Best Historical Research in Recorded Jazz category. It has existed in a state of continual evolution since the early s. The Art and Science of Tonal Gravity. What is the aim of the Lydian Chromatic Concept? The principal aim of The Concept is to grasp the behavior of all musical activity i.
Its purpose is to provide a road map of the musical universe that tells you where all the roads are, but does not tell you which roads to take.
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What is the primary difference between the Lydian Chromatic Concept and all other theories of music? Unlike any other theory of music, Mr. By seeking what music ITSELF is telling us about its own elemental structure, The Concept supplies the necessary means to conceive that a gravitation field of tones exists as a self-organized order of unity. The Concept does not disprove the discoveries and contributions of other musical theories, but rather explains where their truths rest in the context of tonal gravity. What is Tonal Gravity?
Tonal gravity is the heart of the Lydian Chromatic Concept. Simply put, the basic building block of tonal gravity is the interval of the perfect fifth. There are 3 states of tonal gravity: Vertical, Horizontal, and Supra-Vertical. Why is the Lydian Scale of paramount importance in this Concept? The Lydian Scale was not chosen as the primary scale for this system of music theory because it sounds nice or has some subjective or historical significance. Since the interval of a fifth is the building block of tonal gravity, a seven-tone scale created by successive fifths establishes the most vertically unified harmonic order whereby the gravity falls down each fifth back to the singular Lydian tonic.
When seven ascending consecutive fifths i. What is the fundamental difference between the Lydian and Major Scale? The Major Scale is known as a diatonic meaning: Therefore, the essential difference between these two scales is that the Lydian a single tonic scale is in a state of unity with itself, and the Major Scale, with its two tonics, is in a state of resolving. What is a Lydian Chromatic Scale? The Lydian Chromatic Scale is the most complete expression of the total self-organized tonal gravity field with which all tones relate on the basis of their close to distant magnetism to a Lydian tonic.
Are there any historical and acoustical foundations underlying the Concept? The recently published edition of the Concept goes into great depth and discussion concerning the historical and acoustical foundations underlying the Concept. These ideas are critical to understanding the significance of this theory, and are too involved and elaborate to post on this website.
It should be noted that the current book presents these specific subjects far more extensively than in previous editions. Who can most benefit by studying the Lydian Chromatic Concept? One of the beauties of The Concept is that it is designed for musicians and non-musicians alike. Its contribution is relevant in all stylistic genres of music and from all time periods. It even extends beyond Western music to some ancient forms of non-Western music.
Most students of The Concept tend to be composers, improvisers, and people interested in the analysis of already existing musical compositions. Many people outside of music are drawn to The Concept due to its objective view of tonal gravity. Does a student of the Concept have to abandon their already existing knowledge of Western music theory? Students of this work are able to adapt their own musical perspectives to the ideas presented by the Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization.
For example, analysis of compositions by J. Bach and Maurice Ravel are included in the current volume to reinforce the all-inclusive nature of tonal gravity. Is the current revised edition dramatically different from the previous editions? The more robust, comprehensive and detailed current volume adds never before published depth and dimension through exhaustive examples of analysis, scales, background information and test examples for the student. The general consensus among musicians and musicologists is that the first original jazz piece to be overtly based in clave was "Tanga" , composed by Cuban-born Mario Bauza and recorded by Machito and his Afro-Cubans in New York City.
This was the birth of Afro-Cuban jazz. The use of clave brought the African timeline , or key pattern , into jazz. Music organized around key patterns convey a two-celled binary structure, which is a complex level of African cross-rhythm.
The harmonic progression can begin on either side of clave, and the harmonic "one" is always understood to be "one". If the progression begins on the "three-side" of clave, it is said to be in clave. If the progression begins on the "two-side", its in clave. Bobby Sanabria mentions several innovations of Machito's Afro-Cubans, citing them as the first band: They were also the first band in the United States to use the term "Afro-Cuban" as the band's moniker, thus identifying itself and acknowledging the West African roots of the musical form they were playing.
It forced New York City's Latino and African-American communities to deal with their common West African musical roots in a direct way, whether they wanted to acknowledge it publicly or not. Gillespie and Pozo's brief collaboration produced some of the most enduring Afro-Cuban jazz standards. According to Gillespie, Pozo composed the layered, contrapuntal guajeos Afro-Cuban ostinatos of the A section and the introduction, while Gillespie wrote the bridge. There wouldn't have been a bridge.
I thought I was writing an eight-bar bridge, but I had to keep going and ended up writing a sixteen-bar bridge. Gillespie's collaboration with Pozo brought specific African-based rhythms into bebop. While pushing the boundaries of harmonic improvisation, cu-bop also drew from African rhythm.
Jazz arrangements with a Latin A section and a swung B section, with all choruses swung during solos, became common practice with many Latin tunes of the jazz standard repertoire. Cuban percussionist Mongo Santamaria first recorded his composition " Afro Blue " in The following example shows the original ostinato "Afro Blue" bass line; the slashed noteheads indicate the main beats not bass notes , where you would normally tap your foot to keep time.
Perhaps the most respected Afro-cuban jazz combo of the late s was vibraphonist Cal Tjader 's band. In the late s, there was a revival of Dixieland , harking back to the contrapuntal New Orleans style.
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This was driven in large part by record company reissues of jazz classics by the Oliver, Morton, and Armstrong bands of the s. There were two types of musicians involved in the revival: By the late s, Louis Armstrong's Allstars band became a leading ensemble.
Through the s and s, Dixieland was one of the most commercially popular jazz styles in the US, Europe, and Japan, although critics paid little attention to it. In , he founded Clef Records , discovering Canadian jazz pianist Oscar Peterson in , and merging Clef Records with his new label Verve Records in , which advanced the career of Ella Fitzgerald et al.
By the end of the s, the nervous energy and tension of bebop was replaced with a tendency toward calm and smoothness with the sounds of cool jazz , which favored long, linear melodic lines. It emerged in New York City and dominated jazz in the first half of the s. The starting point was a collection of and singles by a nonet led by Miles Davis , released as the Birth of the Cool The theoretical underpinnings of cool jazz were laid out by the Chicago pianist Lennie Tristano , and its influence stretches into such later developments as bossa nova , modal jazz , and even free jazz.
Hard bop is an extension of bebop or "bop" music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. Hard bop was developed in the mids, coalescing in and ; it developed partly in response to the vogue for cool jazz in the early s and paralleled the rise of rhythm and blues. Miles Davis' performance of "Walkin'" at the first Newport Jazz Festival announced the style to the jazz world. Modal jazz is a development which began in the later s which takes the mode , or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation.
Previously, a solo was meant to fit into a given chord progression , but with modal jazz, the soloist creates a melody using one or a small number of modes. The emphasis is thus shifted from harmony to melody: The modal theory stems from a work by George Russell. Miles Davis introduced the concept to the greater jazz world with Kind of Blue , an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz which would become the best selling jazz album of all time.
In contrast to Davis' earlier work with hard bop and its complex chord progression and improvisation, Kind of Blue was composed as a series of modal sketches in which the musicians were given scales that defined the parameters of their improvisation and style. The track "So What" has only two chords: Other innovators in this style include Jackie McLean ,  and two of the musicians who had also played on Kind of Blue: John Coltrane and Bill Evans. By the s, Afro-Cuban jazz had been using modes for at least a decade, as much of it borrowed from Cuban popular dance forms which are structured around multiple ostinatos with only a few chords.
However, there is no evidence that Davis or other mainstream jazz musicians were influenced by the use of modes in Afro-Cuban jazz, or other branches of Latin jazz. Free jazz, and the related form of avant-garde jazz , broke through into an open space of "free tonality" in which meter, beat, and formal symmetry all disappeared, and a range of world music from India, Africa, and Arabia were melded into an intense, even religiously ecstatic or orgiastic style of playing.
The bassist Charles Mingus is also frequently associated with the avant-garde in jazz, although his compositions draw from myriad styles and genres. The first major stirrings came in the s with the early work of Ornette Coleman whose album Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation coined the term and Cecil Taylor. In developing his late style, Coltrane was especially influenced by the dissonance of Ayler's trio with bassist Gary Peacock and drummer Sunny Murray , a rhythm section honed with Cecil Taylor as leader. In November , Coltrane played a gig at the Village Vanguard, which resulted in the classic Chasin' the 'Trane , which Down Beat magazine panned as "anti-jazz".
On his tour of France, he was booed, but persevered, signing with the new Impulse! Records in and turning it into "the house that Trane built", while championing many younger free jazz musicians, notably Archie Shepp , who often played with trumpeter Bill Dixon , who organized the 4-day "October Revolution in Jazz" in Manhattan in , the first free jazz festival. A series of recordings with the Classic Quartet in the first half of show Coltrane's playing becoming increasingly abstract, with greater incorporation of devices like multiphonics , utilization of overtones, and playing in the altissimo register, as well as a mutated return to Coltrane's sheets of sound.
In the studio, he all but abandoned his soprano to concentrate on the tenor saxophone. In addition, the quartet responded to the leader by playing with increasing freedom. In June , Coltrane and 10 other musicians recorded Ascension , a minute-long piece without breaks that included adventurous solos by young avante-garde musicians as well as Coltrane, and was controversial primarily for the collective improvisation sections that separated the solos.
Dave Liebman later called it "the torch that lit the free jazz thing. After recording with the quartet over the next few months, Coltrane invited Pharoah Sanders to join the band in September While Coltrane used over-blowing frequently as an emotional exclamation-point, Sanders would opt to overblow his entire solo, resulting in a constant screaming and screeching in the altissimo range of the instrument.
Since the s, various creative centers of jazz have developed in Europe, such as the creative jazz scene in Amsterdam. Following the work of veteran drummer Han Bennink and pianist Misha Mengelberg , musicians started to explore free music by collectively improvising until a certain form melody, rhythm, or even famous song is found by the band. Since the s Keith Jarrett has been prominent in defending free jazz from criticism by traditionalists. British scholar Stuart Nicholson  has been prominent in arguing that European contemporary jazz's identity is now substantially independent of American jazz and follows a different trajectory.
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Latin jazz is the term used to describe jazz which employs Latin American rhythms and is generally understood to have a more specific meaning than simply jazz from Latin America. A more precise term might be Afro-Latin jazz, as the jazz subgenre typically employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa or exhibit an African rhythmic influence beyond what is ordinarily heard in other jazz. The two main categories of Latin jazz are Afro-Cuban jazz and Brazilian jazz. In the s and s, many jazz musicians had only a basic understanding of Cuban and Brazilian music, and jazz compositions which used Cuban or Brazilian elements were often referred to as "Latin tunes", with no distinction between a Cuban son montuno and a Brazilian bossa nova.
Even as late as , in Mark Gridley's Jazz Styles: History and Analysis , a bossa nova bass line is referred to as a "Latin bass figure. Typically, the band would only play an even-eighth "Latin" feel in the A section of the head and swing throughout all of the solos. Latin jazz specialists like Cal Tjader tended to be the exception. For example, on a live Tjader recording of "A Night in Tunisia", pianist Vince Guaraldi soloed through the entire form over an authentic mambo.
Afro-Cuban jazz began with Machito's Afro-Cubans in the early s, but took off and entered the mainstream in the late s when bebop musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie and Billy Taylor began experimenting with Cuban rhythms. Mongo Santamaria and Cal Tjader further refined the genre in the late s. Although a great deal of Cuban-based Latin jazz is modal, Latin jazz is not always modal: A Latin jazz piece may momentarily contract harmonically, as in the case of a percussion solo over a one or two-chord piano guajeo. Guajeo is the name for the typical Afro-Cuban ostinato melodies which are commonly used motifs in Latin jazz compositions.
They originated in the genre known as son. Guajeos provide a rhythmic and melodic framework that may be varied within certain parameters, whilst still maintaining a repetitive - and thus "danceable" - structure. Most guajeos are rhythmically based on clave rhythm. Guajeos are one of the most important elements of the vocabulary of Afro-Cuban descarga jazz-inspired instrumental jams , providing a means of tension and resolution and a sense of forward momentum, within a relatively simple harmonic structure.
The use of multiple, contrapuntal guajeos in Latin jazz facilitates simultaneous collective improvisation based on theme variation. In a way, this polyphonic texture is reminiscent of the original New Orleans style of jazz. For most of its history, Afro-Cuban jazz had been a matter of superimposing jazz phrasing over Cuban rhythms.
But by the end of the s, a new generation of New York City musicians had emerged who were fluent in both salsa dance music and jazz, leading to a new level of integration of jazz and Cuban rhythms. This era of creativity and vitality is best represented by the Gonzalez brothers Jerry congas and trumpet and Andy bass. He incorporated parallel fourths, with McCoy Tyner-type vamps.
This occurred in parallel with developments in Cuba  The first Cuban band of this new wave was Irakere. It was based on Charlie Parker's composition "Billie's Bounce", jumbled together in a way that fused clave and bebop horn lines. Brazilian jazz such as bossa nova is derived from samba , with influences from jazz and other 20th-century classical and popular music styles. Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies sung in Portuguese or English, whilst the related term jazz-samba describes an adaptation of street samba into jazz.
Gilberto's initial releases, and the film Black Orpheus , achieved significant popularity in Latin America ; this spread to North America via visiting American jazz musicians. Post-bop jazz is a form of small-combo jazz derived from earlier bop styles. Generally, the term post-bop is taken to mean jazz from the mid-sixties onwards that assimilates influences from hard bop , modal jazz , the avant-garde and free jazz, without necessarily being immediately identifiable as any of the above. Much post-bop was recorded for Blue Note Records.
Most post-bop artists worked in other genres as well, with a particularly strong overlap with the earlier hard bop. Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong influences from blues , gospel and rhythm and blues to create music for small groups, often the organ trio of Hammond organ , drummer and tenor saxophonist. Unlike hard bop , soul jazz generally emphasized repetitive grooves and melodic hooks, and improvisations were often less complex than in other jazz styles.
It often had a steadier "funk" style groove, which was different from the swing rhythms typical of much hard bop. Horace Silver had a large influence on the soul jazz style, with songs that used funky and often gospel -based piano vamps. There was a resurgence of interest in jazz and other forms of African-American cultural expression during the Black Arts Movement and Black nationalist period of the s and s. African themes became popular, and many new jazz compositions were given African-related titles: Pianist Randy Weston 's music incorporated African elements, such as in the large-scale suite "Uhuru Africa" with the participation of poet Langston Hughes and "Highlife: Music From the New African Nations.
Some musicians, including Pharoah Sanders , Hubert Laws , and Wayne Shorter , began using African instruments such as kalimbas , bells, beaded gourds and other instruments which were not traditional to jazz. African rhythmic structures are accessed directly by Ron Carter bass and Tony Williams drums via the rhythmic sensibilities of swing. Throughout the piece, the four beats, whether sounded or not, are maintained as the temporal referent.
Arts Fuse Book Review: Time, Beautiful and Cruel — The Story of Composer George Russell
In the example below, the main beats are indicated by slashed noteheads, which do not indicate bass notes. The use of pentatonic scales was another trend associated with Africa. The use of pentatonic scales in Africa probably goes back thousands of years. McCoy Tyner perfected the use of the pentatonic scale in his solos,  and also used parallel fifths and fourths, which are common harmonies in West Africa.
The minor pentatonic scale is often used in blues improvisation, and like a blues scale, a minor pentatonic scale can be played over all of the chords in a blues. The following pentatonic lick was played over blues changes by Joe Henderson on Horace Silver 's "African Queen" Jazz pianist, theorist, and educator Mark Levine refers to the scale generated by beginning on the fifth step of a pentatonic scale as the V pentatonic scale. Levine points out that the V pentatonic scale works for all three chords of the standard II-V-I jazz progression.
Accordingly, John Coltrane's " Giant Steps " , with its 26 chords per 16 bars, can be played using only three pentatonic scales. Coltrane studied Nicolas Slonimsky 's Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns , which contains material that is virtually identical to portions of "Giant Steps". Superimposing the pentatonic scale over "Giant Steps" is not merely a matter of harmonic simplification, but also a sort of "Africanizing" of the piece, which provides an alternate approach for soloing. Mark Levine observes that when mixed in with more conventional "playing the changes", pentatonic scales provide "structure and a feeling of increased space.
In the late s and early s, the hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion was developed by combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments and the highly amplified stage sound of rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and Frank Zappa. Jazz fusion often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, complex chords, and harmonies. In , Davis fully embraced the electric instrument approach to jazz with In a Silent Way , which can be considered his first fusion album. Composed of two side-long suites edited heavily by producer Teo Macero , this quiet, static album would be equally influential to the development of ambient music.
The music I was really listening to in was James Brown , the great guitar player Jimi Hendrix , and a new group who had just come out with a hit record, " Dance to the Music ", Sly and the Family Stone I wanted to make it more like rock. When we recorded In a Silent Way I just threw out all the chord sheets and told everyone to play off of that.
Two contributors to In a Silent Way also joined organist Larry Young to create one of the early acclaimed fusion albums: Davis' Bitches Brew album was his most successful of this era. Although inspired by rock and funk, Davis' fusion creations were original and brought about a new type of avant-garde, electronic, psychedelic-jazz, as far from pop music as any other Davis work. Pianist Herbie Hancock a Davis alumnus released four albums in the short-lived — psychedelic-jazz subgenre: Mwandishi , Crossings , and Sextant The rhythmic background was a mix of rock, funk, and African-type textures.
Musicians who had previously worked with Davis formed the four most influential fusion groups: Weather Report 's self-titled electronic and psychedelic Weather Report debut album caused a sensation in the jazz world on its arrival in , thanks to the pedigree of the group's members including percussionist Airto Moreira , and their unorthodox approach to music. The album featured a softer sound than would be the case in later years predominantly using acoustic bass with Shorter exclusively playing soprano saxophone , and with no synthesizers involved , but is still considered a classic of early fusion.
It built on the avant-garde experiments which Joe Zawinul and Shorter had pioneered with Miles Davis on Bitches Brew , including an avoidance of head-and-chorus composition in favour of continuous rhythm and movement — but took the music further. To emphasise the group's rejection of standard methodology, the album opened with the inscrutable avant-garde atmospheric piece "Milky Way", which featured by Shorter's extremely muted saxophone inducing vibrations in Zawinul's piano strings while the latter pedalled the instrument.
Down Beat described the album as "music beyond category", and awarded it Album of the Year in the magazine's polls that year. Weather Report 's subsequent releases were creative funk-jazz works. Although some jazz purists protested against the blend of jazz and rock, many jazz innovators crossed over from the contemporary hard bop scene into fusion. As well as the electric instruments of rock such as electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano and synthesizer keyboards , fusion also used the powerful amplification, "fuzz" pedals , wah-wah pedals and other effects that were used by s-era rock bands.
Jazz fusion was also popular in Japan, where the band Casiopea released over thirty fusion albums. According to jazz writer Stuart Nicholson, "just as free jazz appeared on the verge of creating a whole new musical language in the s By the mids, the sound known as jazz-funk had developed, characterized by a strong back beat groove , electrified sounds  and, often, the presence of electronic analog synthesizers. Jazz-funk also draws influences from traditional African music, Afro-Cuban rhythms and Jamaican reggae , notably Kingston bandleader Sonny Bradshaw.
Another feature is the shift of emphasis from improvisation to composition: Early examples are Herbie Hancock's Headhunters band and Miles Davis' On the Corner album, which, in , began Davis' foray into jazz-funk and was, he claimed, an attempt at reconnecting with the young black audience which had largely forsaken jazz for rock and funk. While there is a discernible rock and funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tambora and tablas and Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape.
Jazz continued to expand and change, influenced by other types of music such as world music , avant garde classical music and rock and pop. Jazz musicians began to improvise on unusual instruments, such as the jazz harp Alice Coltrane , the electrically amplified and wah-wah pedaled jazz violin Jean-Luc Ponty and the bagpipes Rufus Harley. It passed in the House of Representatives on September 23, , and in the Senate on November 4, The s saw something of a reaction against the fusion and free jazz that had dominated the s.
Trumpeter Wynton Marsalis emerged early in the decade, and strove to create music within what he believed was the tradition, rejecting both fusion and free jazz and creating extensions of the small and large forms initially pioneered by artists such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington , as well as the hard bop of the s.
It is debatable whether Marsalis' critical and commercial success was a cause or a symptom of the reaction against Fusion and Free Jazz and the resurgence of interest in the kind of jazz pioneered in the s particularly modal jazz and post-bop ; nonetheless there were many other manifestations of a resurgence of traditionalism, even if fusion and free jazz were by no means abandoned and continued to develop and evolve. For example, several musicians who had been prominent in the fusion genre during the s began to record acoustic jazz once more, including Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock.
Other musicians who had experimented with electronic instruments in the previous decade had abandoned them by the s; for example, Bill Evans , Joe Henderson , and Stan Getz. Even the s music of Miles Davis , although certainly still fusion, adopted a far more accessible and recognisably jazz-oriented approach than his abstract work of the mids, such as a return to a theme-and-solos approach. The emergence of young jazz talent beginning to perform in older, established musicians' groups further impacted the resurgence of traditionalism in the jazz community.
In the s, the groups of Betty Carter and Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers retained their conservative jazz approaches in the midst of fusion and jazz-rock, and in addition to difficulty booking their acts, struggled to find younger generations of personnel to authentically play traditional styles such as hard bop and bebop. In the late s, however, a resurgence of younger jazz players in Blakey's band began to occur. In the s, in addition to Wynton and Branford Marsalis , the emergence of pianists in the Jazz Messengers such as Donald Brown , Mulgrew Miller , and later, Benny Green , bassists such as Charles Fambrough , Lonnie Plaxico and later, Peter Washington and Essiet Essiet horn players such as Bill Pierce , Donald Harrison and later Javon Jackson and Terence Blanchard emerged as talented jazz musicians, all of whom made significant contributions in later s and s jazz music.
These younger rising stars rejected avant-garde approaches and instead championed the acoustic jazz sound of Charlie Parker , Thelonious Monk and early recordings of the first Miles Davis quintet. This group of "Young Lions" sought to reaffirm jazz as a high art tradition comparable to the discipline of classical music. In addition, Betty Carter 's rotation of young musicians in her group foreshadowed many of New York's preeminent traditional jazz players later in their careers.
Blue Note Records 's O. A similar reaction [ vague ] took place against free jazz. According to Ted Gioia:. Anthony Braxton began recording standards over familiar chord changes. Cecil Taylor played duets in concert with Mary Lou Williams , and let her set out structured harmonies and familiar jazz vocabulary under his blistering keyboard attack. And the next generation of progressive players would be even more accommodating, moving inside and outside the changes without thinking twice.
Musicians such as David Murray or Don Pullen may have felt the call of free-form jazz, but they never forgot all the other ways one could play African-American music for fun and profit. Pianist Keith Jarrett —whose bands of the s had played only original compositions with prominent free jazz elements—established his so-called 'Standards Trio' in , which, although also occasionally exploring collective improvisation, has primarily performed and recorded jazz standards.
Chick Corea similarly began exploring jazz standards in the s, having neglected them for the s. In the early s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called "pop fusion" or "smooth jazz" became successful, garnering significant radio airplay in " quiet storm " time slots at radio stations in urban markets across the U.
In general, smooth jazz is downtempo the most widely played tracks are of 90— beats per minute , and has a lead melody-playing instrument saxophone, especially soprano and tenor, and legato electric guitar are popular. West has countered the often negative perceptions of smooth jazz, stating:.
I challenge the prevalent marginalization and malignment of smooth jazz in the standard jazz narrative. Furthermore, I question the assumption that smooth jazz is an unfortunate and unwelcomed evolutionary outcome of the jazz-fusion era. Instead, I argue that smooth jazz is a long-lived musical style that merits multi-disciplinary analyses of its origins, critical dialogues, performance practice, and reception. Acid jazz developed in the UK in the s and s, influenced by jazz-funk and electronic dance music.
Acid jazz often contains various types of electronic composition sometimes including Sampling music or a live DJ cutting and scratching , but it is just as likely to be played live by musicians, who often showcase jazz interpretation as part of their performance. Ginell of AllMusic considers Roy Ayers "one of the prophets of acid jazz. Nu jazz is influenced by jazz harmony and melodies, and there are usually no improvisational aspects. It can be very experimental in nature and can vary widely in sound and concept.
Jazz rap developed in the late s and early s and incorporates jazz influences into hip hop. The groups which made up the Native Tongues Posse tended toward jazzy releases: Rapper Guru 's Jazzmatazz series began in using jazz musicians during the studio recordings. Alhough jazz rap had achieved little mainstream success, Miles Davis' final album Doo-Bop released posthumously in was based on hip hop beats and collaborations with producer Easy Mo Bee.
Davis' ex-bandmate Herbie Hancock also absorbed hip-hop influences in the mids, releasing the album Dis Is Da Drum in The relaxation of orthodoxy which was concurrent with post-punk in London and New York City led to a new appreciation of jazz. In London, the Pop Group began to mix free jazz and dub reggae into their brand of punk rock. Examples of this style include Lydia Lunch 's Queen of Siam ,  Gray, the work of James Chance and the Contortions who mixed Soul with free jazz and punk  and the Lounge Lizards  the first group to call themselves " punk jazz ".
John Zorn took note of the emphasis on speed and dissonance that was becoming prevalent in punk rock, and incorporated this into free jazz with the release of the Spy vs. Spy album in , a collection of Ornette Coleman tunes done in the contemporary thrashcore style. The M-Base movement started in the s, when a loose collective of young African-American musicians in New York which included Steve Coleman , Greg Osby , and Gary Thomas developed a complex but grooving  sound. In the s, most M-Base participants turned to more conventional music, but Coleman, the most active participant, continued developing his music in accordance with the M-Base concept.
He or she is the person who consolidates the innovations of jazz up to his or her time in written form, moves those innovations forward in frameworks that allow peers and younger players to improvise music in their own way, and leaves a legacy for future composers and improvisers to build upon. Time, which was almost an obsession for George in his titles, may yet give him the place he deserves. It was his theoretical approach that laid the foundation for the most popular single jazz album of all time, Kind of Blue.
He encouraged and inspired younger composers—including Don Ellis, Carla Bley, and Maria Schneider, just to mention three from very different contexts who have made wildly different kinds of music. He introduced chance elements, non-linear development, electronic instruments, and danceable funk into his compositions all at the same time and used each of those elements in varying degrees in all of his compositions that followed. Some critics got off the bandwagon, judging these pieces too long, too intellectual, too rock-oriented, too far out, too cacophonous, or too subservient to popular taste, depending on the day of the week and the piece at hand.
For me, his work in those years fulfilled and surpassed what had gone before. Biographical data and assertions of greatness seem flat and dull in written words. Surpassing and making unnecessary anything I could write, there is the music itself—brilliant, rich, rewarding music, filled with powerful rhythm, beautiful melody, and nuanced emotion that never fails to speak to me through my feet, my heart, and my brain.
To some extent, the critical divide still remains; there are some who admire George, and some who scoff at him. But if there is justice, Heining will guide the critical ship back to its proper course. He cites 11 and a half pages of articles and books he consulted. His scholarship in attributing every important statement in the book is impeccable. He is careful to say what he knows and what he does not know, and he is careful to separate his opinions from the facts as he found them.
Because the rest of the book is so good, its index, which Heining himself had to prepare with very little notice, is particularly deficient. It hits only the highest points of the text and cites only the most well-known names. A project of this scope deserves a scholarly and careful index of every name, every composition title, every point of interest. But back to kudos: Heining also dug into the unreleased material that still awaits a public-spirited record company, and his descriptions of these performances are tantalizing.
He was raised by adoptive, African-American parents.