasks and chores that benefit the community. After having seen the benefits of collaboration and work, and also having the opportunity to be included, the child will be intrinsically motivated to participate in similar tasks.
In this example, because the adults in the community do not impose the tasks upon the children, the children therefore feel self-motivated and a desire to participate and learn through the task. In more Westernized communities, where segregation between adults and children participating in work related task is a common practice.
As a result of this, these adolescents demonstrate less internalized motivation to do things within their environment than their parents. However, when the motivation to participate in activities is a prominent belief within the family, the adolescents autonomy is significantly higher. This therefore demonstrating that when collaboration and non-segregative tasks are norms within a child's upbringing, their internal motivation to participate in community tasks increases. Social motivation is tied to one's activity in a group. It cannot form from a single mind alone.
For example, bowling alone is naught but the dull act of throwing a ball into pins, and so people are much less likely to smile during the activity alone, even upon getting a strike because their satisfaction or dissatisfaction does not need to be communicated, and so it is internalized. However, when with a group, people are more inclined to smile regardless of their results because it acts as a positive communication that is beneficial for pleasurable interaction and teamwork. It is because of this phenomenon that studies have shown that people are more intrigued in performing mundane activities so long as there is company because it provides the opportunity to interact in one way or another, be it for bonding, amusement, collaboration, or alternative perspectives.
Push motivations are those where people push themselves towards their goals or to achieve something, such as the desire for escape, rest and relaxation, prestige, health and fitness, adventure, and social interaction. However, with push motivation it's also easy to get discouraged when there are obstacles present in the path of achievement. Push motivation acts as a willpower and people's willpower is only as strong as the desire behind the willpower. Additionally, a study has been conducted on social networking and its push and pull effects.
One thing that is mentioned is "Regret and dissatisfaction correspond to push factors because regret and dissatisfaction are the negative factors that compel users to leave their current service provider. In this case, that negative force is regret and dissatisfaction. Pull motivation is the opposite of push. It is a type of motivation that is much stronger. They include both tangible resources, such as beaches, recreation facilities, and cultural attractions, and traveler's perceptions and expectation, such as novelty, benefit expectation, and marketing image.
That is why pull motivation is stronger than push motivation. It is easier to be drawn to something rather than to push yourself for something you desire. It can also be an alternative force when compared to negative force. From the same study as previously mentioned, "Regret and dissatisfaction with an existing SNS service provider may trigger a heightened interest toward switching service providers, but such a motive will likely translate into reality in the presence of a good alternative.
Therefore, alternative attractiveness can moderate the effects of regret and dissatisfaction with switching intention"  And so, pull motivation can be an attracting desire when negative influences come into the picture. The self-control aspect of motivation is increasingly considered to be a subset of emotional intelligence ;  it is suggested that although a person may be classed as highly intelligent as measured by many traditional intelligence tests , they may remain unmotivated to pursue intellectual endeavours. Vroom's " expectancy theory " provides an account of when people may decide to exert self-control in pursuit of a particular goal.
A drive or desire can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. Another basic drive is the sexual drive which like food motivates us because it is essential to our survival.
Drive theory grows out of the concept that people have certain biological drives, such as hunger and thirst. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied in this case by eating. Upon satisfying a drive the drive's strength is reduced.
Created by Clark Hull and further developed by Kenneth Spence , the theory became well known in the s and s. Many of the motivational theories that arose during the s and s were either based on Hull's original theory or were focused on providing alternatives to the drive-reduction theory, including Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which emerged as an alternative to Hull's approach.
Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance when preparing food, the drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared, and, after the food has been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger.
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Suggested by Leon Festinger , cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an inconsistency between two cognitions: Their feeling that another purchase would have been preferable is inconsistent with their action of purchasing the item. The difference between their feelings and beliefs causes dissonance, so they seek to reassure themselves. While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. The cognitive miser perspective makes people want to justify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they put into cognition.
They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, or actions, rather than facing the inconsistencies, because dissonance is a mental strain. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology. The content theory was one of the earliest theories of motivation.
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Content theories can also be referred to needs theories, because the theory focuses on the importance of what motivates people needs. In other words, they try to identify what are the "needs" and how they relate to motivation to fulfill those needs. Another definition could be defined by Pritchard and Ashwood, is the process used to allocate energy to maximize the satisfaction of needs. Content theory of human motivation includes both Abraham Maslow 's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg 's two-factor theory.
Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation. Abraham Maslow believed that man is inherently good and argued that individuals possess a constantly growing inner drive that has great potential. The needs hierarchy system, devised by Maslow , is a commonly used scheme for classifying human motives. The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs consisting of five hierarchic classes.
According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The needs, listed from basic lowest-earliest to most complex highest-latest are as follows: The basic requirements build upon the first step in the pyramid: If there are deficits on this level, all behavior will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Essentially, if you have not slept or eaten adequately, you won't be interested in your self-esteem desires. Subsequently, we have the second level, which awakens a need for security.
After securing those two levels, the motives shift to the social sphere, the third level. Psychological requirements comprise the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy consists of self-realization and self-actualization. Frederick Herzberg 's two-factor theory concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction , but if absent, they don't lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life. Herzberg concluded that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction were the products of two separate factors: Some motivating factors satisfiers were: Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth.
Some hygiene factors dissatisfiers were: The name hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not improve health, but absence can cause health deterioration.
Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction such as computer user satisfaction. Alderfer , expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory. This theory posits that there are three groups of core needs — existence, relatedness, and growth, hence the label: The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs.
The second group of needs are those of relatedness- the desire we have for maintaining important personal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslow's social need and the external component of Maslow's esteem classification. Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs as an intrinsic desire for personal development. Maslow's categories are broken down into many different parts and there are a lot of needs.
The ERG categories are more broad and covers more than just certain areas. As a person grows, the existence, relatedness, and growth for all desires continue to grow. All these needs should be fulfilled to greater wholeness as a human being. Since the early s Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan  have conducted research that eventually led to the proposition of the self-determination theory SDT. This theory focuses on the degree to which an individual's behaviour is self-motivated and self-determined. SDT identifies three innate needs that, if satisfied, allow optimal function and growth: These three psychological needs motivate the self to initiate specific behaviour and mental nutriments that are essential for psychological health and well-being.
When these needs are satisfied, there are positive consequences, such as well-being and growth, leading people to be motivated, productive and happy. When they are thwarted, people's motivation, productivity and happiness plummet. There are three essential elements to the theory: A recent approach in developing a broad, integrative theory of motivation is temporal motivation theory.
It simplifies the field of motivation and allows findings from one theory to be translated into terms of another. Miller award for outstanding contribution to general science. Achievement motivation is an integrative perspective based on the premise that performance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance. As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation.
The emphasis on performance seeks to integrate formerly separate approaches as need for achievement  with, for example, social motives like dominance. Personality is intimately tied to performance and achievement motivation, including such characteristics as tolerance for risk, fear of failure, and others. Achievement motivation can be measured by The Achievement Motivation Inventory, which is based on this theory and assesses three factors in 17 separated scales relevant to vocational and professional success.
This motivation has repeatedly been linked with adaptive motivational patterns, including working hard, a willingness to pick learning tasks with much difficulty, and attributing success to effort. Achievement motivation was studied intensively by David C. McClelland , John W.
Atkinson and their colleagues since the early s. One may feel the drive to achieve by striving for success and avoiding failure. In achievement motivation, one would hope that they excel in what they do and not think much about the failures or the negatives. There are three major characteristics of people who have a great need to achieve according to McClelland's research. Cognitive theories define motivation in terms of how people think about situations. Cognitive theories of motivation include goal-setting theory and expectancy theory.
Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal's efficiency is affected by three features: Time management is an important aspect to consider, when regarding time as a factor contributing to goal achievement. Having too much time allows area for distraction and procrastination, which simultaneously distracts the subject by steering his or her attention away from the original goal. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close.
A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. Most people are not optimally motivated, as many want a challenge which assumes some kind of insecurity of success.
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At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A smaller, more attainable goal is to first motivate oneself to take the stairs instead of an elevator or to replace a stagnant activity, like watching television, with a mobile one, like spending time walking and eventually working up to a jog. Expectancy theory was proposed by Victor H.
Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and volition. Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral intentions. Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behavior. In other words, motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively. Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals. An example of such a motivational and volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy.
Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of action. It can support the translation of intentions into action. Atkinson , David Birch and their colleagues developed the theory of "Dynamics of Action" to mathematically model change in behavior as a consequence of the interaction of motivation and associated tendencies toward specific actions. In the theory, the strength of tendencies rises and falls as a consequence of internal and external stimuli sources of instigation , inhibitory factors, and consummatory in factors such as performing an action.
In this theory, there are three causes responsible for behavior and change in behavior:. McClelland and John W. Atkinson argued that motivation should be unconscious. They refined measures of motivation by means of content analysis of imaginative thought using, for example, the Thematic Apperception Test. Starting from studies involving more than 6, people, Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a theory that found 16 basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior.
It is about reaching the most possible potential as a human being. Attribution theory is a theory developed by psychologist, Fritz Heider that describes the processes by which individuals explain the causes of their behavior and events. Bernard Weiner's theory can be defined into two perspectives: The intrapersonal perspective includes self-directed thoughts and emotions that are attributed to the self. The interpersonal perspective includes beliefs about the responsibility of others and other directed affects of emotions; the individual would place the blame on another individual.
Individuals formulate explanatory attributions to understand the events they experience and to seek reasons for their failures. When individuals seek positive feedback from their failures, they use the feedback as motivation to show improved performances. For example, using the intrapersonal perspective, a student who failed a test may attribute their failure for not studying enough and would use their emotion of shame or embarrassment as motivation to study harder for the next test.
A student who blames their test failure on the teacher would be using the interpersonal perspective, and would use their feeling of disappointment as motivation to rely on a different study source other than the teacher for the next test. In contrast, avoidance motivation i. Because people expect losses to have more powerful emotional consequences than equal-size gains, they will take more risks to avoid a loss than to achieve a gain. The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent.
There are many different approaches of motivation training , but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation. Natural theories of motivation such as Theory Y argue that individuals are naturally willing to work and prefer jobs with high responsibility, creativity and ingenuity.
Based on the assumptions of natural theorists, individuals are motivated to work for an organization when they feel fulfillment from the work and organization. Logistically, there are several ways that firms can implement the assumptions of natural theories of motivation, including delegation of responsibilities, participation in management by employees, job enlargement, and membership within the firm. Additionally, Malone argues that the delegation of responsibility encourages motivation because employees have creative control over their work and increases productivity as many people can work collaboratively to solve a problem rather than just one manager tackling it alone.
Participative management styles involve consulting employees through the decision making process. Job enlargement refers to increasing the responsibilities of a job by adding to the scope of the tasks. This provides more variety and prevents a job from getting boring. Additionally, this prevents the problem of alienation brought on by the rational theorists of Fordism.
Job enlargement instead keeps employees engaged in the organization and creates a more welcoming environment. It stems on the assumption that employees enjoy doing work and, therefore, are more satisfied when they have a wider range of work to do. As Mayo details, based on observations of the Hawthorn Western Electric Company, an additional facet of motivation stems from creating a culture of teams and membership within the firm. For example, Mayo writes about a young girl worker who refused a transfer to a higher paid position in order to stay with a group that she felt a connection to.
It is important, therefore, to create an inclusive environment that welcomes each worker or employee as a member of that organization. They show that any job can be described in terms of five key job characteristics: The JCM links the core job dimensions listed above to critical psychological states which results in desired personal and work outcomes. This forms the basis of this 'employee growth-need strength. The motivating potential score MPS can be calculated, using the core dimensions discussed above, as follows:.
Jobs high in motivating potential must be high on both Autonomy and Feedback, and also must be high on at least one of the three factors that lead to experienced meaningfulness. Employee recognition is not only about gifts and points. It's about changing the corporate culture in order to meet goals and initiatives and most importantly to connect employees to the company's core values and beliefs. Strategic employee recognition is seen as the most important program not only to improve employee retention and motivation but also to positively influence the financial situation.
However, innovation is not so easy to achieve. A CEO cannot just order it, and so it will be. You have to carefully manage an organization so that, over time, innovations will emerge. Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter.
Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation , which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates. If teachers decided to extrinsically reward productive student behaviors, they may find it difficult to extricate themselves from that path. Consequently, student dependency on extrinsic rewards represents one of the greatest detractors from their use in the classroom.
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The majority of new student orientation leaders at colleges and universities recognize that distinctive needs of students should be considered in regard to orientation information provided at the beginning of the higher education experience. Research done by Whyte in raised the awareness of counselors and educators in this regard.
Whyte 's research report allowing readers to ascertain improvements made in addressing specific needs of students over a quarter of a century later to help with academic success. Generally, motivation is conceptualized as either intrinsic or extrinsic.
Classically, these categories are regarded as distinct.