Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, today, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia.
A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Upon its independence, declared in , Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from to Its capital, Brussels, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is also a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index.
A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in , although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of and for women in The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie.
Her work has been published in magazines and she also writes screenplays. De Coster has also cited as an up-and-coming author. Saskia de Coster has published six books as of 19 April Saskia De Coster was born in and she began writing when she was just two years old. When she was eleven, she won a national story contest and was awarded the title of Junior Journalist, Saskia De Coster studied Germanic languages at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, between and Besides novels, De Coster also writes columns and she is on the editorial staff of Dietsche Warande en Belfort, a literary magazine.
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In late , she replaced Aaf Brandt Corstius as a daily columnist for nrc. She works with video art, writes for theatre and writes lyrics for such as Daan Stuyven. De Coster has designed the cover of her sixth novel Wij en ik herself De Coster started Project , since her sixth novel Wij en ik counts pages, she will read daily one page, every day on a different location.
All those clips are posted on her YouTube channel, on 20 September , Saskia De Coster wrote a letter to a national newspaper, De Standaard, posing as the former chairman of the Boerenbond, a farmer organization. In this letter, she denounces the values and the interests of the organization, an investigation revealed that the mail was sent from the offices of the local Green party.
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Lilars mother was a school teacher, her father a railway station master. In Lilar attended the State University of Ghent where she studied philosophy and was the first woman to receive a Law degree in , during her studies she attended a seminar on Hadewych. Her interest in the 13th century poet and mystic would play an important role in her essays, plays. Lilars historico-cultural insight, her analysis of consciousness and emotion, her search for beauty and love are at the time current. Applying a strong intellect to her work through precise language, she was a modern writer.
She later became a playwright with Le Burlador, an original reinterpretation of the myth of Don Juan from the perspective that revealed a profound capacity for psychological analysis. Transcendence and metamorphosis are central to her seminal work Le Couple, in writings on Rubens, the Androgyne or homosexuality in Ancient Greece, Lilar meditates on the role of the woman in conjugal love throughout the ages.
His death by euthanasia, which is legal in Belgium, led to considerable controversy, Hugo Claus was born on 5 April at Sint-Janshospitaal in Bruges, Belgium. He was the eldest of the born to Jozef Claus.
Three more sons were born into the family within the subsequent decade, Guido, Odo, educated at a boarding school, the young Hugo Claus lived in Belgium during the German invasion of the country in World War II. Claus experience with the wartime nationalist right would become a source for his book The Sorrow of Belgium. A sympathizer of the left at a more mature period in his life.
Claus prominence in literary circles and his debut as a novelist came in and his first published poems had in fact been printed by his father as early as He lived in Paris from until , where he met many of the members of the CoBrA art movement, from February until the beginning of , Hugo Claus lived in Italy where his girlfriend Elly Overzier acted in a few films. They were married on 26 May , and had a son, Thomas, in the early s, he had an affair with actress Sylvia Kristel, who was 23 years younger, with whom he had a son, Arthur, in The relationship ended in , when she left him for actor Ian McShane and he was a contrarian, of anarchist spirit.
Hugo Claus was considered to be one of the most important contemporary Belgian authors, Claus published the novel Schola Nostra under the pseudonym Dorothea Van Male. Most prolific in literary endeavors as a dramatist, Claus wrote 35 original pieces and 31 translations from English, Greek, Latin, French and Spanish plays, the prison term was reduced to a suspended sentence after a public outcry.
Claus also wrote the script of a comic strip, De Avonturen van Belgman in As a painter, Claus was a participant in the CoBrA art movement from and he had developed friendships with some of its members, and illustrated a book by Pierre Alechinsky in Lilars mother was a school teacher, her father a railway station master. In Lilar attended the State University of Ghent where she studied philosophy and was the first woman to receive a Law degree in , during her studies she attended a seminar on Hadewych. Her interest in the 13th century poet and mystic would play an important role in her essays, plays.
Lilars historico-cultural insight, her analysis of consciousness and emotion, her search for beauty and love are at the time current. Applying a strong intellect to her work through precise language, she was a modern writer. She later became a playwright with Le Burlador, an original reinterpretation of the myth of Don Juan from the perspective that revealed a profound capacity for psychological analysis. Transcendence and metamorphosis are central to her seminal work Le Couple, in writings on Rubens, the Androgyne or homosexuality in Ancient Greece, Lilar meditates on the role of the woman in conjugal love throughout the ages.
Translated into Dutch in , it includes an afterword by Marnix Gijsen, in the same vein she later wrote critical essays on Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir. She adopted the surname Yourcenar — an almost anagram of Crayencour, having one fewer c — as a pen name, yourcenars first novel, Alexis, was published in Yourcenar was lesbian, she and Frick became lovers in , after ten years spent in Hartford, Connecticut, they bought a house in Northeast Harbor, Maine on Mount Desert Island, where they lived for decades.
In , she published, in France, the novel Memoirs of Hadrian, the novel was an immediate success and met with great critical acclaim. The Emperor meditates on his past, describing both his triumphs and his failures, his love for Antinous, and his philosophy, the novel has become a modern classic.
An anecdote tells of how the bathroom labels were changed in this male-dominated institution. She published many novels, essays, and poems, as well as three volumes of memoirs, yourcenars house on Mount Desert Island, Petite Plaisance, is now a museum dedicated to her memory. She is buried across the sound in Somesville, Maine. Bessora — Bessora is a novelist and short story writer.
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After a career in finance in Geneva, she studied anthropology. Since Bessora has published a book a year on average and her books have been translated into several languages. Because of her numerous stays abroad and her origins, Bessoras writing possesses a free, demanding.
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Having first dreamed of being a stewardess, Bessora later attended the HEC Lausanne, after obtaining a degree in management and a masters degree in applied economics, she worked in finance before changing course. Following a journey in South Africa, she studied anthropology in Paris and she obtained a doctorate in anthropology in , and continued to write novels. Marcel Proust — He is considered by critics and writers to be one of the most influential authors of the 20th century.
Proust was born in Auteuil at the home of his great-uncle on 10 July and he was born during the violence that surrounded the suppression of the Paris Commune, and his childhood corresponded with the consolidation of the French Third Republic. Prousts father, Adrien Proust, was a prominent pathologist and epidemiologist, studying cholera in Europe and he wrote numerous articles and books on medicine and hygiene. Proust was raised in his fathers Catholic faith and he was baptized and later confirmed as a Catholic, but he never formally practiced that faith.
He later became an atheist and was somewhat of a mystic, by the age of nine, Proust had had his first serious asthma attack, and thereafter he was considered a sickly child. Despite this he excelled in literature, receiving an award in his final year, thanks to his classmates, he was able to gain access to some of the salons of the upper bourgeoisie, providing him with copious material for In Search of Lost Time. As a young man, Proust was a dilettante and a social climber whose aspirations as a writer were hampered by his lack of self-discipline.
His reputation from this period, as a snob and an amateur, contributed to his troubles with getting Swanns Way. It is through Mme Arman de Caillavet that he made the acquaintance of Anatole France, Proust had a close relationship with his mother. To appease his father, who insisted that he pursue a career, after exerting considerable effort, he obtained a sick leave that extended for several years until he was considered to have resigned.
He never worked at his job, and he did not move from his parents apartment until after both were dead and his life and family circle changed markedly between and In February , Prousts brother, Robert Proust, married and his father died in November of the same year. Finally, and most crushingly, Prousts beloved mother died in September and she left him a considerable inheritance.
His health throughout this period continued to deteriorate, Proust spent the last three years of his life mostly confined to his bedroom, sleeping during the day and working at night to complete his novel. He died of pneumonia and an abscess in With an estimated population of 8,, distributed over an area of about Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world.
Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs — Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island — were consolidated into a single city in The city and its surroundings came under English control in and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from until It has been the countrys largest city since , the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy.
In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city.
Over colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1, feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today.
Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange.
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The Independent — The Independent is a British online newspaper. The printed edition of the paper ceased in March , nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet newspaper, but changed to tabloid format in Until September , the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as free from party political bias and it tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues. In June , it had a daily circulation of just below 58,,85 per cent down from its peak.
On 12 February , it was announced that The Independent, the last print edition of The Independent on Sunday was published on 20 March , with the main paper ceasing print publication the following Saturday. Launched in , the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format and it was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwells ownership, marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, and Whittam Smith took control of the paper.
The paper was created at a time of a change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and ultimately defeated them in the Wapping dispute, consequently, production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition. As a result of controversy around Murdochs move to Wapping, the plant was effectively having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside, the Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his companys new headquarters.
Launched with the advertising slogan It is, and challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over , by Competing in a market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years.
Some aspects of production merged with the paper, although the Sunday paper retained a largely distinct editorial staff. It featured spoofs of the other papers mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, a number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure, Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in his book, My Trade. Edmond de Goncourt, an author, critic, and publisher, bequeathed his estate for the foundation.
In honour of his brother and collaborator, Jules Alfred Huot de Goncourt, the jury that determines the winner meets at the Drouant restaurant in November to make its decision.
It has become known as something of a second-place prize, within months of the first prize in , it spawned a hostile counter-prize in the form of the Prix Femina to counter the all-male Jury of the Goncourt with an all-female jury on the Femina. In , Rene Maran won the Goncourt with Batouala, veritable roman negre, the novel caused violent reactions and was banned in all the French colonies. A period of literary intrigue followed, garys cousins son Paul Pavlowitch posed as the author for a time.