Furthermore, he argues that the new trend of remembering is featured in two themes: Writing about the War museum representation, Denton also identifies a juxtaposition of two conflicting narratives, though his findings add a temporal element to the phenomenon. It was to supersede the declining and potentially subversive message of revolutionary class struggle Lee and Yang Arguing that historical memories are constantly subjected to the manipulation of ruling elites who weave narratives and stories into national myths for instrumental purposes, He aptly places the shift in the war memory within integrated explanatory framework encompassing both international conflict and domestic political exigency.
The first consensus is that the official remembrance of the War in post-Mao China represents a radical departure from how the War had been narrated and remembered in the public sphere until the s. A revolutionary master narrative of class struggle, highlighting the courageous and sagacious leadership of the Party in contrast to the cowardice, corruption and incompetence of the archenemy KMT and its American imperialist master, once completely overshadowed the war narrative.
The strong nationalistic tint in the new remembrance leads to a second consensus shared by many studies on the War memories. Whether it was the internal urgency to rebuild the legitimacy of the Party, or to manage new challenges of the post-Cold War structure, current political exigency has stood at the very center of the analytical framework that most scholars have used to contextualize the surfacing of the revised official narrative. A most significant component of this project was obviously the patriotic education campaign in the early s Coble ; Cohen ; Gries ; He ; Reilly ; Wang ; Weigelin-Schwiedrzik ; and Yang Most studies mention this top-down nationwide mobilization campaign, which targeted the Chinese youth as the key agent of the drastic shift in the war-related discourse.
These consensuses are very insightful and help to form a solid foundation upon which I develop my argument, but they are not without limitations. To what degree is the revision a departure from the old version, and in what specific aspects is it new? Under the surface of exuberant resurgence and change, is there any latent continuity between the simplistic and reductionist Maoist interpretation of the War and the current boisterous commemoration and memory?
These questions remain unanswered in the previous studies. At the same time, they fail to give sufficient attention to the structures of meaning innate in the contents of memory and thereby neglect to address the resiliency of older images of the past. A cultural approach does not guarantee better answers to the aforementioned questions, but it would help to shed light on the crucial role played by culture embodied by previous narrative constructions of the War, in defining and shaping the later revisions.
This aspect has largely been ignored hitherto by scholars writing on this topic. I also explain in detail how the older images command the present memory through two different mechanisms. To have a glimpse of the official war remembrance during the post-Mao era, the commemoration articles on special occasions such as memorial days or the War anniversaries are very useful see chapter 1 in this volume. And no other commemoration articles can be more authoritative than the public speech manuscript and monographs drafted by no less than the President of the country. A comparative reading of the texts confirms two major points regarding revision.
In comparison with the revision, it is the consistency and continuity between the two articles separated by four decades in time that strikes one as more salient. If in the places of continuity, President Hu was virtually reiterating the stories recounted by Vice President Lin, with all the previous narrative patterns, binary codes, rhetorical features and interpretative framework intact, even the places of revision remarkably manifest a reflection of consistency. On maintaining a friendly relationship with Japan, for instance, President Hu stated this: The invasion war unleashed by the Japanese Jingoists in modern period not only brought tremendous catastrophe to the Chinese people, but also deeply victimized the Japanese people.
Those who had schemed and waged the invasion war were only a tiny faction of Japanese Jingoists. After the war, people of all walks of life in Japan demonstrated their courage in facing up to the historical truth of the invasion war, and strongly condemned the war atrocities committed by the invaders in China.
Many of the former Japanese soldiers who had participated in the war genuinely repented what they had done, and tried to promote Sino-Japanese friendship in solid actions and had done many useful work. Their conscience and courage should be highly appreciated. According to this powerful grand narrative, the fundamental conflict of society is inherently defined along the horizontal strata based on class struggle, where proletariats of the world must form a sacred universalist fraternity.
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Vice President Lin proudly claimed the following 40 years earlier: During the anti-Japanese war we… succeeded in converting not a few Japanese prisoners who had been badly poisoned by fascist ideology. After they were politically awakened, they organized themselves into anti-war organizations such as the League for the Liberation of the Japanese People, the Anti-War League of the Japanese in China and the League of Awakened Japanese, helped us to disintegrate the Japanese army and co-operated with us in opposing Japanese militarism.
Comrade Sanzo Nosaka, the leader of the Japanese Communist Party, who was then in Yenan, gave us great help in this work. Even if the official intention was to incite a nationalist sentiment against Japan, the recent symbolic re-coding is subjected to unremitting persistence of past memories and cultural representations remaining effective until present.
Upon careful reading, however, one can still notice how the presentation of war atrocities was also contextualized within a familiar narrative framework that not only shaped the understanding of the War in previous decades, but continues to regulate the official remembrance today. The elements of this narrative construction are found in the high degree of consistency and similarity between the two texts as discussed above: Hu vigorously reassured the reader of the speech with the following: After the war victory, the trials of Nazi German war criminals by the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal and the Japanese war criminals by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East brought the due punishments to those who had unleashed invasion wars and who had their hands dipped in the blood of people of all countries, justice of the world had been served, human dignities preserved, and the common wishes of all the people of the world who love peace and justice fulfilled.
As if concerned that knowledge of war atrocities would have been unbearable for people, Hu attempted to underscore the historical justice that had been thoroughly served at the end of the War. In this grand narrative, the war was portrayed as a fiercely heroic, childishly romantic story that always ended happily with a festive victory Gao The victorious happy ending, according to this official story, possesses the magical healing power that can alone soothe the pain, cure the wounded and justify all the terrible loss incurred during the War.
In other words, the war sufferings and trauma were never narrated for their own sake, they were instead contained within the glorious and heroic narrative pattern. Once again, previous memories embedded in cultural structures reveal their resiliency in affecting the presentist revisionism. First, powerful cultural structures that prevailed in the public sphere and significantly shaped the memory construction of the War back in the Maoist era, as exemplified by the triumphalist narrative framework and the communist class binary, remain influential in the post-Mao era as the constitutive elements of a broad political culture that stays largely unchanged, and continue to exert substantial influence upon the current narrative about the War.
The functioning of both mechanisms in the official narrative construction of the War in contemporary China can be attested to by ample traces and evidence. Right-wing forces in Japan, represented by Ishihara, had attempted once again to deny the Massacre, using so-called academic evidence…however, we are united with progressive scholars and people of Japan like… made timely and effective counterargument to preserve historical truths ….
Unmistakably presented in these words is another contemporary derivation of the communist binary: Similarly, in a compilation of records of the war atrocities published in Li et al. Classic communist binary is not the only cultural structure that remains resilient in later historical period. School history textbooks reveal the evidence for this. A careful reading, however, shows clearly again that the rosy Maoist undercurrent lies beneath these major revisionist contents.
Its quiet but dynamic buoyancy can hardly be suppressed. In the edition of Chinese History for Junior High School, the concluding paragraph of the last chapter on the War, for instance, reads like this: The victory in the War of Resistance brought to a glorious end the consecutive failures that the Chinese people had endured in their one hundred years of anti-foreign invasion struggle, scoured away the humiliation suffered by the nation in its modern history, and was the turning point from decline to growth for the Chinese nation.
One cannot miss in this paragraph the ultimate symbolic significance placed upon the final victory, the glorious end that vindicates all the preceding trials and tribulations. What is at work is the unmistakable optimism and historical teleology, important strands of the underlying cultural structures that prevail over time.
As a consequence, 1, out of 1, villagers were mercilessly slaughtered. Clearly, as often the case in Maoist China, a heroic resistance will was imposed upon the villagers. The tragic incident might have been a wanton mass killing perpetrated by the invading army, but was re constructed as a meaningful confrontation where the Chinese people made the heroic choice of sacrificing their own lives for the just cause.
Rendered manifest in this case is how the narrative reenactment of victimhood and depiction of war atrocities, especially on the part of the so-called revolutionary Chinese in the CCP-led base areas, 9 is powerfully constrained by the hysterical glorification and romanticization typical of the grand triumphalist narrative.
This again testifies to the recalcitrant influence of persistent cultural structures. Due to tremendous historical inertia, they render the current remembrance of the War more a copy of the past memories than a revision, and these traces are found in many mnemonic practices of the public sphere today. The plot, for example, seriously challenged the acceptable boundary of historical facts, and the reenactment of battle scene distantly surpassed even the omnipotent framework of ascending romance of the War constructed in Maoist China.
No doubt all the entrenched rhetoric and aesthetic features salient over the years were present in the movie. Only in this movie, these elements were played up to an absurd, unprecedented scale that soared to the acme of human fantasy. As the country was plunged into the political turmoil of the Cultural Revolution, all the new movie productions were forced to stop and the old ones were prohibited from public viewing.
The Tunnel Warfare , with its inborn red political sacredness, became one of the only four movies allowed to be screened in the entire nation between and Huangfu ; Li ; Ni And it also explains the reason why the film became one of the most watched movies in Chinese history, as the movie director, Ren Xudong, once recollected with pride: Indeed, the movie is estimated to have been viewed 1. This means the average person watched it more than once. Frost, Peter The bakumatsu currency crisis. Harvard East Asian monographs.
Economic institutional change in Tokugawa Japan; Osaka and Kinai cotton trade. Honjo, Eijiro Economic theory and history of Japan in the Tokugawa period. Sheldon, Charles David The rise of the merchant class in Tokugawa Japan, ; an introductory survey. New York, Russell and Russell, Monographs of the Association for Asian Studies 5. Takizawa, Matsuyo The penetration of money economy in Japan and its effects upon social and political institutions.
Toyoda, Takeshi A history of pre-Meiji commerce in Japan. Japanese life and culture series. Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde. Yamamura, Kozo A study of samurai income and entrepreneurship; quantitative analyses of economic and social aspects of the samurai in Tokugawa and Meiji Japan. Bendix, Richard Preconditions of development, a comparison of Japan and Germany.
Aspects of social change in modern Japan. Changes in Japanese commerce in the Tokugawa period. Sydney The Tokugawa heritage. The state and economic enterprise in Japan. Ihara, Saikaku Samurai, merchants, and townsmen; the Japanese family storehouse or the millionaires' gospel modernized. Economic changes; the decision to industrialize; motivation to industrialize. Traditional and transitional tax systems during the early modern period; a case study of Choshu Han, University of California at Los Angeles. The Development of Transportation in Japan; a case study of Okayama han, Broadbridge, Seymour Economic and social trends in Tokugawa Japan.
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Sydney Documentary sources of Tokugawa economic and social history. Sydney The Japanese economy on the eve of modernization. Journal of Oriental Society of Australia, v. Sydney Kawamura zuiken; a seventeenth-century entreprenuer. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Third series, v. Sydney Some observations on merchants, a translation of Mitsui Takafusa's Chonin Koken Roku, with an introduction and notes.
Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Third series, 8. Sydney The Tokugawa period and Japan's preparation for modern economic growth. Economic development and cultural change, v. Explorations in economic history. Some aspects of Japan sea trade in the Tokugawa period. Yoshiko Nakano family documents; Satsuma-Choshu trade, The diffusion of cotton processing and trade in Kinai region in Tokugawa Japan.
Horie, Yasuzo The feudal states and the commercial society in the Tokugawa period. Kyoto University economic review, v. Kuroha, Hyojiro Commerce of Osaka in the Tokugawa era. Miyamoto, Mataji The merchants of Osaka. Osaka economic papers, pt. Miyashita, Koichi "Money economy" in the Tokugawa era. Kobe University economic review, no. Mori, Yasuhiro Loans to Daimyos by the Osaka money changers. Osaka economic papers, v. Nakamura, Satoru The historical preconditions of the formation of capitalism in Japan. Nishikawa, Shunsaku Productivity, subsistence, and by-employment in the mid-nineteenth century Choshu.
Nishimura, Takao The English factory at Hirado. Bulletin of University of Osaka Prefecture. Ohkura, Takehiko and Hiroshi Shimbo The Tokugawa monetary policy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Explorations in entrepreneurial history. Mark Thrift and diligence; house codes of Tokugawa merchant families. Monumenta Nipponica , v. The Satsuma-Ryukyu trade and the Tokugawa seclusion policy. Ryukyu's tribute-tax to Satsuma during the Tokugawa period. Sakudo, Yotaro Currency in Japanese feudal society. Sakudo, Yotaro Growth of securities market in feudal Japan. Sakudo, Yotaro Monetary system in feudal Japan.
Sasaki, Seiji A chronological table of modern Japanese shipping. Kobe economic and business review, v. Pre-modern economic growth; Japan and the West. Toyoda, Takeshi Japanese guilds. Wakita, Osamu The Kokudaka system; a device for unification. Yamamura, Kozo The increasing poverty of the samurai in Tokugawa Japan, Population trends, Bizen Province in Okayama. Population and social change. Yamamura Population trends and economic grwoth in preindustrial Japan. Population and social change, London, E. Hanley, Susan Population trends and economic development in Tokugawa Japan.
Fertility, mortality and life expectancy in pre-modern Japan. Migration and economic change in Okayama during the Tokugawa period. Population trends and economic development in Tokugawa Japan; the case of Bizen province in Okayama. Toward an analysis of demographic and economic change in Tokugawa Japan; a village study.
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Hayami, Akira Labour migration in a pre-industrial society; a study tracing the life histories of the inhabitnats of a village. Hayami, Akira The population at the beginning of the Tokugawa period; an introduction to the historical demography of preindustrial Japan. Saito, Osamu The labor market in Tokugawa Japan; wage differentials and the real wage level, Borton, Hugh Peasant uprisings in Japan of the Tokugawa period. Chambliss, William Jones Chiaraijima village; land tenure, taxation, and local trade The agrarian origins of modern Japan. Stanford studies in the civilizations of Eastern Asia.
Nakahara; family farming and population in a Japanese village, Befu, Harumi Duty, reward, sanction, and power; four-cournered office of the Tokugawa village headman. Modern Japanese leadership; transition and change. Befu, Harumi Village autonomy and articulation with the state. Hall and Marius Jansen, ed.
Borton, Hugh The peasants; peasant uprisings in Japan of the Tokugawa period. Kikuchi, Toshio Geographical function of the reclamation settlements during the period of the Shogunate, Regional conference in Japan, Proceedings of IGU regional conference in Japan. The countryside and the cities, peasant protest and the land tax. New York, Pantheon Books, , pp. Scheiner, Irwin Benevolent lords and honorable peasants; rebellion and peasant consciousness in Tokugawa Japan.
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Japanese thought in the Tokugawa period, ; methods and metaphors. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, The countryside and the cities; agrarian distress and taxation. The Japanese village in the seventeenth century. Reprinted from Journal of economic history, 12, The land tax in the Tokugawa period. Kazushi Ohkawa and Yujiro Hayami, ed. Economic growth; the Japanese experience since the Meiji era; proceedings of the second conference held by the Japan Economic Research Center, June 26 - July 1, in Japan. Tokyo, Japan Economic Research Center, Yamamura, Kozo Pre-industrial landholding patterns in Japan and England.
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Soranaka, Isao Agrarian growth and social change in Tokugawa Japan. The University of Wisconsin at Madison, Vlastos, Stephen Gregory Tokugawa peasant movements in Fukushima; conflict and peasant mobilization. University of California, Berkeley. Araki, Moriaki Development of the agricultural production and its productivity in the Tokugawa Shogunate. Annals of the Institute of Social Science, no.
Technological diffusion in agriculture under the Bakuhan system. Smith Peasant families and population control in eighteenth century Japan. Journal of interdisciplinary history, v. Mark Farm family migration; the case of Echizen in the nineteenth century. Oishi, Kaichiro The differentiation of the peasantry and peasants' movement in the process of disintegration of feudal and seigneurial land property in Japan. Shimbo, Hiroshi A study of the growth of cotton production for the market in.
Farm family by-employments in pre-industrial Japan. Journal of Asian studies,v. Takeyasu, Shigeji The farm rent in Kawachi district in the late Tokugawa period. The organized peasant; the Wakamonogumi in the Edo period. Mogi, Hitoshi A historical study of the development, of Edo Tokyo, City and Town Planners, Kyoto; the old capital of Japan Kyoto, Ponsonby-Memorial Society, Samurai, merchants, and townsmen; town life and Tokugawa culture. The castle town and Japan's modern urbanization. Pre-industrial urbanism in Japan; a consideration of multiple traditions in a feudal society.
City and village in Japan. Rozman, Gilbert Edo's importance in the changing Tokugawa society. Aspects of mobility in pre-industrial Japanese cities. Tokugawa religion; the values of pre-industrial Japan. Toward restoration; the growth. Conciliation and Japanese law; Tokugawa and modern. Association for Asian Studies monographs also published Tokyo Univ.
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Studies on modernization of Japan by Western scholars. The consciousness of archaic form in the new realism of Kokugaku. Conciliar thought in late Tokugawa time in the case of Sakamoto Ryoma. Lane, Richard Saikaku and the modern Japanese novel. A special issue of Monumenta Nipponica prepared in celebration of the centennial of the Meij i restoration. Tokyo, Siphia University, Matsumoto, Sannosuke The idea of heaven; a Tokugawa foundation for natural rights theory. Najita, Tetsuo Method and analysis in the conceptual portrayal of Tokugawa intellectual history.
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Yazaki, Takeo Samurai, merchants, and townsmen; The samurai family and feudal ideology. Talent and the social order in Tokugawa Japan. Past and present, no. Honjo, Eijiro The anti-feudalistic thought in Tokugawa period. Bullentin of University of Osaka Prefecture, series D, v. Horie, Yasuzo Confucian concept of state in Tokugawa Japan. New materials for the intellectual history of nineteenth-century Japan.
Harvard journal of Asiatic studies, v. Rimoto, Kozo- and Koji Takata A proem to the socio-economic thought of Seiryo Kaiho ; prefatorial remarks to an inquiry into the modernity and obsolescence of the ideas of Seiryo Kaiho, a prominent thinker on Japanese mercantilism in the latter Edo period. Osaka City University economic review, no. Economic realism in the later works of Ihara Saikaku, with special reference to Seken munesanyo. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 3rd ser. Herbert Ando Shoeki and the anatomy of Japanese feudalism.
Transactions of Asiatic Society of Japan, 3rd series, v. Katsu Kaishu and the limits of Bakumatsu nationalism. Asia bunka kenkyu, no. Ueda, Tatsunosuke Saikaku's 'Economic man'. Barr, Pat The coming of the barbarians; the opening of Japan to the West Beasley, William Gerald Japan and the West in the mid nineteenth century; nationalism and the origins of the modern state. Beasley, William Gerald, ed. Select documents on Japanese foreign policy Jan Compagnie in Japan ; an essay on. From prejudice to tolerance; a study of the Japanese image of the West Fox, Grace Britain and Japan The Dutch impact on Japan, Bluejackets with Perry in Japan; a day-by-day account kept by master's mate John R.
Lewis and cabin boy William B. Heusken, Henry Japan journal , tr. Asian studies monograph series. Keene, Donald The Japanese discovery of Europe Kojima, Matajiro Commodore Perry's expedition to Hakodate, May ; a private account with illustrations. Hakodate, Hakodate Kyodo Bunkakai, Medzini, Meron French policy in Japan during the closing years of the Tokugawa regime. Harvard East Asian monographs, Boston, Little, Brown, Tokyo, Foreign Affairs Association of Japan, Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, Perry, United States Navy, comp. Pompe van Meerdervort, J.
Doctor on Desima; selected chapters from. Pompe van Meerdervort's Vijf jaren in Japan five years in Japan , tr. Wittermans and John Z. From the original manuscript in the Massachusetts Historical Society, ed. London, Curzon Press, Records of Asian history. Black ships and rising sun; the opening of Japan to the West. London, Harvill Press, Oxford in Asia historical reprints. Statler, Oliver The black ship scroll; an account of the Perry expedition at Shimoda in and the lively beginnings of people-to-people relations between Japan and America.
With translations by Richard Lane, and scroll paintings in full color by an anonymous Japanese eyewitness. Tamarin, Alfred Japan and the United States; early encounters Diplomatic relations between the United States and Japan, Japan and the United States, Voyager to destiny; the amazing adventures of Manjiro, the man who changed world twice.
Japanese christians and American missionaries. Changing Japanese attitutdes toward modernization. Soviak, Eugene On the nature of western progress; the journal of the Iwakura embassy. Tradition and modernization in Japanese culture. Ayusawa, Shintaro Geography and Japanese knowledge of world geography. Japan and the West. A Goncharov's account of Russia's attempt to open Japan in , tr. A translation of Otsuki Gentaku's Ransetsu Benwaku.
Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan, excerpt. Higuchi, Kiyoyuki The opening of Japan and western culture. Iwao, Seiichi A Dutch doctor in old Japan. Kamikawa, Hikomatsu Commodore Perry's expedition and the growth of a modern Japan. Macfarlane, Duncan Some early English contacts with Japan. Yokoi Shonan's response to the foreign intervention in late Tokugawa Japan, Mounicou, Pierre Father Mounicou's Bakumatsu diary, ,tr.
Numata, Jiro The acceptance of western culture in Japan; general observation. Numata, Jiro The introduction of Dutch language. The opening of Japan, ; America "finds the key. Beasley, William Gerald The Meiji restoration. Bolitho, Harold Meiji Japan. History of mankind series Craig, Albert M. Choshu in the Meiji Restoration. Outline of Japanese history in the Meiji era, tr. Centenary Cultural Council series. Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration. Shibusawa, Keizo Japanese life and culture in the Meiji era, tr. Centenary Culture Council series. Japanese society in the Meiji era, tr.
Culbertson and Kimura Michiko. Ministers of modernization; elite mobility in the Meiji Restoration Genesis of the Meiji government in Japan, Japanese manners and customs in the Meiji era, tr. Fukuzawa Yukichi; the philosophical foundations of Meiji nationalism. Political development in modern Japan. Kido Koin and Okubo Toshimichi; a psycho-historical analysis. Fukuzawa, Yukichi From the autobiography of Yukichi Fukuzawa. The era of fulfillement; The Meiji leaders and modernization; the case of Yamagata Aritomo.
Changing Japanese attitudes toward modernization. Political modernization and Meiji Genro. Okuma Shigenobu; modernization and the west. A special issue of Monumenta Nipponica pre-pared in celebration of the centennial of the Meiji Restoration. Tokyo, Sophia University, The confucian ideology and modernization of Japan; as illustrated in the Meiji edition of the Denshun Nenju Gyoji. The modernization of Japan - I. Reprinted from Developing Economies, vo.
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German economics and Japanese bureaucrats, Bureaucratic development and the structure of decision-making in Japan, Bureaucratic development and the structure of decision-making in the Meiji period. Bureaucratization of the Meiji state; the problem of succession in the Meiji restoration, Criteria recruitment and success in the Japanese bureaucracy, ; "traditional" and "modern" criteria in bureaucratic development. Sippel, Patricia Popular protest in early modern Japan; the Bushu outburst.
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Glass, David Victor and Roger Revelle, ed. Mortality in London, to , by Lan Sutherland. States in the late nineteenth century? Hanley and Kozo Yamamura. Nomura, Kanetaro On cultural conditons affecting population trends in Jpan. Taeuber, Irene Barnes The population of Japan. Ueda, Masao Population problems in. Tokyo, International Society for Educational Information, Manual of demographic statistics in Japan. Uyeda, Teijiro The growth of population and occupational changes in Japan, Under the auspices of Institute of Pacific Relations reprinting of the ed.
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Population and labor force in the industrialization of Japan, Economic growth; Brazil, India, Japan. Urbanization and population change in the development of modern Japan. Japanese rural fertility; some social and economic factors. Horie, Yasuzo The life structure of the Japanese people in its historical aspects. Minami, Ryoshin Population migration away from agriculture in Japan. Help us improve our Author Pages by updating your bibliography and submitting a new or current image and biography.
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