This paper demonstrates the development of inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna with double-P slots.
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The printed planar antenna has gained the operating frequencies of 1. The experimental results for fabricated antenna show good agreement with the simulation results obtained from commercially available finite element based simulator HFSS. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List ScientificWorldJournal v. Published online Aug 5. Ahsan , 1 M. Islam , 1 M. Habib Ullah , 1 , 2 W.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This paper presents a compact sized inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna embedded with double-P slots. Introduction In the past couple of years, the emerging trends of wireless and mobile communications technology always requested optimum utilization of the productive resources by ensuring multiple quality services with a single device component.
Antenna Design Figure 1 represents the fabricated antenna prototype alongside the schematic of the double-P shape slotted inset-fed patch antenna structure. Open in a separate window. Table 1 Optimal dimensions of the proposed antenna. Experimental Verifications The experimental prototype of the proposed antenna has been fabricated using printed circuit board for verifying and comparing its performance results with the expected one from numerical simulation.
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Predicted and experimented reflection coefficient of the proposed antenna prototype. Achieved gain and radiation efficiency of the proposed antenna. Conclusion This paper demonstrates the development of inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna with double-P slots. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. A procedure to design stacked microstrip patch antennas based on a simple network model.
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters. Proceedings of the IEEE. John M, Ammann MJ. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal. Bandwidth enhancement of a dual band planar monopole antenna using meandered microstrip feeding.
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The Scientific World Journal. Metallized foams for antenna design: Progress in Electromagnetics Research. Compact slot and dielectric resonator antenna with dual-resonance, broadband characteristics.
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The gain and efficiency of antenna are also low; hence, elliptical patch antenna in its present form is not much suitable for modern communication systems. It requires some modification before being used in any practical application. In the next section, this conventional elliptical patch is modified. In this section, conventional elliptical patch antenna is modified to attain better-quality broadband performance as the conventional elliptical patch antenna, which resonates at four frequencies but presents narrow bandwidth. The layout of single layer assembly of gap coupled elements in elliptical shape is shown in Figure 4.
It represents that among the five patches considered in the present assembly, the two pairs of patches patch 2 and patch 4 having different patch areas in association with patch 3 and patch 5 and are arranged around an edge truncated elliptical patch to attain higher impedance bandwidth. The central edge truncated elliptical patch is fed through inset feed arrangement and the other patches are parasitically gap coupled to the central patch.
Extensive optimizations in width and position of slot along major and minor axes of conventional elliptical patch antenna are carried out to achieve best performance from this assembly of patches. The design parameters of different patches are listed in Table 1. Figure 4 depicts that, in modified structure, an elliptical patch is alienated as an arrangement of five different patches coupled together parasitically.
The overall dimension of the assembly of patches is the same as that reported in previous case for a conventional elliptical patch antenna. In first step, after optimization, two vertical slots of width mm are introduced and afterward two outer gap coupled parts are further divided by two additional horizontal slots of width mm to achieve the best performance from this assembly.
Inset feed arrangement through SMA connector in association with 50 ohm feed line is applied to feed the central radiating patch patch 1. The gap spacing between gap coupled patches along the vertical direction is taken slightly different from gap spacing between gap coupled patches along horizontal direction in order to excite some additional resonant mode.
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If the resonance frequencies of these gap coupled patches are close to each other, then larger bandwidth may be obtained as shown in Figure 5. The simulated and measured reflection coefficient results of assembly of patches forming gap coupled elliptical patch antenna as a function of frequency are shown in Figures 5 and 6 , respectively. The simulated results of antenna present three clear resonances at frequencies 5.
The simulated impedance bandwidth of antenna is 2. Figure 7 shows the comparison of simulated maximum total field gain of the gap coupled elliptical patch antenna to conventional elliptical patch antenna.
It indicates that the gain of conventional single layer patch antennas is very poor whereas for proposed gap coupled elliptical patch antenna the gain of antenna is around 4. These gain values are improved more than those which were realized with conventional elliptical patch antenna. Figure 8 depicts the comparison of simulated total field directivity of the gap coupled elliptical patch antenna to conventional elliptical patch antenna which indicates that for gap coupled elliptical patch antenna the directivity is around 8.
The gain and efficiency values of antenna are not remarkable and are found to be low due to application of glass epoxy FR-4 substrate material, which have high dielectric constant 4. The simulated E and H plane far field elevation patterns of proposed assembly of patches forming gap coupled elliptical patch antenna at the three resonance frequencies 5. At all the three frequencies, the direction of maximum radiations is normal to patch geometry and patterns are systematical in nature. At all the three frequencies a null near to the broadside is observed. These patterns suggest that the direction of maximum radiations is normal to patch geometry and patterns are symmetrical in nature in entire frequency range of interest.