These belonged to families within 28 orders from the Myriapoda, Crustaceans, Arachnida and Hexapoda. Partial results after PCR analysis of arthropods showed positive pools out of tested 7. Twenty taxa were found positive for MU. The house entomofauna of South Cameroon shows a great diversity of species out of pests and disease vectors as it has been shown by the study of Bertone et al. MU is found in terrestrial fauna at the same level as in the aquatic fauna Garchitorena et al.
A picture is sometimes worth a thousand names. In biodiversity hotspots such as Southeast Asia, it is not difficult for taxonomists to discover species new to science, especially if they work on poorly studied invertebrates in neglected ecosystems. In Peninsular Malaysia, the discovery of new land snail species and genera in rainforests is now not difficult, mainly because roads have provided access to places that British and French malacologists could not easily reach in the 20th century. Unfortunately, roads have also provided greater access for natural resource extraction in countries such as Malaysia where economies are still developing.
All of a sudden, we are faced with the prospect of never being able to make further discoveries because the habitats we want to work in will disappear. Based on my experiences as a taxonomist and conservation scientist, I provide real-world examples to illustrate why we have to be smarter when it comes to naming species we discover, and in one scenario, how pictures have proven to be more effective in lobbying for better protection of the habitats that still hold plenty of promise in terms of novel scientific discoveries. Use of Community phylogenies.
P hylogenetic information has been increasingly used in community ecology since the year In fact local communities harbor ultimately evolutionary history, reflecting maintenance of different mixture of lineage and this information may be used i. In the first part, I will present two studies of my phd thesis performed in Rennes 1 university about how phylogenetic structure of plants community may change plants interaction, and interactions of associated species and the possible implication for evolutionary diversification.
- Das Ziegenproblem: Denken in Wahrscheinlichkeiten (German Edition)?
- Thomas Manns Death in Venice: A Reference Guide (Greenwood Guides to Literature).
- Unfinished Business - The Life & Times of Danny Gatton;
- DEAR MR. PRESIDENT BELIEVE.
- The Mothership?
- Cheese Bread Recipes?
In a second part, I will present one theoretical study realized in the synthesis center iDiv Leipzig on the design of a new phylogenetic measurement and tested to predict productivity of experimental plant communities. Ariadna Burgos , postdoc Labex BcDiv. Reconstructing demographic and cultural histories of Central Asian populations from genetic and linguistic polymorphism data.
The main aim of our research is to develop methods for analyzing language and genetic polymorphism data in a unified framework, in order to infer the past history of separation, exchanges and admixture among human populations. For this purpose, we have developed a new computer program that simulates simultaneously the evolution of gene and vocabulary diversities in a set of populations for which both types of data are available.
- Ego Revelations (Ego Revelations: The Series Book 1)?
- Render to Caesar: Jesus, the Early Church, and the Roman Superpower.
- After the Future?
- The Mummy Murder (Labyrinth City Mystery)!
- EL MEDICO DE SU HONRA (Spanish Edition).
- Search results for Map, France, General Maps | Library of Congress;
- JSTOR: Access Check?
- Millenniums or Aeons in the Past or Future;
- Périodiques - Persée.
These simulations are then compared to real genetic and linguistic polymorphism data, using Approximate Bayesian Computations ABC methods to identify the most realistic historical scenarios underlying each type of data, and to infer the corresponding model parameters. So far, we applied this approach to Central Asia, an area where Turkic-Mongol and Indo-Iranian speaking populations historically met, and where our laboratory has already gathered both genetic sequences, microsatellites, genome-wide genotypes and language vocabulary lists, cognates data.
Ecological niche modeling has been used as a tool to explore the potential distribution of Leishmaniosis and Chagas Disease insect vectors in Colombia, and to assess their relation to transmission areas based on collection records. We highlight the importance of spatial analysis as a tool for the development of strategies for prevention and control of diseases. In addition, our group is collaborating with the MNHN to address the diversity and spatial distribution of Lepidoptera in genus Lonomia, whose venomous caterpillars are responsible of fatal accidents in South America.
Preliminary results will be presented, highlighting the importance of correctly delimiting species through an integrative approach DNA barcoding and morphology. Overview of biodiversity research in a megadiverse country for conservation planning. The Institute Alexander von Humboldt is a research institute that belongs to the National Environmental System in Colombia and acts as a bridge between the academy and environmental authorities.
We currently lead research on integrating different components of diversity taxonomic, functional, phylogenetic at different geographic scales and in different taxonomic groups in order to identify conservation priorities. The Institute holds one of the largest biological collections of the country and the largest tissue biorepository of Latin America. We coordinate the national network for DNA barcoding and we have been generating DNA barcodes in birds, plants and insects.
The persistence of several warning signals in sympatry is a puzzling evolutionary question, given the positive selection favouring convergence exerted by predators. However, the study of generalisation behaviour in complex natural community of predators is challenging, and is thus generally limited to simple variations of prey colour patterns.
We investigated human generalisation behaviours on diverse signals variations displayed in natural populations by the polymorphic butterfly species Heliconius numata. In each trial, the same 10 distinct colour patterns were used, and two randomly chosen patterns were associated with a penalty when attacked. Attack rates on the different toxic and palatable colour patterns were recorded, as well as survival time.
We found that profitable prey gain protection from increased resemblance to unprofitable prey, as previously described for natural predators. This experimental set-up can thus be compared to natural systems, enabling further investigations of generalisation on mimicry evolution. Highlighting earthworm biodiversity hotspots in French Guiana. Despite being recognized as important actors of soil functioning, earthworms have been poorly considered from a taxonomic perspective.
As a consequence, the nearly species currently recognized worldwide probably represent at best half the actual biodiversity of the group. This taxonomic deficit is particularly critical in the tropics, resulting in difficult species identifications and a lack of ecological studies on earthworm communities.
In each site, a rapid screening of communities was achieved in a selection of habitats using a standardized protocol based on the systematic harvesting of specimens in all types of microhabitats available in a 1 ha area. DNA barcodes COI gene obtained for a selection of specimens were used to delimit molecular operational taxonomic units MOTUs , the number and composition of which was further used to describe community diversity and structure at different spatial scales.
DNA barcodes produced for specimens clustered into MOTUs, resulting in a great improvement of our knowledge of regional diversity, as compared to the 22 species that were reported for French Guiana in a recent checklist. As a consequence, the number of species accumulates steadily with the number of study sites sampled, and a rough estimates suggests that at least species could be found in French Guiana. This region of Amazonian forests could therefore represent one of the richest hotspots for earthworm diversity, and additional research is critically needed to progress toward documenting the actual number of species in this region.
At a local scale, assemblages seem to be dominated by specialist species, with only a small fraction of generalists able to colonize a broad range of habitats or microhabitats. The number of species co-existing in a given habitat never exceeded 15 MOTUs, suggesting that interspecific competition may drive niche saturation during the process of community assembly.
The ongoing development of a functional trait database will allow combining functional, phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity approaches in order to disentangle the relative contribution of habitat filters, biotic interactions and neutral processes in the structuring of earthworm communities in the rainforest of French Guiana. Coevolution in the tropics: This talk will be about the coevolutionary arms races that arise between brood parasites and their hosts they exploit to raise their young, focussing on various African bird species that I study in the field Zambia.
A new optical method to count viruses and other nanoparticles: Environmental and medical Applications. Seawater contains an extraordinary abundance of nanoparticles. Among biotic nanoparticles are the viruses which are known to affect carbon cycling and composition of microbial communities. A growing body of evidence has recently shown that membrane vesicles could be as abundant as viruses in the oceans.
Discrimination between these different particles is therefore crucial. We developed a new interferometric detection method coupled with the analysis of Brownian motion to detect, quantify, and differentiate a number of marine biotic nanoparticles. We have applied this method to Tara-oceans samples and characterize the content in viruses and vesicles from different ocean regions.
Recently we used the same method to analyse nanoparticles from the intestinal tract. Indeed there are some evidence that they are associated with dysbiosis.
Bacteria belonging the family Flavobacteriaceae, are abundant components of marine bacterial ecosystems. This Tenacibaculum genus currently encompasses 23 species with validly published names, all isolated from marine environments. While some Tenacibaculum species e. T maritimum and T. The latter likely play significant roles in organic mater recycling.
Despite the ecomomic significance and prevalence in different marine environments of Tenacibaculum species, little is known about the molecular traits defining their life styles. In order to identify relevant features in relation to their ecological niches, including virulence determinants for the pathogenic species, we carried out complete genome sequencing of the type strains of all Tenacibaculum species and performed extensive comparative genomic studies. Our results yielded significant insights into the evolution of this bacterial genus.
These unique genomic data encompassing a whole genus could serve as references to facilitate further studies, to devise new genotyping tools for epidemiological survey and to help identifying new relevant enzymes involved in the degradation of algal polysaccharides. Phylogenetic Diversity and Decision Making. The phylogenetic diversity PD measure Faith is a widely-used measure of biodiversity, reflecting evolutionary heritage.
The PD of a subset of species is calculated as the minimum total length of all the phylogenetic branches required to connect all those species on the tree. PD measures the representation of evolutionary history. Thus, PD values indicate option values at the level of features of species. There has been much debate about how to use PD in decision-making, including identifying high conservation priority for both species and areas.
An endangered species can have high priority for conservation because, if protected, the gain in expected PD is large compared to other species. Three factors can contribute to this large gain: This logic nicely extends to priority areas for conservation. For example, we can consider hypothetical loss of a secure species, and ask whether the reduction in expected PD would be relatively large. For areas, the same logic can identify special places with high amounts of secure PD heritage value.
The mechanisms underlying convergent evolution in the plumage patterns of birds. Convergent evolution is a central theme in biology. Birds are an ideal system to examine the mechanisms underlying convergent evolution. Although bird patterning is diverse, within-feather patterns have repeatedly converged on the same four types: Other avian patterns occur, e. Some of the major mechanisms underlying convergent evolution in bird plumage patterns are natural selection for signaling and camouflage and evolutionary development.
My research highlights that the mechanisms of convergent evolution are diverse, and that natural selection and development have contributed to pattern evolution. Genetic studies of rodents in Eastern African biodiversity hot-spot - from biodiversity surveys to general evolutionary models. Zambezian, Somali-Masai and Ethiopian biogeographical regions are spreading in a wide belt around the Congo Basin from Angola to Ethiopia.
They are dominated by savannahs and woodlands, but there are also the highest African mountains. Phylogeographic structure of animals living in these areas is relatively poorly known and often limited to large-sized species of mammals, thus reducing the power of phylogeographical interpretations. Thanks to intensive collection of fresh samples from small mammals in the last decade, it is now possible to use the comparative phylogeographic approach to assess the role of past climate and geomorphology on evolution of biodiversity of rodents inhabiting various habitat types. Most of the phylogeographic studies in Eastern Africa have been focused on taxa living in mountain forests, while savannah species were largely overlooked.
By analyzing genetic data of widespread rodents living in open habitats, we provide evidence for Pleistocene refugia of savannah-woodland habitats during otherwise unsuitable climatic conditions. Subsequent population expansions were often stopped by large water bodies e. Zambezi, Kafue or Lake Malawi and forested mountains e.
Eastern Arc Mountains , which is confirmed by largely concordant spatial genetic structure among different rodent taxa. We also detected several secondary contact zones that can serve as models for speciation studies and represent important hot-spots also for organisms associated with rodents, e. Social and spatial organization of a population of arctic foxes in the Canadian High Arctic. Various ecological or individual factors may promote spatial tolerance and group living in socially flexible species, but the importance of each one remains unclear.
We tested two hypothesis relating to the socio-spatial organization of a small canid, the arctic fox Vulpes lagopus , during the breeding season. We worked on Bylot Island Nunavut, Canada , an ecosystem with highly fluctuating food resources but where larger predators are almost absent. We genotyped individuals using nine microsatellites to assess the kin structure of the population. We also used visual observations at dens and satellite telemetry data to determine group composition and estimate the territoriality of neighbors in relation to the availability of the two main food resources lemmings and goose eggs and the relatedness of individuals.
The basic social unit was composed of a mated pair, with only a few cases of groups, all within the goose colony. Spatial tolerance was overall higher within the goose nesting colony, as shown by the shorter nearest neighbor distance between occupied dens and higher home range overlaps, but was not influenced by lemming density. We found no strong genetic structure within the population. Range overlaps were not correlated with relatedness, except inside the goose colony for male-female dyads, but the relationship was weak.
These results suggest that the food abundance in the goose colony promotes spatial tolerance and may favor group living in arctic foxes, but without a selective tolerance among kin.
Les séminaires passés de l'ISYEB
Understanding the determinants of spacing patterns and group formation gives insight into the evolution of sociality in canids and other animal societies. Diet and venom evolution in cone snails. Although diet is believed to be a major factor underlying the evolution of venom, few comparative studies examine both venom composition and diet across a radiation of venomous species. Cone snails within the family, Conidae, comprise more than species of carnivorous marine snails that capture their prey by using a cocktail of venomous neurotoxins conotoxins or conopeptides.
Using venom duct transcriptome sequencing and comparative phylogenetic methods, we test the hypotheses that venom composition should be shaped by a prey taxonomic class i. In contrast with the dominant paradigm for interpreting Conidae venom evolution, we found that prey taxonomic class did not predict venom composition patterns among species. Our results suggest that cone snails have either evolved species-specific expression patterns likely as a consequence of the rapid evolution of conotoxin genes, or that traditional means of categorizing prey type and conotoxins i.
We also found a significant positive relationship between dietary breadth and measures of conotoxin complexity. Whether this increased gene diversity confers an increased capacity for evolutionary change remains to be tested. Overall, our results corroborate the key role of diet in influencing patterns of venom evolution in cone snails and other venomous radiations.
Time best explains global variation in species richness of amphibians, birds, and mammals. The general pattern of higher species richness in tropical areas has been long recognized but the underlying cause is still debated. Two major hypotheses have emerged in recent years. The Rate Hypothesis attributes this pattern to a high rate of diversification whereas the Time Hypothesis attributes it to greater lineage age.
We revisited these two hypotheses with global data sets of amphibians, birds, and mammals. To test these hypotheses we evaluated the relationship between crown age and species richness, and between diversification rate and species richness within biogeographic regions. We also compared diversification rates of tropical and temperate clades, and assessed the usefulness of two phylometrics, evolutionary distinctiveness ED and evolutionary rate ER , as proxies of age and diversification rate.
Finally, we used those phylometrics in a grid cell approach to explore the spatial distribution of clade age and diversification rate. We found species richness of these tetrapods is best described by time age of lineages and that diversification rates are not significantly different between tropical and temperate areas. In addition to time, we found that historical biogeography, in some cases, has an influence on species richness patterns. This suggests that the latitudinal diversity gradient is a result of the gradient in climatic stability, with younger assemblages hence, fewer species occupying higher latitudes.
A new integrative framework for large-scale assessments of biodiversity and community dynamics, using littoral gastropods and crabs of British Columbia, Canada. Improving our understanding of species responses to environmental changes is an important contribution ecologists can make to facilitate effective management decisions. Novel synthetic approaches to assessing biodiversity and ecosystem integrity are needed, ideally including all species living in a community and the dynamics defining their ecological relationships. Here we present and apply an integrative approach that links high-throughput, multi-character taxonomy with community ecology.
The overall purpose is to enable the coupling of biodiversity assessments with investigations into the nature of ecological interactions in a community-level data set. We collected 1, gastropods and crabs in British Columbia. We then used data on the geographic distribution of delineated species to test species co-occurrence patterns for non-randomness using community-wide and pairwise approaches.
Results showed that PTP generally outperformed GMYC and thus constitutes a more effective option for producing species-hypotheses in community-level datasets. Non-random species co-occurrence patterns indicative of ecological relationships or habitat preferences were observed for grazer gastropods, whereas assemblages of opportunistic omnivorous gastropods and crabs appeared influenced by random processes.
Species-pair associations were consistent with current ecological knowledge, thus suggesting that applying community assembly within a large taxonomical framework constitutes a valuable tool for assessing ecological interactions. Combining phylogenetic, morphological and co-occurrence data enabled an integrated view of communities, providing both a conceptual and pragmatic framework for biodiversity assessments and investigations into community dynamics.
En philosophie politique, on distingue souvent des groupes de penseurs: A cell-based computational model for the study of wing morphogenesis and evolution in Drosophila. One of the aims of evolutionary developmental biology is to discover the developmental origins of morphological variation. The discipline has mainly focused on qualitative morphological differences e.
Studies addressing subtle, quantitative variation are less common. The Drosophila wing is a model for the study of development and evolution, making it suitable to investigate the developmental mechanisms underlying the subtle quantitative morphological variation observed in nature. Using a cell-based computational model that explicitly simulates wing morphogenesis, we investigate what variation in development is capable of generating variation in wing shape.
In this talk I will focus on how forces arising from epithelial tension patterns drive the cell processes in order to establish tissue shape. Reproductive allocation in an ant reproducing by colony fission. Social insects produce new colonies following two alternative strategies. Independent Colony Foundation ICF consists in the mother colony producing many queens that fly far away, start new colonies on their own and suffer high mortality coloniser strategy.
In contrast, colony fission consists in one or a few queen departing the mother colony on foot with many workers and thus suffering low mortality competitor strategy. We studied resource allocation during colony fission in the ant Cataglyphis cursor. Field observations showed that colonies that reproduced differed markedly in size. Larger colonies produced larger new colonies but did not produce more new colonies, and resource allocation among new colonies was highly biased. We tested whether C. These colonies produced fewer and larger new colonies than in the field, suggesting that they may indeed adjust resource allocation.
Lastly, we used agent-based modelling to compare the success of colony fission with that of ICF. Our simulations show that the two strategies coexist under a wide range of parameter values because of a competition-colonization trade-off, and that environmental heterogeneity enhances coexistence conditions. New Caledonia deep sea biodiversity. Insights from the Tropical Deep Sea Benthos program. In particular, 37 surveys stations were organized to sample the New Caledonian exclusive economic zone EEZ and its numerous seamounts. The TDSB program, which relies on a worldwide network of taxonomists, led to numerous new species descriptions and taxonomy revisions.
Only datasets for which a taxonomist had studied all the existing samples held in the Paris museum collections were used. After a presentation of the global project, I will present results about species diversity for different taxa such as the Scleractinia Cnidaria: Anthozoa and the Stylasteridae Cnidaria: Anthoathecata which represent structuring habitats taxa. Evolution of animal acoustic communication in changing environments Conveying and receiving information to and from the environment is a key adaptive trait in animals.
A wide variety of organisms relies on acoustic signals for sexual selection, territory defence and risk detection, among other functions. Yet the profound environmental changes caused by human activities, the so-called global change phenomenon, pose new challenges to animal communication systems.
In this talk, I will review our current knowledge of how amphibians and birds deal with problems derived from climate change, noise pollution or introduced species in communicating by sounds, and what this tells us about the evolutionary mechanisms shaping acoustic diversity. Novel technologies, in combination with long-established methods, enable us now to better understand the capacity of animals to communicate in changing environments, shedding light on how the vast diversity of acoustic signals has evolved to perform their basic biological functions.
However, we are still far from a fully comprehension of this complex phenomenon. The contribution of phylogenetic systematics to biodiversity conservation Phylogenetic diversity is now a core part of conservation biology, reflecting its link to option values and to evolutionary potential. Due to recent advances in molecular biology, which is enormously increasing facilities and reducing costs of obtaining large amounts of sequences and or part or entire genomes, phylogenetic diversity will be one of the first and sometimes the only information we get for a species.
This, associated with the sheer magnitude of biological and environmental data now available in the public domain, is leading to a new paradigm in biodiversity assessments for conservation. It is also an important instrument for linking local-to regional-to global conservation demands, a goal strongly emphasized in global agendas and so hard to achieve. In this talk I will present an overview of the evolution and present state of the art of this disciplinary field, and present some questions urging for more clarification.
My aim is to show some points for which we can contribute and indicate some directions of research. Nicola Nadeau , University of Sheffield. Iridescence in the Heliconius butterflies: Despite the importance of this type of colour for animal and plant signalling and communication, and its application in man-made products, very little is known about its synthesis in natural systems.
The Heliconius butterflies have been an important system in advancing our understanding of how changes in the genome can bring about adaptive differences between populations. They are also an ideal system to study the evolution and genetics of iridescent structural colours because they exhibit within and between species variation in iridescent blue structural colour, giving us a system where we can begin to unravel both the phenotypic and genetic changes underlying this variation.
Austin Professor, University Malaysia Diving into the deep end of the gene pool: Genomics approaches to phylogenetic and systematic studies of fish and decapod crustaceans. The recent development of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies provides opportunities to characterize the genomic composition of individuals, populations and species in unprecedented detail.
It is now possible to obtain genetic information from throughout the genome and to address a variety of questions relating to evolutionary and comparative genomic research that can contribute to may disciplines of the biological sciences. Nevertheless there are many fields of study that are only slowly taking advantage of this sequencing revolution and there are many animal groups for which there is only limited genomic information.
In this presentation I am going to describe some recent genomic studies on fish and crustaceans conducted at Monash University Malaysia that attempt to fill important knowledge gaps and contribute to our understanding of the evolution and diversity of these groups. These case studies consist of 1 genome sequencing projects for the Malaysian arowana dragon fish , the Australian Murray cod and the red claw crayfish and 2 mitogenome evolution in decapod crustaceans.
Recent endemism and rapid acoustic diversification in the New Caledonian Agnotecous crickets Islands are bounded areas where high endemism is explained either by allopatric speciation through the fragmentation of the limited amount of space available, or by sympatric speciation and accumulation of daughter species. In previous studies, we analyzed the mode, tempo and geography of speciation in Agnotecous, a cricket genus endemic to New Caledonia showing a generalized pattern of sympatry.
The results suggested that the diversification occurred mostly through recent allopatric speciation and that current sympatry was due to secondary range expansion. However, crickets are also acknowledged for their diverse calling songs playing a major role in preventing hybridization in closely related species. In the context of allopatric speciation, there is a possible interplay between speciation and acoustic diversification. We therefore analyzed the diversification of the mechanism of sound production in Agnotecous, since the species of this genus are very similar in terms of morphology, but produce songs with a wide range of frequencies kHz.
The study consisted in fine scale analyses of the morphological and behavioral variables of the system using comparative methods in reference to phylogeny. Unexpectedly, we have found that the studied species developed two different strategies to produce high-frequencies: These results support the hypothesis that high-frequency songs and the mechanism of sound production evolved quickly, accompanying each event of speciation.
Transcriptome-based exon capture phylogenomics: The Conoidea a superfamily of predatory marine snails represent a hyper-diversified clade, with an estimation of up to species. These species are characterized by an important diversity of morphological and anatomical structures linked to the use of a huge catalogue of toxins to capture their preys.
The evolution of this predatory arsenal is thought as one of the main causes of the diversification of the group. In order to test such evolutionary hypotheses, one has to rely on a solid and stable phylogeny. In order to overcome these technical limits, we present an approach of transcriptome-based exon capture conducted on 50 species from the 14 families of Conoidea.
I will introduce the main steps of such an approach and detail some practical aspects of an exon capture protocol. Finally, the results of a preliminary phylogenetic analysis based on an alignment of bp will be shown. Inferring population size history from large samples of genome wide molecular data - an approximate Bayesian computation approach. Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species.
Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes.
This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data.
Our approach provides accurate estimations of population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey , our approach revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.
Development, anatomy, and genetic control of some teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers. Teratological organisms originate from developmental anomalies, and exhibit structures and a body organization that deviate from the species standard. In plants, teratological forms are often of horticultural interest. However, besides their aesthetic value, these monsters give essential clues about the formation and evolutionary significance of the wild-type groundplan.
To begin with, we synthesize the observations and research conducted on the Ranunculacean floral terata, following a phylogenetic framework. Then, we report results regarding the morphology of developing meristems, the anatomy of buds, and the genetic control of selected teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers. We focus on species and horticultural varieties belonging to the genera Aquilegia, Delphinium, and Nigella. Wild-type flowers of these species are actinomorphic Aquilegia, Nigella or zygomorphic Delphinium , spurred Aquilegia, Delphinium or with pocket-like petals Nigella.
Last, we discuss the evolutionary potential of such teratological phenotypes when they occur in the wild. Visualizing constraints and the anisotropy of phenotype space Morphospaces are quantitative representations of phenotype space that have proved particularly useful in the broad field of evolutionary morphology. Yet, do current conceptualizations of morphospaces appropriately echo the evolutionary dynamics of organisms depicted in such spaces? Many studies implicitly consider the phenotype space as an isotropic state-space, but several lines of evidence suggest that such a view is inadequate.
In particular, advances in evolutionary developmental biology have shed light on the statistical properties of the genotype-phenotype map and their consequences for the structure of variation. Here, I use a trilobite case study to illustrate the effect of constraints on the accessibility structure of phenotype space.
The morphospace obtained is strongly anisotropic and reveals discordances between the apparent range of possible phenotypes and their actual accessibility. It is advised that geometric measures of distance in morphospace should be taken with caution and complemented with developmentally meaningful measures of evolutionary accessibility.
Climatic variability drives the broad-scale population dynamics of cold-adapted birds in North America. Many birds of northerly ecosystems exhibit oscillations in their population dynamics ranging from discrete population cycling to irruptive movements. These dynamics can range in periodicity from biennial to decadal cycles, and while their exact reasons are not entirely clear, it is thought that these patterns are related to climatic variability.
I will present on recent research from two case studies: Pine Siskins exemplify normally boreal seed-eating birds that can be sparse or absent across entire regions of North America in one year and then appear in large numbers the next. A prevalent hypothesis is that widespread masting in the boreal forest at high latitudes is driven primarily by favorable climate during the two to three consecutive years required to initiate and mature seed crops in most conifers.
We analyzed more than 2 million Pine Siskin observations from Project FeederWatch, a citizen science program, and revealed two principal irruption modes North-South and West-East , both of which were correlated with climate variability, and continental-scale pairs of oppositely signed precipitation and temperature anomalies i. The climate dipoles juxtapose favorable and unfavorable conditions for seed production and wintering habitat, motivating a push-pull paradigm to explain irruptions of Pine Siskins and possibly other boreal bird populations in North America.
For our second case study, we used spatially explicit demographic modeling to model the year population cycle of Ruffed Grouse throughout the Midwest and Great Lakes region of the United States. We found that aspects of cyclic dynamics are related to inter-annual variation in temperature and precipitation anomalies, particularly as they influence winter survival. Furthermore, the use climate models forecasted a dampening of these cycles in southerly regions by the end of the 21st century. James Mallet , Harvard University. Gene flow between Heliconius species: It is a seductive idea that species are independent evolutionary units.
In Heliconius butterflies we have new data to disprove it. There is unprecedented genomic admixture among some species. Our concepts of "species" and "phylogeny" may need to change. Population genomics of C. Population genomics of non-model organisms can be challenging when a closely related reference genome is not available. We used the data collected to explore and contrast estimates of demographic history and population structure in a single deme SID from Northern Australia with a scatter sample SCD collected from various locations throughout the Indian Ocean.
We developed an ABC with recombination algorithm, using the site frequency spectrum computed on unphased data as summary statistic, to explore the genealogical signature of population dynamics detected from both sampling schemes. We then contrasted these results with those obtained by fitting the data to a non-equilibrium finite island model.
Finally, we tested for signatures of recent bottleneck due to overfishing and human disturbance. We demonstrate through simulation that metapopulations exhibit greater resilience to recent changes in effective size compared to unstructured populations which can obscure detection of recent population bottlenecks. We propose an empirical approach to detect recent bottlenecks which may help to explain why several overfished species do not show a decrease in effective population size.
When applied to C. Infering demographic history from whole genome data using Approximate Bayesian Computation. Whole-genome data are expected to be extremely rich in information about past demography but, because simulations were, until recently, computationally too costly, ABC methods have not been thoroughly tested on such very long sequences.
Dense polymorphism data contain extra information that is not available from unlinked site polymorphisms, and should improve the reconstruction of demographic history. We investigate how summary statistics computed from sequences, such as the lengths of haplotypes shared between individuals, or the decay of linkage disequilibrium with distance, can be combined with classical statistics eg heterozygosity, Tajima D and efficiently integrated to an ABC framework.
We then quantify their influence on the inference of demographic parameters, particularly in the presence of expansions or bottlenecks in a single population. Furthermore, we describe how errors that are usually more frequent in sequence than SNP data impact the inference, and show that modeling the error process in the ABC framework increases accuracy. Finally, we apply our method to publicly available European and African complete genomes.
From molecular taxonomy to macroevolutionary pattern inference: A case study with the charismatic Nawab butterflies Nymphalidae, Charaxinae, Polyura. The genus Polyura comprises butterflies dwelling in the geologically highly complex Indomalayan-Australasian archipelago. Passion for this group among amateurs and scientists for more than two centuries has made of this group a taxonomic conundrum preventing the study of its systematics and evolution. I present the results of a large project aiming at deciphering the taxonomy of this group, inferring its systematics, and reconstructing its historical biogeography and diversification dynamics through geological times.
Multiple specimens of all described species were gathered and sequenced from Museum collections and field expeditions to assemble a comprehensive taxon sampling. The latest methods of molecular species delimitation were used on the generated multimarker matrix to investigate species boundaries and genetic differentiation in the genus.
Based on the clarifications of species contours, the phylogenetic relationships of the genus were inferred using a species tree approach. The biogeographic history of Polyura butterflies and their diversification dynamics were reconstructed using an array of maximum-likelihood based methods.
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The biogeographic pattern inferred is highly dynamic with reverse colonization events and late Plio-Pleistocene dispersal. Coancestry via identity coefficients and their use on genomic estimates of kinship. Traditionally, a subset of 9 coefficients have been used for many purposes. In this talk, I will show a new method to estimate these 15 coefficients of identity, which can then be used to infer the expected variance of genomic estimates of inbreeding.
I will present examples of this method on calculations of allelic diversity from more than two individuals, at least from a theoreticall point of view. Lastly, by using the coefficients of identity, I will show how the coefficients of dominance cannot be calculated from biallelic data like SNPs. Roots and rooting in phylogenetic networks The talk is a general overview of the theory and metodology of directionality in phylogenetic trees. The conceptual and methodological significance of unrooted trees is analyzed. Directionality in phylogenetic diagrams is explained as to its logical core, with different expressions as asymmetric probabilities of character-state changes and extrinsic information on directionality.
Methods for rooting are discussed separately and organized according to their fundamental assumptions. The need for a clear representation of partially-directed trees is emphasized. Finally, the advantages and pitfalls of understanding phylogeny in unrooted and rooted dimensions are explored. Studying biodiversity by an integrative approach of population genetics and community ecology: Species diversity and genetic diversity have traditionally remained the exclusive domains of community ecology and population genetics, respectively, despite repeated recognition of close parallels between these levels of biodiversity the literature.
Species diversity within communities and genetic diversity within populations are hypothesised to co-vary because of locality characteristics that influence the two levels of diversity via parallel processes drift, selection and migration or because of direct effects of one level of diversity on the other. Corroborating these hypotheses, several studies on different taxa from various geographic zones have revealed correlated patterns of species and genetic diversity mostly positive correlations , suggesting that the SGDC species genetic diversity correlation might be a general pattern.
In this work, we tested for spatial SGDC patterns in kelp forests along the Brittany coastline France by conducting a multi-level biodiversity sampling in 20 localities: Lamouroux and Laminaria hyperborea Gunnerus Foslie as well as macroalgal communities living underneath the canopy formed by these two species.
We tested SGDC for different diversity metrics and at several spatial scales. Our results revealed a majority of positive SGDC, suggesting that genetic diversity within kelp populations and species diversity within macroalgal communities are probably influenced by parallel processes. However, the significance and strength of the correlation varied among the target species, the metrics and the spatial scale considered. Ralph Britz The fascinating world of miniature fishes. In the last decade a number of miniature fishes have been described.
They can be assigned to two very different types: While proportioned dwarves are only shrunk versions of their larger relatives with few, if any, reductions, developmentally truncated miniatures exhibit the anatomical condition of a larval stage of their larger relatives. It is these developmentally truncated miniatures that show a collection of highly unusual, often unique characters. It appears that the evolutionary mechanism of truncation has taken the organism back to its developmental foundations and enabled it to vary more dramatically from its bauplan than any of the proportioned dwarfs.
This talk will illustrate some of the discoveries of miniature teleosts the speaker has been involved in and introduce the world of developmentally truncated fishes. Planetary boundaries as a safe operating space for humanity: The planetary boundaries framework considers processes relating to climate change, biodiversity loss, land-system change, biogeochemical flows, stratospheric ozone depletion, ocean acidification, freshwater use, atmospheric aerosol loading, and chemical pollution. Beyond the identified boundaries, thresholds and undesirable changes threaten human well-being.
Is there a meaningful boundary related to biodiversity? The current rate of extinctions and the corresponding biodiversity crisis suggest a possible focus on global extinction rates. Such services include option values unanticipated future benefits for humans and evolutionary potential. Such option values of biodiversity typically reflect global-scale benefits for future generations, and so they are a natural consideration for planetary boundaries.
Early warnings with respect to a PD planetary boundary may focus on the changing status of Phylogenetic Key Biodiversity Areas — those places on the planet that are outstanding in their current contribution to retaining global phylogenetic diversity. PD is useful, but does not tell us all we need to know about functional traits. At the global scale, this could provide, for multiple taxonomic groups, a running report card on risk of loss of functional trait diversity.
This would nicely complement the emerging use of a PD report card to assess risks associated with resilience-loss, tipping points and planetary boundaries. Certains Hantavirus sont susceptibles de contaminer les Humains. Lounes Chikhi Social structure matters: Most species are spatially and socially organised. However, population geneticists tend to ignore both facts and typically use demographic models that assume random mating over wide geographical areas i.
This is sometimes surprising given that structured models, such as the n-island Wright, or the stepping-stone Kimura, models were actually devised more than sixty years ago. I will present some recent results obtained in the group on the impact of i social structure and mating systems on genetic and genotypic diversity of "populations" and ii population structure on demographic inference. Understanding the factors that influence the phenotypic variation of a highly functional and complex structure is a major goal of modern evolutionary biology. The bony labyrinth of the inner ear houses organs that serve for balance and audition.
As such it offers a good opportunity to scrutinize morphological variation in relation to several functional and non-functional parameters. We analyzed the labyrinthine shape among extant and fossil members of the mammalian superorder Xenarthra armadillos, anteaters and sloths , which present a variety of sizes and locomotor behaviours. In this presentation, I will discuss our main results on variation at different hierarchical levels within Xenarthra: Together with recent studies from other teams, these results significantly enhance our understanding of the morphological variation of the inner ear and allow suggesting new lines of future research.
How can the interplay between form and function enlighten our understanding of the evolution of organisms in their ecological context? Form and function are linked at a fundamental level. Bones, for example, are clearly functionally important. They allow movement and, whilst supporting loads, also need to respond and resist to muscular forces.
Indeed, bones are shaped by force and motion and thus, presumably intimately related to the movements executed, and thus also the lifestyle of a species. To study this form-function relation I investigate the influence of different factors on the shape of the postcranial bones of mammals using geometric morphometric methods and comparative approaches that take into account phylogeny. Here, I will present the some results of my PhD and current postdoc that show how many factors influence the morphology of the postcranial skeleton ranging from the body mass, over locomotor strategies, to more specialized behaviours such as grasping ability in addition to shared ancestry.
Finally, these results shown that there is a relation between form and function, but that our understanding thereof often remains hampered by a lack of quantitative data on the locomotor behaviour in the taxa under study. Combining landmark data and phylogenetic analyses: Can we tell the story of social wasps from the lines of their wings? The wing venation provides useful characters to classify extant and fossil insects. Quantification of its shape using landmarks has pushed even further the potential of the wing venation to distinguish taxa.
During my PhD, I found that wing shapes of hornets Hymenoptera, Vespidae presented a strong phylogenetic signal. As a postdoc at the American Museum of Natural History, I am now exploring whether and how we could use this kind of data to improve our phylogenetic inferences. I also tested the influence of landmark optimisation parameters using simulated data with a known phylogeny. The results confirmed that even if it is based on landmark coordinates, landmark optimisation is invariant to the original orientation of configurations.
However, it is influenced by other parameters. Single landmark configurations never accurately reflected the true topology but results were close when compared to random topologies. Wing landmarks were thus not reliable phylogenetic characters when treated independently, but could provide useful insights when combined with other data.
Map The Basque lands. AACR2 Map not in file. Map Ducatus Sabaudiae, princp. Pedemontium ut et ducatus Montisferrati in suas dition. LC copy sectioned into 9 and mounted on cloth, folding to 16 x 18 cm. Signed under manuscript title: Petit ingenieur du Roy, et sur quelques observations. Shows islands from Guadeloupe to Grenada, including Barbados. Relief and depths shown pictorially. Title from first word of descriptive text on first facsim. Traditionally attributed to A. Cresques, with the possible collaboration of his son, J.
Manuscript copy of manuscript original in the National Archives in London. Alexander, William - Shirley, William Date: Map Le Canada faict par le Sr. Map A new and elegant imperial sheet atlas, comprehending general and particular maps of every part of the world: Imperial sheet atlas Relief shown pictorially and by shading. Map title within ornamental border.
Les séminaires passés de l'ISYEB | L’Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité
Atlas consists of folded maps pasted onto endpapers along spine. Copy annotated in pencil on contents p. Torn edges and waterstains on some leaves Phillips Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Robert Laurie and James Whittle Date: Moll and by I. King at ye Globe in ye Poultrey near Stocks Market.
The city of Mexico in New Spain. Moll, Herman - Bowles, Thomas Date: Relief shown pictorially and by hachures on some maps. Shows Anglo-French naval encounters in with pictorial ship symbols. Includes text and indexes to points of interest. LC copy fold-lined and mounted on cloth backing. Relief shown pictorially on some maps. Consists of maps of the departments of France in a spiral arrangement designed as a game.
Includes text of game rules and indexed table of administrative divisions. Available also through the Library of Congress Web Tears along edge Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Map A general map of the middle British colonies, in America; viz.
Map Grandes routes commerciales du Sahara Prime meridian: National Park Service Date: Includes text and col. Les chiffres des sondes indiquent les brasses angloises de 6. Cook, James - Lane, Michael - France. Map A new general map of the East Indies: In Latin and French. Includes inset of the Straights of Magellin. Includes inset of city of Santiago. Economic Commission for Africa Date: Map A new chart of the Mediterranean Sea Depths shown by soundings in selected areas. John William - Michelot, Henri - W.
Map Plan der Belagerung von Maynz: Includes indexes to troop emplacements. LC copy sectioned into 12 and mounted on cloth, folding to 20 x 24 cm. Dark stain in upper section, second section from the right. Carl - Fillmore, Millard Date: Guxiangzhai su biao zi hua. Zhennanguan Pass is an important defense post of Longzhou against French intrusion in the late 19th century in Guangxi Province.
Hummel purchase , no. Bellin, Jacques Nicolas - France. Plan du havre de Ristigouche. L'hermite - Sartine, Antoine De - France. Jean au nord de l'Acadie et dans le sud du golfe de St. Map Plan submitted for the alteration of the streets and av. Oriented with north to the right.
Includes text and inset "Plan de la Baie Herring en Maryland. Copy 1 sectioned and mounted on cloth backing. Avec lesquelles on a Map Plan du Port Dauphin, de la rade de Ste. Le Port Dauphin, la rade de Ste. Schedler's topographical map of the seat of war: Shows the area of northeastern France where the Franco-Prussian War was in progress.
Text on cover in English and German. Title from bottom of sheet recto. Map appears in Nicolas Tassin's Cartes generales de tovtes les prouinces de France. LC copy has text in French on three sheets framing the map on right, left, and lower margins. This text was published by Jean le Clerc, and does not seem to be directly related to the map.
The entire composite sheet is mounted Reise Karte von Deutschland: Publication and edition information from cover. Includes illustrations and inset "Routenkarte von Europa". LC copy sectioned into 48 and mounted on cloth, folding to 21 x 14 cm. Signed on French cover on verso: Millard Fillmore, May 16, Signed above French legend on Map Nova delineatio totius orbis terrarum Nouveau carte du monde.
Mapping of the world. Title in Latin and French. Most place names in Latin, some in Dutch. Aa, Pieter Van Der Date: Includes illustrations and 4 small hemispherical polar projections. Appears in Sanson's Atlas nouveau. Alternate title only in Latin. Sanson, Nicolas - Mortier, Pierre Date: Eschelle dune heure de chemin. Oriented with north to the bottom. Includes text and descriptive index.
Map is in French. Map Carte de l'Indo-Chine Relief shown by shading. Map Carte de l'Indo-Chine orientale Relief shown by hachures. Map Delineatio generalis Camporum Desertorum vulgo Ukraina: Includes text in Latin and French and ill. Titles in Latin and French.
Tables geographiques des division du globe terrestre par le Sr. Chez Hubert Jaillot on sheet 64 x 54 cm. Fold-lined vertically in half. Pin holes in cloth tape in all corners Jaillot, Alexis Hubert Date: Map Plat of proposed carriage road and other improvements south of the President's House: Includes notes and computations.
Andrew Jackson - United States. Commissioner of Public Buildings Date: Relief shown pictorially and by hachures. Shows movements of English and Spanish troops under the Duke of Wellington and French troops under Joseph Bonaparte shown by two overlaying fold-over extensions pasted onto map. Pen-and-ink, pencil, and watercolor.
Oriented with north to the left. Position of the French right at about 6 o'clock in the evening to cover the retreat of their Map Hellespont or channel of the Dardanelles Relief shown by hachures; depths shown by soundings. When affixed to the cloth backing the map sheet was sectioned to 3 panels to enable folding. Handwritten signature of Millard Fillmore is not present. Lightly foxed, additionally fold-lined, hemmed by pink fabric.
Includes 2 bar scales: French leagues of toises -- French toises. Filing title in ink script on cover Also covers Constantinople and surrounding region.
Oriented with north to the upper right. Foxed, transfer-stained by adjacent book placement, hemmed by pink fabric. Signed in ink script in Map United States of Nth. Each sheet has on upper right Map A collection of plans of fortifications and battles, Title from cover of composite atlas.
Dates on maps range from to Beeck was the publisher of battle plans at The Hague from to Phillips, An atlas factice of hand col. Beeck, Anna - Baillieu, Gaspar De. Gift; Summit Enterprises; Aug. Fold lined and text discolored. Map Nouvelle carte de la Caroline Relief shown pictorially. Title in French; geographic names in English. English edition of this map appears in Morden, Robert. Map Nouvelle Ecosse ou partie orientale du Canada. Text in French and German. From the author's Atlas Ameriquain Septentrional Map Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova.
Oriented with north towards the right. Includes two views "Modus muniendi apud Mahikanenses" and illustrations including an illustrated cartouche. Place names in Latin and Dutch. Text on verso in French. Blaeu, Willem Janszoon Date: Pen-and-ink and watercolor mounted on cloth backed paper.
Date estimated from style of image and text. Originally accompanied by four pages of French text from an unidentified source. Map A map of the countries between Constantinople and Calcutta: Shows railroads, submarine telegraphs, and boundaries of British possessions colored in red. Edward Stanford Ltd Date: Relief shown by form lines and spot heights. Map Situation of a part of the first line of defence of Lisbon Relief shown pictorially and by hachures. Hand written annotation on verso. Minimal level cataloging record. Cartouche engraved by N.
Cartouche engraved by C. Transferred from the collection of the Canal Zone Library-Museum, Phillips Includes ill. French text on verso. Annotated in pencil, on verso, with Canal Zone Library map checklist number: Also shows primary administrative divisions. Ferro and Pulkovo meridians. Includes inset of Irkutsk. LC copy missing small edge sections, mounted on cloth backing, trimmed, rubber-stamped, annotated in pencil and ink, has annotated legend in French in lower margin. This map, taken from the New General Atlas, , is dedicated to Mr.
It is a translation of the French map of Delisle, published in Maps of the Miss. Printed map does not show specifically identified discoveries or explorers' routes. Title and place-names in old-orthography Russian; added notes in French. Depo Kart - Wilbrecht, Alexander Date: Map Carte de l'Amerique: Appears in the author's Carte generale de France et de ses nouuelles acquisitions.
Includes inset of the north pole region, inset of the south pole region, text in margin surrounding map, and ill. Vertically fold-lined at center. Map Orbis terrarum descriptio duobis planis hemisphaeriis comprehe[n]sa Includes notes and illustrations including the garden of Eden, the last judgement, and the four seasons. LC copy mounted on paper, wrinkled, with some staining and pin holes in all corners.
French map of the North Pole affixed to the back, with manuscript commentary. Mapping of the world, Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Geylekerck, Nicolaes - Jansz, Jan Date: This edition includes "Routes de Mr. Halley" and "Glaces vues par Mr. Halley" off the east coast of South America. LC copy trimmed to neat line, and mounted on paper, sheet 55 x 80 cm.
In manuscript in upper right corner of backing sheet "I". Map Planisphere terrestre, suivant les nouvelles observations des astronomes Planispherium terrestre secundum recentiores astronomorum observationes Relief shown pictorially. Centered on the North Pole. Includes illustrations and notes. This map appears as map 2 in Gueudeville's Le nouveau theatre du monde of , as map 27 in volume 1 of Ottens' Atlas maior, , and as map 5 in volume 1 of Covens and Mortier's Atlas nouveau, LC copy mounted on cloth. Parallel title and notes also in Hand colored to emphasize the boundaries of the constituent states and provinces.
Vertically fold-lined at sheet center. Available also through the Relief shown by contours. A similiar copy with manuscript topography, hydrography, and road conditions by Major George Hartmann: Stained along fold lines, sectioned into 32 and mounted on cloth, folding to 19 x Map Tabula Mexicae et Floridae: Measures east from unidentified prime meridian.