Carey Larry, as honors disciplinary faculty, Larry instructed at both the undergraduate and MBA level with a concentration on international management courses ranging from introductory classes to cultural factors and strategy in the global arena.
He acted as a thesis director for the Honor College, coordinator of the international business curriculum and the certificate in international business, chief judge in business ethics case competition, and panel leader for the university wide international education week. Beer 17 Agosti A central theme to the text is in fact that the commercial process is central to the human condition. The onus to exchange, the bartering of the fruits of one's labor, achieved by physical work or applied knowledge, with another is the natural condition of humankind.
It separates us from all other species on earth and underscores humankind's desire to reach out and touch - integrate with others. Such natural process, the trade initiative, is the root of modern globalization. It is also the prime contributor to the development of civilization and has provided the world with a continuing component that sustains progress and improves life.
Given this consideration, the business system, and the institutions created to utilize it, have continued to live up to its influential heritage as a central tool in societal progression; although like most human endeavors it is fought with mistakes and errors - it is not perfect. Acquainting students and managers with their heritage sets the stage for the next act in the never ending commercial process. The trading activity, although always beset with stumbling blocks, has always strived to live up to its human promise to make the world a unified better place.
Such a goal should not be forgotten and students as well as managers need to reflect on their wider role - providing the golden thread in the continuing tapestry of a global integrated civilization. The commercial process is not just about wealth accumulation or profit and loss; it is ingrained with social progression and the changes over time.
Today's business student must see the world on a wider horizon, appreciate and understand the richness of the role their commercial ancestors played in shaping the world if they are to be properly educated on the position and responsibilities they will be required to fulfill in the business of the future. Ukaguzi Sera ya Maoni. Flowing text, Original pages.
Web, Tablet, Phone, eReader. Today's business student must see the world on a wider horizon, appreciate and understand the richness of the role their commercial ancestors played in shaping the world if they are to be properly educated on the position and responsibilities they will be required to fulfill in the business of the future. The Natural Social Imperative Chapter 1: Globalization Takes Root Chapter 2: A Historical Perspective Chapter 3: The Beginning of Recorded Trade Chapter 4: Building Blocks of Globalization Chapter 5: The First Global Products Chapter 6: Ancient Societal Infrastructures Chapter 7: Intercultural communication is a related field of study.
Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas , styles , religions , technologies , languages etc. Cultural globalization has increased cross-cultural contacts, but may be accompanied by a decrease in the uniqueness of once-isolated communities. For example, sushi is available in Germany as well as Japan, but Euro-Disney outdraws the city of Paris, potentially reducing demand for "authentic" French pastry. Globalization has expanded recreational opportunities by spreading pop culture, particularly via the Internet and satellite television.
Religions were among the earliest cultural elements to globalize, being spread by force, migration, evangelists , imperialists, and traders. Christianity , Islam , Buddhism , and more recently sects such as Mormonism are among those religions which have taken root and influenced endemic cultures in places far from their origins.
Globalization has strongly influenced sports. The term globalization implies transformation.
Cultural practices including traditional music can be lost or turned into a fusion of traditions. Globalization can trigger a state of emergency for the preservation of musical heritage. Archivists may attempt to collect, record, or transcribe repertoires before melodies are assimilated or modified, while local musicians may struggle for authenticity and to preserve local musical traditions. Globalization can lead performers to discard traditional instruments.
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Fusion genres can become interesting fields of analysis. Music has an important role in economic and cultural development during globalization. Music genres such as jazz and reggae began locally and later became international phenomena. Globalization gave support to the world music phenomenon by allowing music from developing countries to reach broader audiences.
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Bourdieu claimed that the perception of consumption can be seen as self-identification and the formation of identity. Musically, this translates into each individual having their own musical identity based on likes and tastes. These likes and tastes are greatly influenced by culture, as this is the most basic cause for a person's wants and behavior.
The concept of one's own culture is now in a period of change due to globalization. Also, globalization has increased the interdependency of political, personal, cultural, and economic factors. A UNESCO report  showed that cultural exchange is becoming more frequent from Eastern Asia, but that Western countries are still the main exporters of cultural goods. Between and , both North America's and the European Union 's shares of cultural exports declined while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America.
Related factors are the fact that Asia's population and area are several times that of North America. Americanization is related to a period of high political American clout and of significant growth of America's shops, markets and objects being brought into other countries. Some critics of globalization argue that it harms the diversity of cultures. As a dominating country's culture is introduced into a receiving country through globalization, it can become a threat to the diversity of local culture. Some argue that globalization may ultimately lead to Westernization or Americanization of culture, where the dominating cultural concepts of economically and politically powerful Western countries spread and cause harm to local cultures.
Globalization is a diverse phenomenon which relates to a multilateral political world and to the increase of cultural objects and markets between countries. The Indian experience particularly reveals the plurality of the impact of cultural globalization. Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other". In general, globalization may ultimately reduce the importance of nation states. Supranational institutions such as the European Union , the WTO , the G8 or the International Criminal Court replace or extend national functions to facilitate international agreement. Intergovernmentalism is a term in political science with two meanings.
The first refers to a theory of regional integration originally proposed by Stanley Hoffmann ; the second treats states and the national government as the primary factors for integration. Multi-level governance gives expression to the idea that there are many interacting authority structures at work in the emergent global political economy.
It illuminates the intimate entanglement between the domestic and international levels of authority. Some people are citizens of multiple nation-states. Multiple citizenship , also called dual citizenship or multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. Increasingly, non-governmental organizations influence public policy across national boundaries, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts.
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation projects include a current multibillion-dollar commitment to funding immunizations in some of the world's more impoverished but rapidly growing countries. As a response to globalization, some countries have embraced isolationist policies.
Tracing the Roots of Globalization and Business Principles
For example, the North Korean government makes it very difficult for foreigners to enter the country and strictly monitors their activities when they do. Aid workers are subject to considerable scrutiny and excluded from places and regions the government does not wish them to enter. Citizens cannot freely leave the country. Globalization has been a gendered process where giant multinational corporations have outsourced jobs to low-wage, low skilled, quota free economies like the ready made garment industry in Bangladesh where poor women make up the majority of labor force .
Despite a large proportion of women workers in the garment industry, women are still heavily underemployed compared to men . Most women that are employed in the garment industry come from the countryside of Bangladesh triggering migration of women in search of garment work . It is still unclear as to whether or not access to paid work for women where it didn't exist before has empowered them .
The answers varied depending on whether it is the employers perspective or the workers and how they view their choices . Women workers did not see the garment industry as economically sustainable for them in the long run due to long hours standing and poor working conditions . Although women workers did show significant autonomy over their personal lives including their ability to negotiate with family, more choice in marriage, and being valued as a wage earner in the family. This did not translate into workers being able to collectively organize themselves in order to negotiate a better deal for themselves at work .
Another example of outsourcing in manufacturing includes the Maquiladora industry in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico where poor women make up the majority of the labor force . Women in the Maquiladora industry have produced high levels of turnover not staying long enough to be trained compared to men . A gendered two tiered system within the Maquiladora industry has been created that focuses on training and worker loyalty . Women are seen as being untrainable, placed in un-skilled, low wage jobs, while men are seen as more trainable with less turnover rates, and placed in more high skilled technical jobs .
The idea of training has become a tool used against women to blame them for their high turnover rates which also benefit the industry keeping women as temporary workers . Scholars also occasionally discuss other, less common dimensions of globalization, such as environmental globalization the internationally coordinated practices and regulations, often in the form of international treaties, regarding environmental protection  or military globalization growth in global extent and scope of security relationships. An essential aspect of globalization is movement of people, and state-boundary limits on that movement have changed across history.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. For example, travel across the Atlantic ocean used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days. Tourism is travel for pleasure. The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets , low-cost airlines , and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable.
International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in Some countries — such as those in the Schengen Area — have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists who require a visa before traveling was at its lowest level ever in Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
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For example, freedom of movement for workers in the European Union means that people can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. Globalization is associated with a dramatic rise in international education. More and more students are seeking higher education in foreign countries and many international students now consider overseas study a stepping-stone to permanent residency within a country. A transnational marriage is a marriage between two people from different countries.
A variety of special issues arise in marriages between people from different countries, including those related to citizenship and culture, which add complexity and challenges to these kinds of relationships. In an age of increasing globalization, where a growing number of people have ties to networks of people and places across the globe, rather than to a current geographic location, people are increasingly marrying across national boundaries.
Transnational marriage is a by-product of the movement and migration of people. Before electronic communications, long-distance communications relied on mail. Speed of global communications was limited by the maximum speed of courier services especially horses and ships until the midth century.
The electric telegraph was the first method of instant long-distance communication. For example, before the first transatlantic cable, communications between Europe and the Americas took weeks because ships had to carry mail across the ocean. The first transatlantic cable reduced communication time considerably, allowing a message and a response in the same day. Lasting transatlantic telegraph connections were achieved in the — The first wireless telegraphy transmitters were developed in The Internet has been instrumental in connecting people across geographical boundaries.
For example, Facebook is a social networking service which has more than 1. Globalization can be spread by Global journalism which provides massive information and relies on the internet to interact, "makes it into an everyday routine to investigate how people and their actions, practices, problems, life conditions etc. One index of globalization is the KOF Index of Globalization , which measures three important dimensions of globalization: However, newer indices attempt to measure globalization in more general terms, including variables related to political, social, cultural, and even environmental aspects of globalization.
Reactions to processes contributing to globalization have varied widely with a history as long as extraterritorial contact and trade. Philosophical differences regarding the costs and benefits of such processes give rise to a broad-range of ideologies and social movements. Proponents of economic growth , expansion and development , in general, view globalizing processes as desirable or necessary to the well-being of human society. Antagonists view one or more globalizing processes as detrimental to social well-being on a global or local scale;  this includes those who social or natural sustainability of long-term and continuous economic expansion, the social structural inequality caused by these processes, and the colonial , imperialistic , or hegemonic ethnocentrism , cultural assimilation and cultural appropriation that underlie such processes.
Globalization tends to bring people into contact with foreign people and cultures. Xenophobia is the fear of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange. Critiques of globalization generally stem from discussions surrounding the impact of such processes on the planet as well as the human costs. They challenge directly traditional metrics, such as GDP, and look to other measures, such as the Gini coefficient  or the Happy Planet Index ,  and point to a "multitude of interconnected fatal consequences—social disintegration, a breakdown of democracy, more rapid and extensive deterioration of the environment, the spread of new diseases, increasing poverty and alienation"  which they claim are the unintended consequences of globalization.
Others point out that, while the forces of globalization have led to the spread of western-style democracy, this has been accompanied by an increase in inter-ethnic tension and violence as free market economic policies combine with democratic processes of universal suffrage as well as an escalation in militarization to impose democratic principles and as a means to conflict resolution. A study by Peer Fis and Paul Hirsch found a large increase in articles negative towards globalization in the years prior. In , negative articles outpaced positive articles by two to one. This increase occurred during a period when the total number of articles concerning globalization nearly doubled.
A number of international polls have shown that residents of Africa and Asia tend to view globalization more favorably than residents of Europe or North America. In , Philip Gordon stated that "a clear majority of Europeans believe that globalization can enrich their lives, while believing the European Union can help them take advantage of globalization's benefits while shielding them from its negative effects. Residents of the EU did not appear to feel threatened by globalization in Social spending was much higher than in the US.
At the same time, discourse on globalization, which began in the financial community before shifting to a heated debate between proponents and disenchanted students and workers. Polarization increased dramatically after the establishment of the WTO in ; this event and subsequent protests led to a large-scale anti-globalization movement.
Less educated workers, who were more likely to compete with immigrants and workers in developing countries, tended to be opponents. The situation changed after the financial crisis of Respondents with high school education also became more opposed. According to Takenaka Heizo and Chida Ryokichi, as of [update] there was a perception in Japan that the economy was "Small and Frail". However, Japan was resource-poor and used exports to pay for its raw materials. Anxiety over their position caused terms such as internationalization and globalization to enter everyday language.
However, Japanese tradition was to be as self-sufficient as possible, particularly in agriculture. Many in developing countries see globalization as a positive force that lifts them out of poverty. Opponents consider governments as agents of neo-colonialism that are subservient to multinational corporations. The literature analysing the economics of free trade is extremely rich with extensive work having been done on the theoretical and empirical effects. Though it creates winners and losers, the broad consensus among economists is that free trade is a large and unambiguous net gain for society.
Quoting Harvard economics professor N. Gregory Mankiw , "Few propositions command as much consensus among professional economists as that open world trade increases economic growth and raises living standards. In the book The End of Poverty , Jeffrey Sachs discusses how many factors can affect a country's ability to enter the world market, including government corruption ; legal and social disparities based on gender, ethnicity, or caste; diseases such as AIDS and malaria ; lack of infrastructure including transportation, communications, health, and trade ; unstable political landscapes; protectionism ; and geographic barriers.
Economic growth is conventionally measured using indicators such as GDP and GNI that do not accurately reflect the growing disparities in wealth. Economist Paul Krugman is another staunch supporter of globalization and free trade with a record of disagreeing with many critics of globalization.
He argues that many of them lack a basic understanding of comparative advantage and its importance in today's world. The flow of migrants to advanced economic countries has been claimed to provide a means through which global wages converge. An IMF study noted a potential for skills to be transferred back to developing countries as wages in those a countries rise.
Technological innovations or technological transfer is conjectured to benefit most the developing and least developing countries LDCs , as for example in the adoption of mobile phones. There has been a rapid economic growth in Asia after embracing market orientation -based economic policies that encourage private property rights , free enterprise and competition. Like this, the British economic journalist Martin Wolf says that incomes of poor developing countries, with more than half the world's population, grew substantially faster than those of the world's richest countries that remained relatively stable in its growth, leading to reduced international inequality and the incidence of poverty.
Certain demographic changes in the developing world after active economic liberalization and international integration resulted in rising general welfare and, hence, reduced inequality. According to Wolf, in the developing world as a whole, life expectancy rose by four months each year after and infant mortality rate declined from per thousand in to 58 in due to improvements in standards of living and health conditions. Furthermore, the reduction in fertility rate in the developing world as a whole from 4.
Thus, despite seemingly unequal distribution of income within these developing countries, their economic growth and development have brought about improved standards of living and welfare for the population as a whole. Per capita gross domestic product GDP growth among post globalizing countries accelerated from 1.
This acceleration in growth seems even more remarkable given that the rich countries saw steady declines in growth from a high of 4. Also, the non-globalizing developing countries seem to fare worse than the globalizers, with the former's annual growth rates falling from highs of 3. This rapid growth among the globalizers is not simply due to the strong performances of China and India in the s and s—18 out of the 24 globalizers experienced increases in growth, many of them quite substantial.
The globalization of the late 20th and early 21st centuries has led to the resurfacing of the idea that the growth of economic interdependence promotes peace. Some opponents of globalization see the phenomenon as a promotion of corporate interests. Globalization allows corporations to outsource manufacturing and service jobs from high cost locations, creating economic opportunities with the most competitive wages and worker benefits. While it is true that free trade encourages globalization among countries, some countries try to protect their domestic suppliers. The main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural productions.
Larger countries often subsidize their farmers e. Democratic globalization is a movement towards an institutional system of global democracy that would give world citizens a say in political organizations. This would, in their view, bypass nation-states, corporate oligopolies, ideological Non-governmental organizations NGO , political cults and mafias. One of its most prolific proponents is the British political thinker David Held. Advocates of democratic globalization argue that economic expansion and development should be the first phase of democratic globalization, which is to be followed by a phase of building global political institutions.
Francesco Stipo , Director of the United States Association of the Club of Rome , advocates unifying nations under a world government , suggesting that it "should reflect the political and economic balances of world nations. A world confederation would not supersede the authority of the State governments but rather complement it, as both the States and the world authority would have power within their sphere of competence". Global civics suggests that civics can be understood, in a global sense, as a social contract between global citizens in the age of interdependence and interaction.
The disseminators of the concept define it as the notion that we have certain rights and responsibilities towards each other by the mere fact of being human on Earth. An early incarnation of this sentiment can be found in Socrates , whom Plutarch quoted as saying: Baha'i-inspired author Meyjes, while favoring the single world community and emergent global consciousness, warns of globalization  as a cloak for an expeditious economic, social, and cultural Anglo-dominance that is insufficiently inclusive to inform the emergence of an optimal world civilization.
He proposes a process of " universalization " as an alternative. Cosmopolitanism is the proposal that all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. The cosmopolitan community is one in which individuals from different places e.
For instance, Kwame Anthony Appiah suggests the possibility of a cosmopolitan community in which individuals from varying locations physical, economic, etc. One example is the security cooperation between the United States and the former Soviet Union after the end of the Cold War, which astonished international society. The most recent debate around nuclear energy and the non-alternative coal-burning power plants constitutes one more consensus on what not to do.
Thirdly, significant achievements in IC can be observed through development studies. Anti-globalization, or counter-globalization,  consists of a number of criticisms of globalization but, in general, is critical of the globalization of corporate capitalism. Opponents of globalization argue that there is unequal power and respect in terms of international trade between the developed and underdeveloped countries of the world.
In The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy , Christopher Lasch analyzes  the widening gap between the top and bottom of the social composition in the United States. For him, our epoch is determined by a social phenomenon: According to Lasch, the new elites, i. In this, they oppose the old bourgeoisie of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which was constrained by its spatial stability to a minimum of rooting and civic obligations.
Globalization, according to the sociologist, has turned elites into tourists in their own countries. The de-nationalisation of business enterprise tends to produce a class who see themselves as "world citizens, but without accepting Their ties to an international culture of work, leisure, information — make many of them deeply indifferent to the prospect of national decline.
Instead of financing public services and the public treasury, new elites are investing their money in improving their voluntary ghettos: They have "withdrawn from common life". Composed of those who control the international flows of capital and information, who preside over philanthropic foundations and institutions of higher education, manage the instruments of cultural production and thus fix the terms of public debate.
So, the political debate is limited mainly to the dominant classes and political ideologies lose all contact with the concerns of the ordinary citizen. The result of this is that no one has a likely solution to these problems and that there are furious ideological battles on related issues. However, they remain protected from the problems affecting the working classes: One of the most infamous tactics of the movement is the Battle of Seattle in , where there were protests against the World Trade Organization's Third Ministerial Meeting.
Capital markets have to do with raising and investing money in various human enterprises. Increasing integration of these financial markets between countries leads to the emergence of a global capital marketplace or a single world market. In the long run, increased movement of capital between countries tends to favor owners of capital more than any other group; in the short run, owners and workers in specific sectors in capital-exporting countries bear much of the burden of adjusting to increased movement of capital.
Those opposed to capital market integration on the basis of human rights issues are especially disturbed by the various abuses which they think are perpetuated by global and international institutions that, they say, promote neoliberalism without regard to ethical standards.