Pursuant to the legislation, external evaluation is conducted on a regular scheduled and ad-hoc basis. The legislation does not define the frequency of external evaluation. Scheduled evaluations are carried out in line with the aims of the national policy and a pedagogical supervision plan in which the Minister of National Education defines the scope of evaluations for every school year. Criteria for the choice of schools to be covered by evaluation are determined by the Heads of the REAs. Ad-hoc external evaluations are carried out in case it is necessary to take action which was not envisaged in the pedagogical supervision plan.
The procedure for external evaluation is defined in the legislation only in general terms. Inspectors conducting evaluation are required to have the following qualifications defined in the regulations: In addition, all inspectors are obliged to complete an in-service training course in evaluation at least every two years. At the end of a site visit to the school, the inspector or team of inspectors presents findings from the evaluation to the teaching council of the school a collective body composed of the school head as its chair and all teachers.
The Head of the REA forwards the report to the school's head and its managing body. The school's head may raise objections to the report which are considered by the Head of the REA. If the objections are found justified, changes are made in the report. The model was introduced in September and updated in Consequences are defined in national legislation. Where a school does not meet the requirements specified in the Regulation on the requirements Requirements 3 to 6 for nursery schools, and 2 to 5 and 7 for schools and other institutions; see the table above , the Head of the REA instructs the school head to develop a programme and schedule for improving performance effectiveness of education , and a re-evaluation is undertaken after 3 years.
In case a public school fails to develop a programme and schedule for improving performance, the Head of the REA submits a motion to dismiss the head of the school to its managing body which is binding for the latter. They provide information for comparative analysis of evaluation results in schools. In addition, the Heads of the REAs obligatorily prepare annual reports for the Minister which contain findings from pedagogical supervision, including evaluation, in their province and publish summary evaluation reports on their website.
Conclusions from these reports are used by the Heads of the REAs to devise a pedagogical supervision plan for the coming school year, including specific activities aimed at quality improvement in schools. Conclusions from reports serve as inputs to the education policy and the pedagogical supervision plan for the next year at national level. External quality assurance does not comprise periodic assessment of teacher performance. However, external bodies appoint boards assessing knowledge and skills of teachers as part of the processes leading to promotion to the appointed and chartered teacher grades two highest professional promotion grades, aside from the title of honorary school education professor.
In order to initiate the process, teachers should receive positive assessment of their professional achievements from the school head see Internal quality assurance below. For promotion to the appointed teacher grade, an examination board is appointed by the body managing the school where the teacher is employed.
The board is composed of: Upon passing the exam, the teacher is awarded the appointed teacher grade by the school managing body. For promotion to the chartered teacher grade, a qualifying board is appointed by the pedagogical supervision body Head of the REA. Upon approval by the board, the chartered teacher grade is awarded to the teacher by the pedagogical supervision body.
The arrangements for evaluation and teacher appraisal discussed below are in place in both early childhood education and school education. Internal evaluation of nursery schools, schools and other educational institutions hereafter jointly referred to as schools, wherever possible is a quality-oriented process. Evaluation is obligatorily carried out every school year , but school heads have greater discretion in internal evaluation than the Heads of the Regional Education Authorities REAs in external evaluation.
As provided for in the legislation, scheduled and ad-hoc evaluations concern issues or topics which the school considers relevant to its activities. The scope and subject of internal evaluation is determined by the school head in consultation with other management staff. However, since internal evaluation is intended to be a team-based activity, these issues should be agreed with all teachers. Pursuant to the legislation, internal evaluations are carried out on the basis of a pedagogical supervision plan , prepared by the school head for every school year and presented to the teaching council of the school a body composed of the school head and all teachers.
A supervision plan should determine the objectives, extent and subject, and the schedule of internal evaluation. As evaluation activities should reflect the specific needs of a given school, a pedagogical supervision plan developed by the head may but does not have to take into consideration the aims of the national education policy or priority tasks in the area of pedagogical supervision set by the Minister of National Education. It should, however, take into account findings from pedagogical supervision from the previous year.
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Internal evaluation is carried out by the school head together with other management staff. Regardless of that, all teachers should be actively involved. Their involvement in internal evaluation not only ensures the validity of the process, but also is taken into account in external evaluation. The legislation does not lay down the procedure for internal evaluation. The only tool referred to in the legislation is observation: In practice, this means that observation may cover both classes and other activities such as teachers' meetings with parents.
Findings from internal evaluation in a given school year are presented by the school head to the school's teaching council in a report on all internal pedagogical supervision tasks carried out by the head. Results of internal evaluation are not published, but they are obligatorily used to improve school performance and are taken into consideration in external evaluation. Teacher appraisal is divided into the assessment of teacher performance and the assessment of teachers' professional achievements.
The rules for appraisal, laid down in the legislation, are identical for teachers working in the early childhood sector and the school education sector. Performance assessment concerns all teachers, except teachers-trainees, i.
The legislation does not define the minimum frequency of performance assessment. It may be carried out at any time, but not earlier than a year after the previous performance assessment or the previous assessment of professional achievements. Pursuant to the legislation, performance assessment is carried out on the initiative of the school head or at the request of the teacher, the body responsible for external pedagogical supervision, the school managing body, the school council or the parents' council. It is carried out by the school head as part of internal pedagogical supervision.
The school head uses various tools in performance assessment, including: General assessment criteria are laid down in the legislation. In particular, it takes into consideration the following aspects:. The regulations also stipulate that performance assessment ends with one of the following general descriptive grades:. Detailed approaches are developed on the basis of these general rules by the school's teaching council. Internal procedures or regulations for performance assessment in a school lay down requirements for each of the three grades. Appeals are considered by a team appointed by the pedagogical supervision body which may either keep the same grade or give a different one.
Results of performance assessment are used by teachers when they apply for the promotion to a higher professional grade or for the position of school head in a competition. They are also used by school heads and teachers to justify motions to grant awards which are put forward to higher-level bodies or decisions to give incentive allowances and awards in accordance with internal school regulations. Moreover, general findings from teacher performance assessment are used in the planning of school activities.
Accreditation is a process, widely used in higher education to evaluate the quality educational programs. Quality can be assured by transparent selection procedures, well-established entrance examinations, centrally regulated curricula, self-evaluation and academic audits conducted by the institutions themselves, appointing external examiners and requirement of national examinations before licensure.
MCI has proposed common entrance examinations, the curricula are regulated by MCI, and it has also proposed a national common licensure examination to be implemented from The final university examinations are conducted by using external examiners.
One aspect, that is partly addressed, is the self-evaluation and monitoring. Though MCI conducts periodic inspections, they are limited to verification of resources in terms of manpower, infrastructure and hospital bed strength. The curriculum implementation, innovations in teaching-learning processes and assessment are rarely looked into.
If our educational standards have to meet the global standards, quality assurance measures need to be put in place. More than 70 countries in the world are following the quality assurance and accreditation systems based on an external review.
NAAC's vision and mission focus on making quality assurance an integral part of the functioning of higher education institutions. To remain in competition with global institutions, the medical education in India needs to catch up with international accreditation standards, based on WFME global standards. Medical students play a pivotal role in quality assurance in medical education. During accreditation, independent reports of the students get considerable weightage.
Other stakeholders such as patients, medical professionals and society will also play an important role in quality assurance. Inputs from these stakeholders will go a long way in shaping the mission and vision of an institution. Their views will have an effect on the competence, a medical graduate should possess. Quality assurance is a process that requires transparency and dissemination of results to all the stakeholders.
Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education | Eurydice
Constructive feedback and establishing the systems to continuously review and implement the changes based on scientific conceptual framework will help the medical education to move from quality assurance to quality improvement. Striving for quality means entering a circle where continuous quality improvement is required. Quality education is the responsibility of all, the teachers, students, administrators and management of the institution. Our ultimate goal should be to improve the quality of healthcare and that will happen only if we take care of the quality of medical education.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. In addition, regulators still mainly base CE requirements on participation and accumulation of credit hours rather than outcomes. Despite some movements toward interprofessional education, CE remains most often associated with didactic learning methods and clinical knowledge, and in most cases, does not measure competence or impact on quality of care. Specific to these shortcomings, incorporating the CPD approach into practice can improve the existing composition of continuing education.
Given its broader focus, the process capitalizes on intrinsic motivations by allowing health professionals to tailor their learning processes, settings, and curriculum. When identifying practice or educational gaps, learners can specifically target and create plans to improve their practice with measurable results.
Developed after passage of competency assessment legislation in , Ontario shifted from an hours-based model to a competence-based model consisting of three components: Portfolio contents include an education action plan, continuing education log, FAQ log, and professional profile. Although on hold, the peer review process consists of a clinical knowledge and practice-based assessment that includes cases and standardized patient interviews, orientations and feedback sessions.
The Benefit of Continuing Professional Development for Continuing Pharmacy Education
In addition, training materials were also developed including a web-based practice examination, and patient interview videos. Costs for the development and implementation of the program are paid for by annual licensure fees. The other countries listed each have distinct CPD approaches. The Pharmacy Board of Australia, for instance, requires pharmacists to complete activities that have an aggregate value of 40 or more CPD credits annually, develop a CPD plan, and maintain detailed and verifiable records of learning. In the medical profession, voluntary board certification largely regulates many elements of CPD beyond required CME hours.
Board certification rates among physicians outpace pharmacists. An employer-employee partnership is perhaps a more natural home for CPD. Employees wanting to seek opportunities for advancement or to develop local expertise could benefit from a formalized self-directed learning approach such as CPD. As with all new systems, challenges with the CPD approach exist. Undoubtedly, CPD requires increased efforts on the part of the learner — self-assessing, seeking learning opportunities, and documenting outcomes require energy and support.
Critics have noted a variety of barriers to the practice of CPD including lack of time for reflection, funding for learning, defining responsibilities and designating roles of parties involved in CPD, and demonstrating CPD results to stakeholders. Increasing offerings toward application- and practiced-based activities, while aligning offerings with learner interests, will further meet the needs of learners and aid in facilitating change-driven impact in practice. A variety of bodies constitute ACPE CPE providers, including colleges and schools of pharmacy, professional associations, continuing education companies, health systems, and publishers.
Arguably, given our mission, academia should drive change in continuing pharmacy education. Additionally, this shift would increase available scholarship and grantmanship opportunities for faculty members who seek to publish outcomes. Further, colleges could support employers wishing to implement the CPD approach to learning in their organizations. For medical center-affiliated CE providers, partnering with the Quality Improvement QI departments of partner health systems offers access to data to demonstrate commitment to delivering optimal care. In addition, formation of quality improvement focused education should be interprofessional in connection to the context of new health care delivery systems.
Continuing education should be viewed not only as public outreach for colleges, but also as the strategic professional development vehicle that can drive change. Walsh proposed five levels for judging the value of CME: Given the challenges of adopting the CPD approach into the current CE infrastructure, models must be developed that remove barriers, maximize efficiencies, and decrease burden among all parties. Specific barriers such as funding for travel and time away from work could be mitigated by leveraging technology to facilitate learning. Communities of learners can be created with shared interests that foster innovation and promote sustainable programming that would be efficient in terms of financial resources.
Health professionals have historically spent, on average, between 1 and 3 weeks per year at educational meetings. In , 7, hours of live accredited CME activities were delivered through online means, in addition to the over 74, hours of enduring materials available online. Simulation will likely play a larger role in CPD as seen in PharmD curriculums , particularly if a large number of practicing pharmacists must retool their skillset to assume direct patient care roles.
Allowing for practice of skills in a safe environment, simulation can be helpful in achieving goals in CPD and support mastery-based learning. Societal expectations call for a safe, patient-centered, evidence-based, and efficient health care system. As our profession adapts to meet the needs of a value-based health care system, so, too, must our current continuing education system. Specific improvements for consideration should include a shift beyond an attendance-based credit system; increased focus on interprofessional learning and performance; and linkage of needs-assessment performance gaps with quality improvement.