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Okholm is a Benedictine oblate who speaks frequently in church and youth group settings, and serves as assistant pastor at Holy Trinity Anglican Church in Costa Mesa, California. Tradition, Authority, and Heremeneutics. Phillips was associate professor of historical and systematic theology at Wheaton College, where he was instrumental in starting and organizing the annual Wheaton College Theology Conference. The apostle Paul was a vital force in the development of Christianity.

Four Views on Divine Providence

Recent years have seen much controversy about the apostle Paul, his religious and social context, and its effects on his theology. General editor and New Testament scholar Michael F. Bird covers foundational issues and provides helpful summaries in his introduction and conclusion. As a part of the Zondervan Counterpoints series, Four Views on the Historical Adam clearly outlines four views on Adam as presented by top-notch evangelical scholars of each view.


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You will come away with a better understanding of the key biblical and theological issues at stake and of the implications of Adam for contemporary Christian witness and church life. A Surprising Display of Sovereign Mercy. What must I do to be saved? For Christians, the issues raised by the different views on creation and evolution are challenging.

Four Views on Divine Providence (Counterpoints Series)

Can a young earth be reconciled with a universe that appears to be billions of years old? Does scientific evidence point to a God who designed the universe and life in all its complexity? Three Views on Creation and Evolution deals with these and similar concerns as it looks at three dominant schools of Christian thought.

Proponents of young earth creationism, old earth creationism, and theistic evolution each present their different views, tell why the controversy is important, and describe the interplay between their understandings of science and theology. He has written more than articles in magazines and journals and authored or coauthored over 20 books, including Love Your God with All Your Mind and Scaling the Secular City: A Defense of Christianity.

He is also coeditor of The Apologetics Study Bible. He is the author of When Athens Met Jerusalem: An Introduction to Classical and Christian Thought. To some Western evangelicals, the practices of Eastern Orthodoxy seem mysterious and perhaps even unbiblical. Then again, from an Orthodox perspective, evangelicals lack the spiritual roots provided by centuries-old church traditions.

Are the differences between these two branches of Christianity so sharp that to shake hands is to compromise the gospel itself? Or is there room for agreement? Are Eastern Orthodoxy and evangelicalism at all compatible? Yes, no, maybe—this book allows five leading authorities to present their different views, have them critiqued by their fellow authors, and respond to the critiques. Are these the last days? Could Jesus return at any time to establish a thousand-year reign on earth?

What must happen before Jesus returns, and what part does the church play? Three predominant views held by evangelicals seek to answer these and related questions: This book gives each view a forum for presentation, critique, and defense. Bock is research professor of New Testament studies and professor of spiritual development and culture at Dallas Theological Seminary. His publications include Studying the Historical Jesus: From to , Dr. Bock served as president of the Evangelical Theological Society. The rapture is a contested doctrine among evangelicals.

Scholars generally hold one of three perspectives on the timing of and circumstances surrounding the rapture, all of which are presented in Three Views on the Rapture. The recent prominence of a pre-wrath understanding of the rapture calls for a fresh examination of this important but contested Christian belief. Hultberg explains the pre-wrath view; Craig Blaising defends the pre-Tribulation view; and Douglas Moo sets forth the post-Tribulation view. Each author provides a substantive explanation of his position, which is critiqued by the other two authors.

A thorough introduction gives a historical overview of the doctrine of the rapture and its effects on the church. The doctrine of the Trinity stands front and center of the Christian faith and its articulation. After a sustained drought of trinitarian engagement, the doctrine of the Trinity has increasingly resurged to the forefront of Evangelical confession. In order to facilitate a genuine debate and to make sure that the key issues are teased out, each contributor addresses the same questions regarding their trinitarian methodology, doctrine, and its implications.

Sexton earned his PhD from the University of St.

Four Views on Divine Providence

Andrews and is a minister in the Evangelical Free Church of America. Each view—egalitarian and complementarian—is represented by two contributors. Each author states his or her case and is then critiqued by the other. The fair-minded, interactive Counterpoints forum allows you to compare and contrast the two different positions, and to form your own opinion concerning the practical and often deeply personal issue of women in ministry.

Beck is senior professor of counseling at Denver Seminary. A Biblical Anthropology for the Twenty-first Century. What exactly is church growth? In what ways has the movement actually brought growth to the church, and how effective has it been in doing so? What are its strengths and weaknesses? This timely book addresses such questions. After providing a richly informative history and overview, it explores—in a first-ever roundtable of their leading voices—five main perspectives, both pro and con, on the classic Church Growth movement.

This volume outlines a clear, engaging description of the six most prevalent models of worship in North American churches, presented by advocates for each position. He has also served as pastor of other churches in Alabama and Texas and as an adjunct professor at Beeson Divinity School. Offering a forum for presentation, critique, and defense, this book allows the contributors for the different viewpoints to interact.

Your own informed conclusions can then guide you as you meet the questions of a needy world with the claims of the gospel. Do the Law and the Gospel belong to two separate dispensations? Has the Gospel replaced the Law? What is the relevance of the Old Testament Law to our lives as Christians? Is there continuity between it and what Christ expects of us in the Gospel?

It is no secret that Christians have differed widely on these questions. This book explores five major approaches to this important biblical topic that have developed in Protestant circles. Each of the five authors presents his particular perspective on the issue and responds to the other four.

Christians generally recognize the need to live a holy, or sanctified, life. But they differ on what sanctification is and how it is achieved. Five Views on Sanctification brings together in one easy-to-understand volume five major Protestant views on sanctification. Writing from a solid evangelical stance, each author describes and defends his own understanding of the doctrine, and responds as well to the views of the other authors.

This book addresses such practical questions as: How does one achieve sanctification in this life? How much success in sanctification is possible? If so, what kind of experience, and how is it verified? How do the Scriptures portray the complex interplay between grace and free will?

These and related questions are explored from different angles in this thought-provoking volume. The contributors each state their case for one of four prominent views on eternal security: In keeping with the forum approach of the Counterpoints series, each view is first presented by its proponent, then critiqued and defended. This fair and respectful approach allows you to weigh for yourself the strengths and weaknesses of the different doctrinal stances.

By furnishing you with scholarly and thoughtful perspectives on the topic of eternal security, this book helps you sift through opposing views to arrive at your own informed conclusions. The Bible has long served as the standard for Christian practice, yet believers still disagree on how biblical passages should be interpreted and applied. Moreover, due to the far-reaching implications this topic holds for biblical studies, theology, and church teaching, this book includes three additional reflections by Christopher J.

Strauss, and Al Wolters on the theological and practical interpretation of biblical texts. Is the book of Revelation a blueprint for the future that needs decoding if we want to understand current events? Is it a book of powerful imagery, with warnings and promises for the church throughout the ages? Or is it essentially an imaginative depiction of historical events in the first century? Four Views on the Book of Revelation explores the four main views in which Revelation is understood: Marvin Pate taught for 13 years at Moody Bible Institute.

Christians are often shocked to read that Yahweh, the God of the Israelites, commanded the total destruction—all men, women, and children—of the ethnic group known as the Canaanites. What does genocide in the Bible have to do with the politics of the twenty-first century? This book explores, in typical Counterpoints format, the Old Testament command of God to exterminate the Canaanite population and what that implies about continuity between the Old and New Testaments.

Are Messianic congregations necessary or should Jewish believers be incorporated into the Gentile church? The question of how Christian Jews relate their Jewish practices and customs to the church has been an issue within Christianity since the first century. Contemporary contributors who have lived and wrestled with this issue present informed arguments and counter-arguments. The book concludes with a chapter on the future for Messianic Jews and a directory of messianic movement organizations. Among born-again Christians, twenty-seven percent have experienced divorce as compared to twenty-four percent in the general population.

Yet no consensus exists among evangelicals on their views of remarriage, leaving many Christians confused. This single volume summarizes and explores three main evangelical views: Each of the three contributors offers his point of view succinctly with biblical support, and each interacts with the others to help readers come to their own conclusions. Churches have split and denominations have formed over the issue of church government. What model for governing the church does the Bible provide? Is there room for different methods? Or is just one way the right way?

In Who Runs the Church? Four predominant approaches to church government are presented by respected proponents. What is the significance of water baptism? Who should be baptized? Is infant baptism scriptural? Which is the proper baptismal mode: Should people be rebaptized if they join a church that teaches a different form of baptism? Should baptism be required for church membership? These and other questions are explored in this thought-provoking book.

He is an adjunct professor of evangelism at Wheaton College Graduate School. How frequently should we observe it? What does this meal mean? What happens when we eat the bread and drink from the cup?

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What do Christians disagree about and what do they hold in common? This volume in the Counterpoints series allows four contributors to make a case for the following views: Baptist, Reformed, Lutheran, and Roman Catholic. Questions about divine providence have preoccupied Christians for generations. Are people elected to salvation? For whom did Jesus die? This book introduces readers to four prevailing views on divine providence, with particular attention to the question of who Jesus died to save the extent of the atonement and if or how God determines who will be saved predestination.

Four Views on Divine Providence helps readers think theologically about all the issues involved in exploring this doctrine. The point-counterpoint format reveals the assumptions and considerations that drive equally learned and sincere theologians to sharp disagreement. It unearths the genuinely decisive issues beneath an often superficial debate. Each author explains his position, which is critiqued by the other three authors.

The interactive and fair-minded nature of the counterpoints format allows the reader to consider the strengths and weaknesses of each view and draw informed, personal conclusions. Introductory and closing essays by Dennis Jowers give relevant background and guide readers toward their own informed beliefs about divine providence.

Theology for the Praise of God.

Four Views on Divine Providence - William Lane Craig - eBook

Boyd is the founder and senior pastor of Woodland Hills Church in St. Four Views on Divine Providence presents the views of four prominent theologians Paul Kjoss Helseth, William Lane Craig, Ron Highfield, and Gregory Boyd advocating the positions, "God causes all things," "God directs everything," God controls by liberating," and "God limits his control," respectively.

The really good thing about the book is how each author critiques the other's arguments. The editor, Dennis Jowers provides a nice introduction to the topic, including a historical perspective on the writings of Christians throughout the centuries.


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When asked by a captain how the general could remain so calm "with a storm of shells and bullets raining about his head" Jackson reportedly said, "my religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed. God has fixed the time of my death Such a view of God's providence is the over-arching foundation upon which reformed theology is based. This perspective has its roots in creation, where God is the sovereign Creator, making a universe that is both independent of Himself and yet completely dependent upon His continuous sustaining power. Helseth calls this concept "divine omnicausality.

Taken to its logical conclusion, it means that God controls the continuous orbits of every electron around all of the approximately 10 80 atoms in the entire universe. Helseth dances around the implications that divine omnicausality means that God causes all the evil that occurs within the universe. William Lane Craig concludes that Helseth's interpretation of divine providence " William Lane Craig gives a defense of the Molonist view of divine providence. This interpretation is based upon the absolute omniscience of God.

Not only does God know everything that will happen in the universe at all times, but He also knows what might happen given a certain set of circumstances, termed "counterfactuals" or "if Craig gives the example of Jesus saying to Pilate, "If my kingship were of this world, my servants would fight, that I might not be handed over to the Jews" John The concept that God possess knowledge of what might happen under diverse circumstances has been called "middle knowledge.

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Therefore, God controls all events while allowing spiritual beings complete free will. In rebuttal to the Molonist view, Paul Helseth points out that scripture itself never presents middle knowledge as the means by which God allows human free will while directing all that happens. However, scripture never directly presents that God is one God consisting of three persons Trinity , although the doctrine is consistently presented throughout scripture. Ron Highfield argues that God is completely sovereign and that all acts are in cooperation with His will.

It was difficult to see the difference between Highfield's and Helseth's interpretations of divine providence also noted in Craig's analysis of Highfield's interpretation. According to Highfield, "The complete divine sovereignty view argues that God acts before, in, through, and beyond our acts - even our evil acts - to accomplish his will. Gregory Boyd argues for the open theism view of divine providence. In this interpretation, God does not necessarily know or control all moral actions of His created spiritual beings.

Boyd presents what he calls the "christocentric" interpretation of God's providence, based upon the life and works of Jesus Christ. This interpretation is based upon four criteria:.