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Community members will feel that they themselves have discovered the right solutions to their own problems; Participatory strategies, based essentially on voting. Fundamental principles In putting local know-how and expertise to work for the benefits of the community itself, the following principles should be observed: A special code of good practices should be in operation at EU level to encourage and motivate innovative producers in small communities; The depositary of traditional know-how may be individuals or groups.

They should be fairly acknowledged and rewarded; The knowledge heritage of a community is dynamic, upgrading, adapting. Sources of sustainable knowledge based development The study examined five sources of sustainable, knowledge-based development of small communities subsequently detailed din Table 1: Material and energy resources of the community; The human factor; Intangibles active in the communities; The environment; An articulated, sustainable strategy. Reviving the production and processing of flax, hemp, silk. Traditional dyes, detergents, chemical mixtures, drugs from plants, etc.

Characterization of materials and processes against present EU health and safety standards. Material, energy balances for processes, comparison to BAT. Suggestions for using renewables. Evaluate the waste generation processes and methods for waste use and disposal. Traditional products still constitute curiosities at national or international fairs. Communication and dissemination will help their spreading, export. Traditional farming and animal breeding Identification of traditional methods in agriculture and animal farming Identify plants that do not need fertilizers and pesticides.

Respecting the traditional calendar of agricultural works. Traditional methods for plant and animal protection. Comparing the traditional approach to the principles of ecology, accepted by EU. Help and train local people and business to access EU funds Codes of practices needed at EU level to protect and promote traditional agriculture and animal breeding, targeting SMEs and small communities, to develop bio-economy methods. Diet Traditional diets, food and drinks Analysis of products and scientific evaluation of diet.

Comparison to quality standards required in EU. Traditionally, food and drinks are produced by bio-techniques with no chemicals or additives. Promoting and disseminating activities needed Tourism, commerce, other services Pensions, hotels conserving the local specific. Traditional occupations could serve to develop new sport activities river rafting supervised by local people that usually take the timber down the rivers Services at EU levels of quality standards.

Encourage local owners to apply for certification, quality auditing, etc. Local, foreign language speaking guides for tourists needed. Traditional buildings and households Techniques for increasing the energy efficiency. Arranging households along traditional experience and habits. Respecting the specific local architecture. Evaluating energy efficiency and environmental footprints Life Cycle Assessment, [26]. Preserving what differentiates a community from its neighbours Water management Identification of traditional water sources, water management techniques leading to the protection of rivers, lakes, underground water.

Solutions for wastewater treatment and sanitation. Evaluating the potential of recycling wastewater. Energy management Small communities could become self-sufficient energetically. Identification of solutions for producing and saving energy Larger projects e. Mobilizing local learned people in the educational process. Kindergartens managed with the aid of elderly, educated people. Conservation of institutions, ethnographic particularities. Assessing the content of such heritage elements and keeping them clean from influences that would compromise their existence and value.

Reviving the authentic traditions and culture. Participation, communication, social inclusion and cohesion Traditionally, an Elderly Council, enjoying an intrinsic legitimacy overviewed and solved many conflict inside the community. Community Gatherings should be revived and given decision power. Educated people from the community teachers, doctors, priests, technicians, other specialists should promote permanent dialogue inside the community. Sanctions issued by communities should be complementary and not contradicting the legal conviction. Search for pro-active, preventing rather than coercive initiatives and actions IT, GSM, Cable TV Should not replace traditional direct contact of people, social events, gatherings, etc.

Identifying and using local skilled computer specialists to devise tools for e-governance. IT, GSM, Cable TV should remain a valuable tool to promote and develop local specific Environment Environmental Protection, biodiversity, climatic change Traditional methods for sustainable management of forests, pastures, rivers.

Evaluate traditional responses to disasters. Help training local people. Assess emergency plans for environmental accidents. Encouraging local ideas and solutions for zero-waste communities Symbiosis Re-build traditional connections for exchange of materials, services, products, expertise among all interested stakeholders Solutions for turning waste from local or adjacent sources to valuable resources Co-operation with other communities to be institutionalized Strategy and tools Strategy Establish objectives, priorities in accordance with the local specific Transferring expertise for strategic management.

Strategy should be the result of local people initiatives. Old institutions are intrinsic sources of local legitimacy and should be used to govern local communities Management Traditional methods for consultation, option generation, decision making. New managerial tools are complementary to older ones, familiar to local people.

Project vision and objectives The Project Vision was: The operational objectives of the Project were: Selecting the focal area, establish a Project Advisory Board subsequently PAB and carrying out a preliminary diagnostic, by using tools like SWOT, in the focal area; Interactive generation of options for development; Selecting a number of agreed projects that will demonstrate the advantages of the approach and the potential of knowledge-based development of the focal area; Know-how transfer to the local people, complementary to what expertise is already present in the focal area.

This led to the application of some modern tools for strategic management of small communities; Evaluating, where possible, the success of the Project by comparison to national or EU practices, etc. The role of the PAB was essentially a honorific one — members of the PAB were in no way remunerated for their participation but their contribution was essential because: PAB members know best what is good for the local communities; They are aware of the traditions, ethnography, particularities of the area, how to preserve them, how to take the most out of them; They know who are the best local specialists, skilled persons that could contribute to a given part of the project; They have the authority and legitimacy to guide and censor the Project team on its way.

They constitute the element of continuity, after the Project ends. The stakeholders identified during the Project were: The Commune halls mayors, top clerks ; The Church; Teachers from the local schools and doctors from local hospitals; Bank subsidiaries present in the area that are in the first line of crediting local business for starting new projects; Successful businessmen Educated retired people.

The role of the Project coordinator was: The SWOT analysis Contrary to what someone could expect from a local community, lost in a beautiful landscape in the rural area of Bucovina the historical name of the region , there was no need for instructing local people in order to carry out a meticulous and painstaking SWOT analysis.

Lou Glazer, President, Michigan Future, Inc.

Agriculture, forests, rural development Strengths Weaknesses Majority of population work in agriculture Large available areas of the commune enable cultivation of an important number of plants wheat, maize, rye, potatoes, vegetables, pastures, orchards ; Animal breeding has a long tradition; Poorly equipped farms; No collecting and processing capacities for the local products; No irrigation systems; Insufficient development of service sector; Farmers own very small pieces of land — cultures are fragmented; No centres for artificial animal breeding; Opportunities Threats Room for association of local farmers in larger organizations; EU funds available, with the support of the local Agricultural Chamber; Potential for wind energy production to reduce the energy bill of farmers; Large potential for bio-products.

No sewerage system and no wastewater treatment facility; Natural gas network is not present in the area; Road network need maintenance and repair; River pollution; Little interest of local business for environment protection; Environmental education - inadequate; There is no eco-landfill available Health infrastructure does not cover the local needs; Forests affected by irrational exploitation - led to landslides, floods; Large amounts of wooden waste pollutes valleys, rivers, obstruct roads, cause floods; No domestic waste recycled.

Opportunities Threats Installing a water supply system and investing in sanitation and wastewater treatment; High potential for waste recycling. Little experience in elaborating and management of EU financed Projects; The zone is exposed to transboundary pollution Chernobyl.

Economic Strengths Weaknesses Area renown for good, diverse food, good traditional cuisine Ecological products developing rapidly Animal breeding offers large quantities of animal products; Highly skilled workforce. Inadequate infrastructure of food and drink industry; No relevant foreign investments; Degradation of potential industrial sites, built before ; Little marketing activities Opportunities Threats The area is known as the land of potato. Could become a source of ethanol, as car fuel Workshops and other infrastructure available for industrial development.

The area is little known abroad, to foreign investors; Little flexibility of local people to market needs; Increased share of undeclared work. Tourism Strengths Weaknesses Large number of small pensions, hotels Good access to important monuments; Many protected areas; People renown for their hospitality Probably the only private ZOO in Romania No funds for investment in touristic infrastructure No personnel for touristic activities Little promotion of touristic potential No sport facilities for adults and children.

Opportunities Threats New forms of relaxation rafting, paragliding ; Cultural tourism potential. Investors prefer other areas sea-side, higher mountains ; Limited marketing and promotion. Education and Culture Strengths Weaknesses The commune has a large school and a kindergarten; A large public library; Many traditional cultural, religious events still active; The IT infrastructure in the school is inadequate Many pupils leave school before completing the 8 grade stage.

Generating options for community development All the SWOT tables from the focal area were consolidated with the contribution of local specialists and PAB.

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Knowledge that came with the Project co-ordinator was included in this score. An aggregate score has been subsequently derived, based on the two scores given to each SWOT finding, using the formula: Commune Meetings to be revived and become legitimate critics of the local people C options Modernize the road network Large work along rivers for protection against floods Wastewater treatment station Ecological landfill Add value to local resources: Fruit processing units, brewery, and trout breeding. Valuables from waste pet-food and collagen from animal waste Incineration of waste with energy recovery and use in a greenhouse Building a larger kindergarten Financial support for young families to build their houses.

Asking for the status of town Church and monasteries to create housing services for retired people to live and work.

D options Wind energy park Micro hydropower installations Ethanol from potatoes Building a sport and entertainment park Building a new Commune centre, a Museum of ethnography Local e-governance. Option Score Remarks 1. Devising the sustainable strategy for the communes 8. Promoting the use of renewables as energy sources 8. Tries to find knowledge-based, efficient solutions to the energy sector, at the community scale 3. Recycling domestic waste 8. Local companies should hire local people first 7.

Increase environmental awareness 7. Assisting families having members working abroad 6. Trade marks for local products 6. Implementation of the selected options A-options have been adopted by local authorities and institutions and will be implemented in the near future.


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  • 1. Introduction;
  • Knowledge-Based Development in Small Communities - Efficient Management Based on Local Expertize.
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Sustainable community strategy The paragraph details how the sustainable strategy of local communities was set up during the Project. Example of Vision phrases suggested to local authorities were: Will generate new economic opportunities based upon our heritage; Will protect the environment for future generations; Will encourage co-operation with our neighbours; Will respect and value the dignity of elderly and helpless people. Strategic objectives must address the three pillars of sustainable development economic, environmental, and social and also be aligned to the 4 perspectives that constitute the horizon of local communities: The Budget perspective; The Stakeholders perspective; The internal processes and capabilities perspective; The learning and growth perspective.

Perspectives Vision-Mission, Destination Statement Budget Adding value to local resources Absorbing EU and similar funds Add value to traditional habits, products, services, landscape, historical heritage Benefits from waste Green community Stakeholders Public-private partnerships Business community to invest, apply corporate social responsibility Cooperation and common, focused action for a better environment Internal processes Identify and develop local expertise Motivate local skilled people to stay and work in the community Conserving, reconstructing the social bondThe Church to contribute to reduce criminal deviances Decoupling development from resources.

Promoting the use of renewables as energy sources The paragraph illustrates the implementation of one sustainable development option, based on local resources and expertise and addressing the energy domain. Characteristics Value Units Total biomass collected Methane Tons Lignite 1. Jobs created 26 Cost of 1 Gcal produced by burning biomass 50 Euro Cost of 1 Gcal produced in power plants and delivered in the heating system Euro. Environmental benefits At least tons waste diverted from landfill and reinserted in the value chain Social benefits 5 new jobs, healthier environment.

Conclusions The study showed the great potential of small community development based upon ideas, skills and efforts of the same communities, without waiting for miracle panacea from Central Authorities. A structured sustainable strategy; The associated strategic management tools; A shortlist of business ideas and development options believed to the most relevant and most suitable for the resources and know-how existing in the area; A framework of cooperation and dialogue, essential for future replication.

How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions. More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Material and Energy Resources. New life to traditional skills glass, leather, wood processing, painting, engraving, sculpture, dwelling, etc. Traditional farming and animal breeding. Identification of traditional methods in agriculture and animal farming Identify plants that do not need fertilizers and pesticides.

Help and train local people and business to access EU funds. Codes of practices needed at EU level to protect and promote traditional agriculture and animal breeding, targeting SMEs and small communities, to develop bio-economy methods. Traditional diets, food and drinks. Analysis of products and scientific evaluation of diet. Promoting and disseminating activities needed. Tourism, commerce, other services. Pensions, hotels conserving the local specific. Traditional occupations could serve to develop new sport activities river rafting supervised by local people that usually take the timber down the rivers.

Services at EU levels of quality standards.

Michigan’s Transition to a Knowledge-Based Economy

Traditional buildings and households. Techniques for increasing the energy efficiency. Preserving what differentiates a community from its neighbours. Identification of traditional water sources, water management techniques leading to the protection of rivers, lakes, underground water. Small communities could become self-sufficient energetically.

Identification of solutions for producing and saving energy. Traditional medicine, practices, drugs. Scientifically assess the efficiency and risk of practices and drugs. Intellectual protection of products. Participation, communication, social inclusion and cohesion. Traditionally, an Elderly Council, enjoying an intrinsic legitimacy overviewed and solved many conflict inside the community. Search for pro-active, preventing rather than coercive initiatives and actions. Should not replace traditional direct contact of people, social events, gatherings, etc.

Environmental Protection, biodiversity, climatic change. Traditional methods for sustainable management of forests, pastures, rivers. Encouraging local ideas and solutions for zero-waste communities. Re-build traditional connections for exchange of materials, services, products, expertise among all interested stakeholders. Solutions for turning waste from local or adjacent sources to valuable resources. Co-operation with other communities to be institutionalized. Establish objectives, priorities in accordance with the local specific.

Transferring expertise for strategic management. Include them in the strategy; make them contributors to the social bond. Old institutions are intrinsic sources of local legitimacy and should be used to govern local communities. Traditional methods for consultation, option generation, decision making. Agriculture, forests, rural development. Majority of population work in agriculture Large available areas of the commune enable cultivation of an important number of plants wheat, maize, rye, potatoes, vegetables, pastures, orchards ; Animal breeding has a long tradition;.

Poorly equipped farms; No collecting and processing capacities for the local products; No irrigation systems; Insufficient development of service sector; Farmers own very small pieces of land — cultures are fragmented; No centres for artificial animal breeding;.

Room for association of local farmers in larger organizations; EU funds available, with the support of the local Agricultural Chamber; Potential for wind energy production to reduce the energy bill of farmers; Large potential for bio-products. Installing a water supply system and investing in sanitation and wastewater treatment; High potential for waste recycling.

Area renown for good, diverse food, good traditional cuisine Ecological products developing rapidly Animal breeding offers large quantities of animal products; Highly skilled workforce. Inadequate infrastructure of food and drink industry; No relevant foreign investments; Degradation of potential industrial sites, built before ; Little marketing activities.

The area is known as the land of potato. Large number of small pensions, hotels Good access to important monuments; Many protected areas; People renown for their hospitality Probably the only private ZOO in Romania. No funds for investment in touristic infrastructure No personnel for touristic activities Little promotion of touristic potential No sport facilities for adults and children.

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    Michigan does have modest employment gains in the high education attainment industries. Despite large employment declines in the knowledge-based portion of the automotive industry, Michigan experienced growth of nearly 47, jobs in the education and health sectors—where most of the national job growth occurred. The report concludes that what most distinguishes successful areas from Michigan is their concentrations of talent, where talent is defined as a combination of knowledge, creativity and entrepreneurship.

    States and regions without concentrations of talent will have great difficulty retaining or attracting knowledge-based enterprises, and they are not likely to be the place where new knowledge-based enterprises are created. Build a culture that values learning and entrepreneurial spirit that is welcoming to all. Transform teaching and learning so that it is aligned with the realities of a flat world. If you have any questions, please contact: Colleen Layton, clayton mml.

    Webmaster Michigan Municipal League:: States that are prospering share several traits: