This research, therefore, has opened a new scientific discussion on the self-help concept in community-help concept in CBDRM concept development in Indonesia. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.
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The process of getting in getting out GIGO or flying in flying out FIFO by non-governmental organisations has been a regular phenomenon as their mission has been always temporary and short-term because of limited resources. Many manuals and models largely framed CBDRR as a series of events that start from the point where an NGO comes from outside to help a community at risk. Community selection is made based on historical characteristics of disaster risk.
The process will end with an exit strategy Lassa et al. This article mainly aims at telling stories about CBDRR practices informed by documented knowledge and experiences from an NGO that has been working with the communities and local governments in the Toineke village in eastern Indonesia. How can a community-based risk reduction project contribute to long-term social change?
Sub-questions include the following: How risk and vulnerabilities evolve in a village over a long period of time? Rather than exhibiting a sophisticated analysis, the article combines storytelling as well as reflections informed by 20 years of CBDRR engagements with the communities in Toineke, a small delta village situated in Kualin sub-district in South Central Timor TTS , eastern Indonesia Figure 2.
The story of the evolution of risk management goes back six decades in the past. This research uses longitudinal observations and combines qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative approaches are based on longitudinal observation during — Field observations by the authors occurred during several flood and drought events between and Data collections have been a mixture of project assessments, monitoring and evaluation as well as unpublished reports Table 1. Participant observations have been conducted several times during — The authors have been visiting this village numerous times in the last 18 years to understand social and environmental changes and challenges in the Toineke village in West Timor, Indonesia, in the last 40 years.
Numerous documentations were made during this period e. Forum Kesiapan dan Penanganan Bencana conducted a community-based flood management programme during — and later — including flood emergency assessments in — and capacity building by an NGO, namely PMPB, via its food and livelihoods monitoring system FLMS that had been implemented during — FLMS involved household surveys and regular monitoring in the village.
The authors recently used social media Facebook to monitor several mentions of Toineke during several flood events that occurred during — The interesting part of this method is that it can monitor several flood events in Toineke with recorded videos and photos posted online.
Media archives clippings from to have been used to validate records from social media for both flood and drought events in Toineke. It was established to help local communities, local governments, NGOs and United Nations agencies with alternative information on potential hunger and food insecurity including potential widespread of malnutrition in East Nusa Tenggara NTT province, Indonesia.
The event had been exacerbated by the onset of Asian economic crisis during — that led to Indonesian political crisis that eventually led to the fall of Suharto regime. The cascading effect of political-economic crisis led to the independence of East Timor from Indonesia. The processes that surrounded the independence of East Timor had been pre-empted by a major humanitarian crisis in East Timorese which led to the influx of refugees to West Timor, Indonesia.
The civil society forum in West Timor later changed the mandates of PIRP by expanding its focus from famine and food insecurity towards all types of hazards. Etymologically, Toineke is derived from toi [gate] and neke [kapok tree] Java cotton or Ceiba pentandra. Kapok tree has been used to gain cash not only in bad years during long severe drought but also in good time when the harvest of food crops was good. The villagers have been producing kapok cotton and sold it to Chinese traders at least in the last 80— years. Fisheries is the least developed sector because most West Timorese in the village and elsewhere do not have the skills and culture for offshore fishing.
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Under the agro-ecosystem classification, Toineke village is classified as having an alluvial system where its soil is mostly sandy clay. Situated in the dryland of the south coast of South Central Timor, the village is famously known as a disaster-prone area. Annually, the Toineke and its surrounding areas receive less than mm rainfall spanning only 4—5 months, mainly during December—May.
The Aisio Forest has provided multiple ecosystem services ranging from flood protection, food security during drought and livelihood diversification. Since the occupation of the Toineke landscape up to the early s, the Aisio Forest has been the natural flood protection for the early settlers of Toineke. In bad times e. Recent annual trends shows that the village is growing at 1. The village population has increased from people in , people in and people in The total land area, excluding forests, is As of , In recent data from Kualin in Figures and , the land size included the forest area which brings a total of Disaster specialists are often interested only in natural hazards such as floods and droughts.
Emerald: Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management
However, the communities have been concerned with some of the more regular problems including the everyday problems Bogardi et al. Using cardinal ranking logic, Table 2 suggests that flood and flood inundations are the most prioritised events. Droughts comes after the floods followed by pests and diseases. Apart from these three hazards, the local communities have been worried about their need to get access to financial capital e.
The community has been facing immediate risk of price volatility because of their close proximity to seasonal trade every Saturday. Some farmers went to the nearby cities to sell their labour and often felt that wages are not properly created and just. For spread or distribution: The communities identified each type of problem defined in Table 2 while indicating actions being taken before and after Table 3.
Table 3 suggests that the involvement of NGOs and other external actors has been facilitating empowerment to some degree where the communities transformed themselves from non-intervention state towards building flood walls and planting trees. Please see the full reference list of the article, Lassa, J.
Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 10 1 , a Most of the villages in the southern coast of West Timor have a dry climates. Small changes in the climate in Timor Sea will affect the villagers. This has been observed in Toineke as the local communities remembered some of the past events during , , , , , and We found that local governments have improved their disaster response capabilities in recent years.
For example, in the recent ENSO-driven droughts in and , the droughts did not lead to emergencies because there was adequate response from the local governments see Table 4. Very often, droughts caused reduction of consumption quality and quantity leading to food insecurity and malnutrition Table 4. The risk can be compensated by trading NTFPs. The villagers have gained access to NTFPs such as kapok cotton and tamarind seeds and tamarind meat. Interestingly, based on village reports as of 23 October , there have been recorded sales of metric ton tamarind from Toineke and equivalent of Rp. The sales of kapok cotton hit 40 metric ton Rp.
Such capacity is often not recognised from formal reports of local governments as well as NGOs. Combining NTFPs, cash economy and subsistent agriculture have been the key strategy to build resilient livelihoods in Toineke. Floods have been disruptive to their livelihood assets such as livestock and food crops.
Toineke flood news has been constantly hitting local and national media, especially during severe floods and droughts in the last 20 years. Harvest losses and food insecurity have been the most common phenomena, especially in the northern side of the village. The situation has been exacerbated by the lack of proper road drainage. During flood season, the northern part receives excessive run-off that cannot be discharged to the sea as the road prevents the water from flowing to the coasts.
Verbal history narrated by the communities suggested that the first damaging floods started in when the road construction finished. The problem is that most rural roads and highways in Indonesia do not have drainage channels. As a result, surface water run-off often inundated both agricultural fields and community housing during flood seasons. The historical events from were coincidental with the road — it was elevated and paved but no drainage channel was constructed Lassa Most elders narrated that this ignorance of the need of drainage continues to happen till today.
Figure 3 shows the trend of flood events in the last four decades since early s. It shows that the village has continued to experience more flood events as it is in fact getting worse from time to time. The floods in had triggered a widespread contamination of water because of lack of protection of the wells. Most of the wells are not protected by concrete cover.
The floods have been the worst in history where widespread diarrhoea caused the death of 22 children aged under 5. The response was justified by sudden declines of food security and the quality of life of the villagers. The final distribution took place in December , followed by post-distribution monitoring in early On 16 May , a flash flood hit the village because of continuous rainfall starting late April up to the first week of May In the case of past disasters, communities were always the first responders, and took leading roles in the post disaster recovery. The roles of communities in pre-disaster preparedness are also very important.
This is the first comprehensive book available on CBDRR community based disaster risk reduction which outlines both research and practice, citing field examples and research results. It provides an overview of the subject and looks at the role of governments, NGOs, academics and corporate sectors in community based disaster risk reduction. It proceeds to examine experiences from Asian and African countries, and concludes by looking ahead to the future perspective of CBDRR. Product details Format Hardback pages Dimensions x x 38mm People who bought this also bought.
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