They let illegal immigrants cross our borders and now they want to accept thousands of Syrians. If they want to come to this country, they have to do it the right way, like my father did it. Politicians are supposed to represent the people — not their parties or their donors. Sometimes that hurts him and people get offended.
But the truth hurts. Trump is our wakeup call. I was in primary school in my native Colombia when my father was murdered. I was six — just one year older than my daughter is now. My father was an officer in the Colombian army at a time when wearing a uniform made you a target for narcoterrorists, Farc fighters and guerrilla groups.
What I remember clearly from those early years is the bombing and the terror. I was so afraid, especially after my dad died. There are dangerous people coming across our borders. Some are rapists and criminals, but some are good people, too. But how do we know who is who, when you come here illegally?
I moved to the US in on a work permit. It took nearly five years and thousands of dollars to become a US citizen. Why would I want illegals coming in when I had to go through this? The Democrats have been pandering to minorities and women for the last 50 years. Donald Trump is the candidate America deserves. For decades, Americans have bemoaned politicians and Washington insiders. We despise political speak and crave fresh, new ideas.
When you ask for someone with no experience, this is what you get. But Trump is a big FU to America. He beat the system and proved everyone wrong. As a political science student who one day hopes to go into politics, I am studying this election closely. Both candidates are deeply unpopular and people of my generation are not happy with their choices. I believe we can learn what not to do from this election. I was raised in a multicultural household. My father, a Republican, is an immigrant from Belize. I believe welfare is an important service for Americans who need it, but I think our current programme needs to be scaled back.
I plan to be a part of the solution. When I was a kid, people would ask what I wanted to be when I grew up. I would tell them: I want to be president of the United States. In a way, I supported him long before he announced he was running for president. He was my childhood hero. Almost anywhere you go, you can see the mark of Donald Trump on a building or property. When I see that, I see the American Dream.
They are categorising me. In this country we label people: Hispanic, African American, Asian, Caucasian. We separate and divide people into social categories based on race, ethnicity, gender and creed. To me, this is a form of racism. Like all immigrants, my parents came to this country for a better opportunity. But they did it legally. They assimilated to the American way of life, learned English and opened small businesses. Why should we allow people to skirt the law? Imagine making a dinner reservation and arriving at the restaurant to find out that another family has been seated at your table.
How is that fair? We have to have laws and as a country we must enforce those laws. A society without laws is just anarchy. If someone invited you to their house and asked you to remove your shoes would you keep them on? I believe Donald Trump will enforce the rules. He may have wavered in the beginning, but since becoming the nominee he has taken a strong stand against abortion. Hillary Clinton is running as the leader of a party that has pushed a very pro-choice platform. Even Democrats like her running mate, Tim Kaine , who is a devout Catholic, compromise their faith to support abortion.
I see the border wall every day. The people who want to cross will find a way. I am a proud Hispanic conservative Republican woman. I became politically engaged as a political science and economics major at university. I believe we must cut taxes for everyone and eliminate the death tax. Lowering taxes and reeling back regulations will create more jobs — meaning more tax-paying Americans.
This in turn will generate more revenue for the Treasury. I also support Trump because he favours strong leadership and promised to preserve the constitution of the United States. We must have a rule of law in this country. We must close our open borders. We should welcome new immigrants who choose to legally enter our beautiful country. I would expect the poor to become poorer and our country to become divided. I refuse to support a party that desires to expand the government and take away my civil liberties.
I am an example of the opportunities this country has to offer. My parents came from Mexico at the turn of the 20th century. They were not educated but they worked hard to make a better life for us and it paid off. I went to school and studied cosmetic surgery. Now I work as a plastic surgeon and have been in practice for the last 40 years. I have a beautiful family and my health.
I am Hispanic — but I am a citizen of the United States and I feel very patriotic for this country that has given me so much. The security of our nation is a top priority for me. I think it would be impossible to deport 11 million people who are here illegally, but we have to do a better job of understanding who is in our country and who is trying to come into our country. A lot of what Trump says, especially about security and immigration, is twisted by the media.
There are Mexicans bringing over drugs and perpetrating rapes. But what he also said — and the media completely ignored — is that many Mexicans are good people coming over for a better quality of life. He may be blunt and occasionally offensive but I find him likable. I was so impressed by Trump and his family at the Republican National Convention. None of his children had to work and yet they spoke with eloquence and integrity about their father.
People ask me how I can support Donald Trump. I say, let me tell you a story. I was in line at the movie theatre recently when I saw a young woman toss her cupcake into a nearby planter as if it were a trash can. I asked her what part of Mexico she was from. She seemed surprised and asked how I knew she was from Mexico. I moved from Mexico with my family when I was seven. I still carry a photo of my brother and I near our home, to remind people how beautiful the city once was. Now I spend my time erasing graffiti from the walls and picking up trash. Sixty years ago, we accepted immigrants into our country who valued the laws, rules and regulations that made America the land of opportunity.
Back in those days, people worked hard to improve themselves and their communities. And I have seen what my own people have done to this country. They want to convert America into the country they left behind. In my day job I am a real estate agent but every now and then I dabble in standup comedy. Comedy used to be a safe space. You could say whatever you wanted to and it was understood that it was meant to make people laugh. Now everything has to be politically correct.
I was a liberal Democrat all my life. Before this I voted for Obama twice. I wanted to be a part of history. My parents came from Mexico in the s under the Bracero work programme making me a California-born Chicana. We later became US citizens. My sons and I go back and forth. The networks sensationalise and vilify Trump while they give Hillary Clinton a free pass. I do care that Clinton has not been held responsible for the Benghazi attacks. A quoi correspond cette somme? De quoi faire fructifier les affaires de ces contrebandiers. Qui sont les passeurs?
Facebook, Viber, Skype ou WhatsApp sont devenus des indispensables du contrebandier qui veut faire passer des migrants. In the U. For FIFA officials, it felt like a case of sour grapes. The case had actually begun as an FBI probe into an illegal gambling ring the bureau believed was run by people with ties to Russian organized crime outfits. You start by addressing the main conspiracy theory around this, which is that this was a case of sour grapes from the United States losing out on hosting the World Cup. But the origin was a more traditional FBI investigation into Russian organized crime, right?
And there are sort of these weird connections to everything going on in the political sphere in our country, which I think is interesting because when I was reporting the book out, it was mostly before the election. The theory was that the U. What happened was that the investigation began in July or August , four or five months before the vote happened. They were interested in what Mueller called transnational crime. So this agent looked for cases that he thought would score points with Mueller.
Steele had already been hired by the English bid for the World Cup at that point. They were stymied, trying to figure out how to make it a case against Russia. Meanwhile, the vote happens and Russia wins its bid for the World Cup. The story would be different if this particular agent was on a different squad.
But he was an ambitious agent just taking over a squad and trying to make a name for himself. This was his first management job, and he wanted to make big cases. He decides to go after Russia in Russia as a way to make a splash. This was , This was during the Russian reset.
Russia is playing nice-nice. The public image is fairly positive in that period. It was like a dress rehearsal for that. Steele has become this sort of household name in politics in the U. But here he is in the FIFA scandal. Chris Steele, when he was still at MI-6, investigated the death of Alexander Litvinenko, who was the Russian spy poisoned with polonium. It was Steele who ran that investigation and determined that Putin probably ordered it. Steele proved his worth to the FBI at the right time, and that led to his future work being decisive.
To the investigation itself: I think he and others were recognizing this increasingly brazen attitude of the criminality within FIFA. They had gone from an organization where people were getting bribes and doing dirty stuff, but doing it very carefully behind closed doors. And it was transitioning to one where the impunity was so rampant that people thought they could do anything. And I think in his mind, awarding the World Cup to Russia under very suspicious circumstances and also awarding it to Qatar, which by any definition has no right to host this tournament, it felt to him and others like a step too far.
He takes advantage of modern marketing and media to begin to turn FIFA into the organization that we know today. Is it fair to say that this corruption scandal was four decades in the making? It started in when this guy gets elected, and within a couple years, the corruption starts. And it starts with one bribe to Havelange, or one idea that he should be bribed. And it starts a whole culture, and the people all sort of learn from that same model.
The dominoes fell over time. FIFA had been able to successfully bat these challenges down over the years. But they all blinked, and Blatter dispensed his own justice by getting rid of his No. The effect of those things was more brazen behavior. It was an open secret. I think other countries have just never been able to figure out how to deal with it. People are terrified of offending the FIFA gods. A lot of the things that resulted from the bribery and the corruption, or that were done to facilitate bribery and corruption, helped grow the sport here.
- histoire | jcdurbant | Page 21.
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And yet, they were only created to make these guys rich. How do you square that? Well, it reminds me of questions about Chuck Blazer. Is he all bad, or all good? A lot of these guys were truly surprised. And so, is he good or bad? That applies to the Gold Cup. Blazer is a fascinating figure, and it seems like there are hints of sympathy for him and some of the other corrupt players in the book. Were all of these guys hardened criminals, or did they get wrapped up in how the business worked, and how it had worked for so long?
Blazer had a longer history of it. He always had a touch of corruption about him. But I think a lot of the officials in the sport came up because they loved the sport and wanted to be involved in running it. And then they found out that people were lining their pockets and they thought: But at the same time, the impunity came from a culture of believing it was OK to do that stuff.
One point you stress in the book is that fundamentally, this was a crime against the development of the sport, particularly in poorer nations and communities. But when I understood the way the bribery took place, it became clearer to me. The first piece of it is that million dollars that could have gone to the sport. What would the value of those rights have been if it was taken to the free market instead of a bribe? All that money is taken away from the sport. And the second thing was traveling to South America and seeing the conditions of soccer for fans, for kids and for women.
That was really eye-opening. There are stadiums in Argentina and Brazil that are absolutely decrepit. And people would explain, the money that was supposed to come to these clubs never comes. When you see that, and then you see dudes making millions in bribes and also marketing guys making far more from paying the bribes, I started to get indignant about it. FIFA always ties itself to children and the good of the game. It goes to making soccer officials rich.
Soccer President Sunil Gulati pops up a couple times. Is there a chance U. That said, there are legitimate questions about how U. Soccer operates that weirdly parallels a lot of the corruption that we saw in South America, the Caribbean and Central America.
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The relationship between U. MLS has the rights to the U. Soccer Federation wrapped up for years and years to come. Soccer Federation for men and women. Soccer is getting full value for its product. And in that sense it parallels the sort of corruption we saw. FIFA is battling itself as it tries to reform itself. This is a guy who grew up 6 miles from Sepp Blatter. His career echoes that. I think he sees a pathway to financial security for FIFA by making more money and being more transparent.
When massive amounts of money mixes with a massively popular cultural phenomenon, is it ever going to be clean? It seems kind of hopeless. But he still talks about patronage and handing out money, and federations around the world are still getting busted for taking bribes. The Ghana football federation got dissolved a week before the World Cup because a documentary came out that showed top officials taking bribes on secret camera. I wish it would be different, but it seems kind of hopeless. How do you regulate soccer, and who can oversee this to make sure that people behave in an ethical, clean and fair way that benefits everyone else?
Well, how do you regulate that? People like him are driven. He cared so much about this. Do you think the book and the upcoming Qatari World Cup will reinvigorate that conversation, or are people just resigned to the belief that this is what FIFA is? There is some of that resignation. But also, the annoying but true reality of FIFA is that when the World Cup is happening, all the soccer fans around the world forget all their anger and just want to watch the tournament. For three and a half years, everyone bitches about what a mess FIFA is, and then during the World Cup everyone just wants to watch soccer.
There could be some reinvigoration in the next few months when the next stupid scandal appears. And I do think Qatar could reinvigorate more of that. That would certainly spur a lot of conversation about this. You talk at the end of the book about a shift in focus to corruption in the Asian federation. This is still cleaning up pieces from the old case, but just Tuesday, a Florida company pleaded guilty to two counts of fraud in the FIFA case.
It was a company that was known from the written indictments, but no one had known they were going to be pleading guilty, so it was a new piece of the case. That piece at the end of the book with the guy going off to the South Pacific is a guy named Richard Lai. I do know from sources that the cooperators in the case are still actively talking to prosecutors, and still spending many, many hours with them discussing many aspects of the case. That said, a lot of the people who were involved in the case in the beginning have moved on.
So at some point, it could get old. A ces fameux syndromes du voyageur ….
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Mais certains refusent de quitter la ville. Selon lui, seul le concept de voyages pathologiques est pertinent:. Tous avaient un profil semblable: Pourquoi pas le syndrome de Ouagadougou? The State Department did not say whether the U. The State Department also did not clarify whether U. Almost two dozen Americans who traveled to Cuba have reported experiencing similar symptoms to those suffered by US diplomats serving at the American Embassy. At least 24 US Embassy officials in Cuba had reported hearing loud, grating noises before experiencing ear issues, hearing loss, dizziness, headache, fatigue, cognitive issues and difficulty sleeping.
The US has stood by their allegations that Cuba in some way deliberately attacked the American officials — which Cuba has adamantly denied — and earlier this month raised the possibility that a virus was deployed intentionally to infect workers. Nineteen American citizens have reported symptoms similar to those suffered by U. In late September, the State Department issued a travel warning advising Americans not to travel to Cuba because they could become victims of mysterious attacks such as those suffered by 24 diplomats and their families while they were stationed in Havana.
Among the symptoms described in the travel warning are: However, officials stressed that the situation on the island had not changed, nor their message to American travelers. The list of possible symptoms remained unchanged in the new travel advisory. The Associated Press has obtained a recording of what some U.
Jeff Flake says the U. Flake, a Senae Foreign Relations Committee member and a longtime leading advocate of detente with Cuba, met Friday with high-ranking Cuban officials including Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez and officials from the Interior Ministry, which oversees domestic security and works with foreign law-enforcement agencies. The Cubans told Flake the FBI has told them that, after four trips to Cuba, its agents have found no evidence that mysterious illnesses suffered by U.
Washington says 24 U. Cuba has decried the reductions as an unjustified blow to U. He has not ruled out running against Trump in Several of the 24 U. Medical testing has revealed that some embassy workers had apparent abnormalities in their white matter tracts that let different parts of the brain communicate, several U. Il faut le rappeler aussi, Fidel Castro est le seul et unique responsable de la rupture de toute relation commerciale ou autre entre Cuba et les Etats-Unis.
Et il faut le dire: Il faut le dire: The death of Fidel Castro was the first foreign policy test for President-elect Donald Trump and he acquitted himself brilliantly. For anyone who thought that his tough talk was just campaign bluster, witness the incredibly strong statement made about the bloody Cuban strongman:. Today, the world marks the passing of a brutal dictator who oppressed his own people for nearly six decades.
While Cuba remains a totalitarian island, it is my hope that today marks a move away from the horrors endured for too long, and toward a future in which the wonderful Cuban people finally live in the freedom they so richly deserve. For nearly six decades, the relationship between the United States and Cuba was marked by discord and profound political disagreements. During my presidency, we have worked hard to put the past behind us, pursuing a future in which the relationship between our two countries is defined not by our differences but by the many things that we share as neighbors and friends — bonds of family, culture, commerce, and common humanity.
This neutral nonsense betrays a cowardly refusal to condemn Castro as a tyrant. Perhaps President Obama forgot that he is leader of the free world and could have used the death of a dictator to say something about the importance of human liberty and human rights. But why, after eight years of Obama cozying up to Erdogan of Turkey and, worse, Ayatollah Khameini of Iran, should we expect anything else? Could there be any greater confirmation than this, and just six weeks before he leaves office? But while Trump distinguished himself as a leader prepared to bravely express his hatred of evil, virtually every other world leader followed President Obama instead, disgracing themselves to various degrees.
I put them in three categories: His obsequiousness to the murderous Castro was so great that it read like parody:.
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If there is any spiritual justice in the world the only place Castro will rest is in a warm place in Hell. The Pope, to whom so many millions, including myself, look to for moral guidance, on this occasion can look to the president-elect of the United States for the proper response in the confrontation with evil. Follow him on Twitter RabbiShmuley. Fidel Castro is dead at age In power for more than a half century, his regime ruled the last planned socialist economy.
Unless we include quirky North Korea. When Fidel marched victoriously into Havana, it had fifty-eight national newspapers. Now it has six, all published by the Cuban communist party and its affiliates. They argued that the Communist system is sound. The problem is that Communist countries have had the wrong leaders. They ignored the fact the Fidel remained in power thanks to repression of political opponents, his willingness to lose his most ambitious citizens as boat people to the US, and cheap oil as a client state of the USSR and then Venezuela.
Two decades back, only ten percent of Americans viewed Cuba favorably. The party divide is enormous: Three quarters of Democrats and one third of Republicans hold positive views of Cuba. In the s, the New Left, with its ubiquitous Che posters, was enraptured by Castro and the Cuban model.
More recent assessments by socialists fret that Cuba is not striving for a true form of socialism. It is managed by a regime that has run the economy into the ground, despite accomplishments in education and health care. Equality in Cuba means an equal right to poverty. An oppressive dictator who imprisons opponents and forces his best-and-brightest to flee or a heroic leader thumbing his nose in the face of the global hegemon while providing his people with education and health, one thing is clear: The Castro planned socialist economy has doomed the Cuban people to lives of poverty.
If Cuba had simply matched the lackluster performance of Latin America, the Cuban people would have double the living standard they have today. If so, let them give one real-world example, and not the phony Scandinavian model. Fidel knew otherwise and did not tinker with democracy, and he died in power. Gorbachev did not, and he was unceremoniously dumped from power. I imagine Raul Castro is aware of these facts. The death of Fidel Castro is the perfect Rorschach test for our times. What you thought of Castro, who died at the age of 90 on Friday, has always been a reflection of your politics, your nationality, and your age.
He was a communist stooge to the American officials who repeatedly tried to kill him, presiding over an outpost of the Soviet Union just off the coast of Florida. To Cubans themselves he was a dictator who impoverished the country, jailed and killed thousands of dissidents, and stripped citizens of their basic rights. And to those who came of age in the post-Cold War era, he was simultaneously a retro figure on a T-shirt and a cranky old man in an Adidas tracksuit.
So far, Trump has indicated nothing more than that he is aware of the news, which we can all agree, even in these divided times, is a good start. Bref, elles votent en masse et en tant que telles. La taxation, dans nos pays, est confiscatoire. Reagan et de Mme Thatcher. Le Figaro , 12 novembre Examinons les deux aspects de ce Kulturkampf. Racisme, vous avez dit proto-fascisme?
It is a truism that America has become a more diverse country. It is also a beautiful thing to watch. Visitors from other countries, particularly those having trouble incorporating different ethnic groups and faiths, are amazed that we manage to pull it off. Not perfectly, of course, but certainly better than any European or Asian nation today. But how should this diversity shape our politics? Which is a splendid principle of moral pedagogy — but disastrous as a foundation for democratic politics in our ideological age.
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One of the many lessons of the recent presidential election campaign and its repugnant outcome is that the age of identity liberalism must be brought to an end. Hillary Clinton was at her best and most uplifting when she spoke about American interests in world affairs and how they relate to our understanding of democracy. But when it came to life at home, she tended on the campaign trail to lose that large vision and slip into the rhetoric of diversity, calling out explicitly to African-American, Latino, L.
This was a strategic mistake. If you are going to mention groups in America, you had better mention all of them. Which, as the data show, was exactly what happened with the white working class and those with strong religious convictions. Fully two-thirds of white voters without college degrees voted for Donald Trump, as did over 80 percent of white evangelicals. The moral energy surrounding identity has, of course, had many good effects. Affirmative action has reshaped and improved corporate life. Black Lives Matter has delivered a wake-up call to every American with a conscience. Have you changed anything in your daily life since the election?
For example, have you tried to understand opposing points of view, donated to a group, or contacted your member of Congress? Your answer may be included in a follow up post. But the fixation on diversity in our schools and in the press has produced a generation of liberals and progressives narcissistically unaware of conditions outside their self-defined groups, and indifferent to the task of reaching out to Americans in every walk of life. At a very young age our children are being encouraged to talk about their individual identities, even before they have them. By the time they reach college many assume that diversity discourse exhausts political discourse, and have shockingly little to say about such perennial questions as class, war, the economy and the common good.
In large part this is because of high school history curriculums, which anachronistically project the identity politics of today back onto the past, creating a distorted picture of the major forces and individuals that shaped our country. Which only plays into the hands of populist demagogues who want to delegitimize learning in the eyes of those who have never set foot on a campus. How to explain to the average voter the supposed moral urgency of giving college students the right to choose the designated gender pronouns to be used when addressing them?
This campus-diversity consciousness has over the years filtered into the liberal media, and not subtly. But it also appears to have encouraged the assumption, especially among younger journalists and editors, that simply by focusing on identity they have done their jobs. Recently I performed a little experiment during a sabbatical in France: For a full year I read only European publications, not American ones. My thought was to try seeing the world as European readers did. Je vais tre en retard!? Duflot lors de la passation de pouvoirs avec Pinel:??
Elle se dit consciente des? David Assouline PS salue un gouvernement de combat?? Nadine Morano, compare le nouveau gouvernement?? Marine Le Pen FN:?? Voici la composition du Gouvernement: Le fisc va se pencher sur les revenus des nouveaux ministres. Sur France Info, Fran? Je souhaite que quelques-uns rentrent.?? Le chef du gouvernement rencontre Fran? David Assouline PS regrette? EELV va-t-il voter la confiance du gouvernement de Valls???
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En effet,, et de terrorisme. En visite en Ha? Risposte in linea con la convinzione che lappartenenza dellItalia allUe sia comunque da considerare positiva On January 8th he resigned from the judiciary and was elected Senator of the Republic for the Democratic Party. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I have really loved browsing your blog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon! Fosse cacciato seduta stante il Sig. Perugia e Frosinone si giocano il primato mentre il Lecce cerca punti per risalire in classifica.
Babyliss Pro mais aussihttp: De Maio-Burdisso-Roncaglia sicuri titolari. Numericable-SFR a perdu Olivier Cachin analyse les conflits entre et , Mais selon le site du journal? Le seigneur des anneaux? Rowan Atkinson est un grand fan de voitures de sport. Una dieta sana ed equilibrata. Dove trovo il vostro palinsesto? Per ora non ci sentiamo di chiedere altro: Share this on WhatsApp. Quali sono i vostri canali su digitale terrestre? Se consideriamo anche i TG Mediaset e La7 troviamo grandi innamoramenti e cocenti delusioni.
Le procedure possono variare a seconda della distribuzione utilizzata. I tre malviventi sono stati quindi arrestati e poi tradotti presso il Tribunale di Tivoli per la celebrazione del processo per rito direttissimo. Poche speranze qualificazione invece per la Corea. Lee Keun-Ho ,, orfana di Ibrahimovic e Verratti. Le speranze dei parigini impattano contro il secondo gol di Neymar jr: Stramaccioni recupera Guilherme e Pasquale Silva.
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Sala delle ColonneMilano,, Biglietti: Penso al caso della morte di Fidel Castro: Il calciatore arriva in rosanero con la formula del prestito con diritto di riscatto. E qui lo sforzo che possiamo fare,, percepite come corrotte. Red Bull ,, Il candidato ideale presenta i seguenti recquisiti: Identificato anche il secondo assalitore. Are you ready for the new Adidas original look? LNA is inspired by this very idea. It soon became apparent that LNA was gonna be big. Welcome to a new way of holding your sweater if you need to: A lot of us have overlooked something so simple that a belt can do like holding Read More Mary J.
Mai fidarsi dei diavoli scoreggioni. E basta poi frignare come i bambini a cui hanno toccato il gioco e fare i censori come neanche il MOIGE dei bei tempi! Martin,, Martin — Foto: Oppure una mela con un cucchiaio di burro di arachidi. Infine su due attaccanti accostati nelle ultime ora alla Fiorentina dichiara su Mutu: Rodriguez stende i gialloblu nel.. Quel giorno, sabato 28 marzo ore Roma minimizza e le reazioni sembrano tiepide.
Le stesse esecuzioni che poi sono finite in un video di propaganda del gruppo. Tant que je mamuse,,Ensuite? Sander Helven BEL m. Michel Charuau,, artistes y exposeront 84 sculptures et peintures. The couple tied the knot in a small ceremony in Tennessee just last month. Ils ne veulent plus de Dia France?
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She speaks six languages Italian,, Business contact: Reservoir dropped four in a row before beating Hammond on Tuesday. Photo by Jen Rynda See more galleries 7. Eppure era lei che volevo non le sue sorelle dorate e nere o viola e verdi Ovviamente non ho mai seriamente pensato di comprarla. Continua a leggere Commenti Fianchi snelli poche curve e fisico scattante, beh non mi sembra poi questa svolta.
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Mozilla Foundation, a mettere in commercio una nuova linea di smartphone con Firefox OS. The influence of predation risk on the feeding motivation and foraging strategy of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Experiments on whether schooling by their prey affects the hunting behaviour of cephalopod and fish predators.
The physiology of fishes. The fright reaction of fish.
Functions of shoaling behaviour in teleosts. Behaviour of teleost fishes. Is social aggregation in aquatic crustaceans a strategy to conserve energy? Piranhas in the aquarium. The regulation of breathing. Dynamics of fish shoals: Measurement of consociation among fishes and comments on the evolution of schooling. Piranha attacks are greatest during the dry season when water levels are lowest and the fish breed, resulting in thousands of hungry young piranhas in the water. Human attacks are most common in areas where human densities are highest in the water, such as popular swimming spots.
Piranha most commonly attack children for this reason. In Amerindian villages, women in menstruation are not allowed to bathe for this reason, says Mol. Piranhas are not strictly carnivorous, so any food in the water might attract them into the area. Piranha attacks are not isolated incidents. For more information see the paper: Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, December ; 41 3: This article originally appeared in Piranha meat: There is something found around these parts that a lot of people say can help.
Men in their retirement years eat it, start new families and swear by it. So do childless women, who drink it and give birth. Found in the Peruvian rain forests, the demand for it is phenomenal. In fact, an Amazonian witch doctor here must be consulted for a prescription. The bitter-tasting flesh of the fish that have devoured so many villains in jungle B-movies is hailed here as the cure for problems dealing with fertility, virility, even baldness.
It is said to be the ultimate aphrodisiac. The meat, they say, is acidic, sometimes toxic and utterly without medicinal powers. Piranha fisherman Miguel Socorro, for example, said his father had been sterile before eating piranha and fathering Socorro and his two siblings. Maria Luisa Quepo, a childless woman near Pulcallpa, gave birth to twins when she was in her 40s after drinking a piranha-based brew.
And the mayor of a nearby village, a widower in his 60s, started a second family with the help of the fish. The best fishermen start early in the morning by pouring buckets of blood around their boats to attract the fish, which gather with such ferocity that the water near the boat seems to be boiling. The fishermen slap the waters with their fishing poles to mimic the splashing sounds of an animal in distress — something that excites the piranha even more.
Then they they drop in multipronged hooks baited with chunks of red meat. The piranha just nibble at the meat, but a slight tug at the hook-lines tells the fisherman to jerk the hooks upward, something as likely to snag the fish in the gills or tails as in the mouths, since the piranha do not allow hooks past their razor-sharp teeth. Large black-bellied fish are generally worth a little less and are in highest demand by artisans, who make necklaces from the larger- than-normal jaws and teeth to sell to tourists.
The meat from a red-bellied piranha, by contrast, is considered potent and is snapped up by healers. Meat from a baby piranha is thought to start working quicker; pregnant piranhas are used to solve fertility-related problems. Whoever is right, the witch doctor or the pharmacist, it makes no difference to people like Quepo, the formerly childless woman who gave birth to twins when she was 43 — a miracle she attributes to piranha. Now, thank God, we have two little children. Flor boasts cures for maladies ranging from infertility to baldness, from alcoholism to poor night vision.
During a recent visit, Flor told me he could cure me of whatever ailed me. Do your feet sweat when you sleep? In fact, he was virtually indistinguishable from the 60 or so people in the nearby village of Nuevo Destino — Spanish for New Destiny — with his earth-tone clothes and high, Indian cheekbones. The Shapibo Indian language is spoken by most people in the area. The route to his hut included a maze of minor river tributaries — some of which had to be blazed by breaking off or slipping under branches from fast-growing Amazon trees — and then a muddy, hourlong walk along an overgrown path.
Weeds sprouted between the unevenly spaced floor and the wooden-and-palm-thatched roof seemed to absorb the tube of smoke rising up from the flame Flor used to heat the potion he was making for me. The brew he concocted for me included an ounce or two of piranha meat along with a ground-up mixture twigs, herbs, powders and some drops from an odd assortment of bottles that Flor kept on a shelf with the skull of a huge Caiman.
The gritty potion tasted bitter, but Flor and my guide urged me to drink it down as they chatted in Shapibo. After I took a few hesitant sips, Flor took the clay pot back and smiled a toothless smile. He declared me almost cured. I asked Flor and my guide. They looked at me as if I should have perhaps asked for a cure for being dimwitted. A few seconds passed, and Flor spoke slowly. Lyman July 17, — Page C Cf Esther de Viveiros, Rondon …. A la fin des …. Pacificador, bandeirante, amansador de Indios, civil …. Roosevelt se retrouve en terrain connu. Ce sera chose faite en A conquista do deserto brasileiro , Rondon.
Um grande cerco de paz. Kermit and I were of the old revolutionary stock, and in our veins ran about every strain of blood that there was on this side of the water during colonial times. Protestation des artistes contre la tour. Fundraising, criticism, and construction in the United States.
The committees in the United States faced great difficulties in obtaining funds for the construction of the pedestal. The Panic of had led to an economic depression that persisted through much of the decade. The Liberty statue project was not the only such undertaking that had difficulty raising money: Since , it had rarely been used, though during the Civil War, it had served as a recruiting station. Within months, Hunt submitted a detailed plan, indicating that he expected construction to take about nine months.
The four sides are identical in appearance. Above the door on each side, there are ten disks upon which Bartholdi proposed to place the coats of arms of the states between and , there were 40 U. Above that, a balcony was placed on each side, framed by pillars. Bartholdi placed an observation platform near the top of the pedestal, above which the statue itself rises. Financial concerns again forced him to revise his plans; the final design called for poured concrete walls, up to 20 feet 6. Fundraising for the statue had begun in The committee organized a large number of money-raising events.
As part of one such effort, an auction of art and manuscripts, poet Emma Lazarus was asked to donate an original work. She initially declined, stating she could not write a poem about a statue. At the time, she was also involved in aiding refugees to New York who had fled anti-Semitic pogroms in eastern Europe.
These refugees were forced to live in conditions that the wealthy Lazarus had never experienced. She saw a way to express her empathy for these refugees in terms of the statue. Even with these efforts, fundraising lagged. With the project in jeopardy, groups from other American cities, including Boston and Philadelphia, offered to pay the full cost of erecting the statue in return for relocating it.
Pulitzer pledged to print the name of every contributor, no matter how small the amount given. The drive captured the imagination of New Yorkers, especially when Pulitzer began publishing the notes he received from contributors. As the donations flooded in, the committee resumed work on the pedestal.
New Yorkers displayed their new-found enthusiasm for the statue, as the French vessel arrived with the crates holding the disassembled statue on board. Even with the success of the fund drive, the pedestal was not completed until April Immediately thereafter, reassembly of the statue began. Nevertheless, no one died during the construction work. Instead, Bartholdi cut portholes in the torch which was covered with gold leaf and placed the lights inside them. A power plant was installed on the island to light the torch and for other electrical needs. No members of the general public were permitted on the island during the ceremonies, which were reserved entirely for dignitaries.
The restriction offended area suffragists, who chartered a boat and got as close as they could to the island. A scheduled fireworks display was postponed until November 1 because of poor weather. The expression makes us sick. This government is a howling farce. It can not or rather does not protect its citizens within its own borders. Pour qui me prend-on? Quand viendra le Messie? Nahmanide est seul pour ainsi dire, seul en lice. La dispute de Barcelone est toujours nouvelle. Public debates on religious subjects between Jews and non-Jews. Religious differences have at all times induced serious-minded men to exchange their views in order to win opponents over to their own side by appeals to reason.
Abraham is represented in the Midrash as holding a religious debate with Nimrod see Jew. In Alexandria disputations between Jews and pagans were probably quite frequent. The first actual disputation before a worldly ruler took place at Alexandria about B. In the time of the emperor Caligula the first disputation between Jews and pagans before a ruling monarch took place at Rome, the erection of statues of Caligula in the synagogues of Alexandria having caused the Jews to send a deputation under Philo to the emperor, while the anti-Jewish party sent a deputation under Apion.
It was typical of all later disputations, inasmuch as the defeat of the Jews was a foregone conclusion. The following was the dialogue: Of an altogether different nature were the disputations between Jews and Christians. At first these were bitter and sarcastic in tone, but, like quarrels between members of one household, harmless in their consequences.
As they turned chiefly on Scripture interpretations, the Jew easily obtained the victory over his less skilled adversary. How prominent these disputations were in the early days of Christianity is shown by the number of fictitious dialogues written by Christians for apologetic purposes, and mainly copied one from the other, with references to the same Scriptural passages, and all of them ending in the same way: Abahu were known as keen debaters Bacher, l.
Quite different was the tone of the disputations introduced in the Byzantine empire. The impression prevailed among Christians that they were no match for the learned and witty Jews, while the latter frequently challenged the former, openly and frankly criticizing the dogmas of the Church.
Being turned into great spectacles by the presence of the dignitaries of Church and state—mock controversial tournaments in which the Jews were bound to suffer defeat—they became a direct menace to the literature and the very lives of the Jews. The first of these famous disputations took place at the royal court of Louis IX. The four rabbis were to defend the Talmud against the accusations of Donin, turning mainly upon two points: The second disputation took place at Barcelona on July 20, , at the royal palace, in the presence of James I. The debate turned on the questions whether the Messiah had appeared or not; whether, according to Scripture, the Messiah is a divine or a human being; and whether the Jews or the Christians held the true faith.
Disputation Between Jewish and Christian Theologians. As to the question whether the Messiah had come or not, he could not believe that he had come as long as the promised cessation of all warfare had not been realized. But the enemies of the Jews were not set at rest. The most remarkable disputation in Jewish history, for the pomp and splendor accompanying it, the time it lasted, and the number of Jews that took part therein, is the one held at the summons of the antipope Benedict, XIII.
It began in Feb. Religious Disputation Between Jews and Christians. Belonging to the class of friendly disputations ib. The remarkable disputation of Ephraim ben Don Sango Sancho? The story of a disputation on the question, Which is the best religion? One is said to have taken place about , before Bulan, the king of the Chazars, who, uncertain whether to exchange his heathen religion, which he had come to abhor, for Mohammedanism or Christianity, summoned representatives of these two creeds, as well as of Judaism, for a disputation.
None could convince him of the superiority of his faith, and Bulan resolved to espouse the Jewish, since both Christian and Mohammedan referred to it as the basis of their own, and each recognized it as superior to the others See Chazars. In Germany it was the Jewish apostate Victor of Carben who, under the direction of Herrman, the Archbishop of Cologne, and in the presence of many courtiers, ecclesiastics, and knights, held a disputation with some Jews of the Rhine provinces about , accusing them of blasphemy against the Christian religion; the consequence of this disputation was that the Jews were expelled from the lower Rhine district ib.
Quite different in tone and character were the disputations held by the Jews, both Rabbinites and Karaites, with Christians of various denominations in Poland at the close of the sixteenth century. Here the Jews, untrammeled by clerical or state despotism, freely criticized the various religious sects, and it was considered a difficult task for a Christian to convert a Jew ib.
Occasionally disputations for conversionist purposes were arranged at German courts. One is reported to have taken place at the ducal court of Hanover, about , in the presence of the duke, the dowager-duchess, the princes, clergy, and all the distinguished personages of the city, between Rabbi Joseph of Stadthagen and Eliezer Edzard, who had had been the instigator of the disputation. It ended in the complete victory of the rabbi, who not only refuted all the arguments of his antagonist from Scripture and the Midrash, but under the full approval of the court declined to answer under oath the question as to which religion was the best.
Regarding the disputations between the rabbis and the Frankists before Bishop Dembowski at Kamenetz in , and before the canon Nikulski at Lemberg in , see Frank, Jacob. The History of Christmas. The earliest gospel — St. His calculation went as follows:. Dionysius received a tradition that the Roman emperor Augustus reigned 43 years, and was followed by the emperor Tiberius.
Augustus took power in AUC. The Christian era, supposed to have its starting point in the year of Jesus birth, is based on a miscalculation introduced ca. Clement, a bishop of Alexandria d. Roman pagans first introduced the holiday of Saturnalia, a week long period of lawlessness celebrated between December During this period, Roman courts were closed, and Roman law dictated that no one could be punished for damaging property or injuring people during the weeklong celebration.
In addition to human sacrifice, he mentions these customs: In the 4th century CE, Christianity imported the Saturnalia festival hoping to take the pagan masses in with it. Christian leaders succeeded in converting to Christianity large numbers of pagans by promising them that they could continue to celebrate the Saturnalia as Christians.
The problem was that there was nothing intrinsically Christian about Saturnalia. Christians had little success, however, refining the practices of Saturnalia. Some of the most depraved customs of the Saturnalia carnival were intentionally revived by the Catholic Church in when Pope Paul II, for the amusement of his Roman citizens, forced Jews to race naked through the streets of the city. As part of the Saturnalia carnival throughout the 18th and 19th centuries CE, rabbis of the ghetto in Rome were forced to wear clownish outfits and march through the city streets to the jeers of the crowd, pelted by a variety of missiles.
In Warsaw 12 Jews were brutally murdered, huge numbers maimed, and many Jewish women were raped. Two million rubles worth of property was destroyed. Norse mythology recounts how the god Balder was killed using a mistletoe arrow by his rival god Hoder while fighting for the female Nanna. Druid rituals use mistletoe to poison their human sacrificial victim. In pre-Christian Rome, the emperors compelled their most despised citizens to bring offerings and gifts during the Saturnalia in December and Kalends in January.
Later, this ritual expanded to include gift-giving among the general populace. The Catholic Church gave this custom a Christian flavor by re-rooting it in the supposed gift-giving of Saint Nicholas see below. He died in CE on December 6th. He was only named a saint in the 19th century. Nicholas was among the most senior bishops who convened the Council of Nicaea in CE and created the New Testament.
In , a group of sailors who idolized Nicholas moved his bones from Turkey to a sanctuary in Bari, Italy. The Grandmother was ousted from her shrine at Bari, which became the center of the Nicholas cult. The Nicholas cult spread north until it was adopted by German and Celtic pagans. These groups worshipped a pantheon led by Woden —their chief god and the father of Thor, Balder, and Tiw. Woden had a long, white beard and rode a horse through the heavens one evening each Autumn.
When Nicholas merged with Woden, he shed his Mediterranean appearance, grew a beard, mounted a flying horse, rescheduled his flight for December, and donned heavy winter clothing. In a bid for pagan adherents in Northern Europe, the Catholic Church adopted the Nicholas cult and taught that he did and they should distribute gifts on December 25th instead of December 6th.
The satire refers several times to the white bearded, flying-horse riding Saint Nicholas using his Dutch name, Santa Claus. Clement Moore, a professor at Union Seminary, read Knickerbocker History, and in he published a poem based on the character Santa Claus: Before Nast, Saint Nicholas had been pictured as everything from a stern looking bishop to a gnome-like figure in a frock.
Nast also gave Santa a home at the North Pole, his workshop filled with elves, and his list of the good and bad children of the world. All Santa was missing was his red outfit. Sundblom modeled his Santa on his friend Lou Prentice, chosen for his cheerful, chubby face. And Santa was born — a blend of Christian crusader, pagan god, and commercial idol. There is no Christian church with a tradition that Jesus was really born on December 25th.
Imagine that on that day, Jews were historically subject to perverse tortures and abuse, and that this continued for centuries. Now, imagine that your great-great-great-grandchildren were about to celebrate Hitlerday. They had long forgotten about Auschwitz and Bergen Belsen.
They had never heard of gas chambers or death marches. If one really wants to put an end to the continued prospering of this curse from heaven that is the Jewish blood, there is only one way to do it: It was an appropriate thought for the day. This Christmas, how will we celebrate? The reason he did not sanction one in front of the Knesset had nothing to do with Christians — but with Jews. The tree is similar to the traditional Christmas tree put up in many Western countries in appearance, but is not linked to the Christian holiday.
However, he said, the Christmas tree, like other Christian symbols, brought back bad memories for Jews, and as the Jewish state, Israel needed to ensure that its Jewish citizens were not subject to displays that would hurt their emotions. Among other official recognitions of the Christian holiday, Israeli law mandates that Christian employees of government offices receive the day off with pay.
The Brits have it right: New York and London among other cities in both countries are decked out for the holidays. You get the idea. Evergreens and menorahs go hand in hand in most public places in the US. They have silver, gold and white lights aplenty, but no red and green anything. In short, snow globes are fine, Santa is not. Half of America prefers one term and half the other. The majority wish me something along the lines of: The cards have nice images of mittens, ice skates and snow covered landscapes not to mention photos of cute kids , but not much overtly Christmas-y.
They offer me everything jolly and merry this time of year, except a Merry Christmas. But even people who are clearly celebrating Christmas in their homes tend to be conflicted about what to say in the workplace or at school. The saying in Britain seems to have lost its religious meaning. Of course, I am making broad generalizations. As a British friend reminded me, the UK has been celebrating Saturnalia long before Christmas, and plenty of places such as Birmingham have generic Winterval celebrations.
But by and large, in two diverse societies with similar roots, Americans have opted to try to find neutral sounding holiday greetings, while Brits have chosen to make Christmas as open to everyone as possible. Personally, I think the Brits have this one right. It makes me feel more a part of their celebration. Instead of feeling more diverse and inclusive, it just feels like someone took a bit of sparkle out of the December festivities.
We have seen that many peoples have been used to observe an annual period of license, when the customary restraints of law and morality are thrown aside, when the whole population give themselves up to extravagant mirth and jollity, and when the darker passions find a vent which would never be allowed them in the more staid and sober course of ordinary life. Such outbursts of the pent-up forces of human nature, too often degenerating into wild orgies of lust and crime, occur most commonly at the end of the year, and are frequently associated, as I have had occasion to point out, with one or other of the agricultural seasons, especially with the time of sowing or of harvest.
Now, of all these periods of license the one which is best known and which in modern language has given its name to the rest, is the Saturnalia. This famous festival fell in December, the last month of the Roman year, and was popularly supposed to commemorate the merry reign of Saturn, the god of sowing and of husbandry, who lived on earth long ago as a righteous and beneficent king of Italy, drew the rude and scattered dwellers on the mountains together, taught them to till the ground, gave them laws, and ruled in peace.
His reign was the fabled Golden Age: Slavery and private property were alike unknown: At last the good god, the kindly king, vanished suddenly; but his memory was cherished to distant ages, shrines were reared in his honour, and many hills and high places in Italy bore his name. Yet the bright tradition of his reign was crossed by a dark shadow: Feasting and revelry and all the mad pursuit of pleasure are the features that seem to have especially marked this carnival of antiquity, as it went on for seven days in the streets and public squares and houses of ancient Rome from the seventeenth to the twenty-third of December.
But no feature of the festival is more remarkable, nothing in it seems to have struck the ancients themselves more than the license granted to slaves at this time. The distinction between the free and the servile classes was temporarily abolished. The slave might rail at his master, intoxicate himself like his betters, sit down at table with them, and not even a word of reproof would be administered to him for conduct which at any other season might have been punished with stripes, imprisonment, or death.
Nay, more, masters actually changed places with their slaves and waited on them at table; and not till the serf had done eating and drinking was the board cleared and dinner set for his master. So far was this inversion of ranks carried, that each household became for a time a mimic republic in which the high offices of state were discharged by the slaves, who gave their orders and laid down the law as if they were indeed invested with all the dignity of the consulship, the praetorship, and the bench.
Like the pale reflection of power thus accorded to bondsmen at the Saturnalia was the mock kingship for which freemen cast lots at the same season. The person on whom the lot fell enjoyed the title of king, and issued commands of a playful and ludicrous nature to his temporary subjects. One of them he might order to mix the wine, another to drink, another to sing, another to dance, another to speak in his own dispraise, another to carry a flute-girl on his back round the house.
The conjecture is strongly confirmed, if not established, by a very curious and interesting account of the way in which the Saturnalia was celebrated by the Roman soldiers stationed on the Danube in the reign of Maximian and Diocletian. The account is preserved in a narrative of the martyrdom of St. Dasius, which was unearthed from a Greek manuscript in the Paris library, and published by Professor Franz Cumont of Ghent. Two briefer descriptions of the event and of the custom are contained in manuscripts at Milan and Berlin; one of them had already seen the light in an obscure volume printed at Urbino in , but its importance for the history of the Roman religion, both ancient and modern, appears to have been overlooked until Professor Cumont drew the attention of scholars to all three narratives by publishing them together some years ago.
According to these narratives, which have all the appearance of being authentic, and of which the longest is probably based on official documents, the Roman soldiers at Durostorum in Lower Moesia celebrated the Saturnalia year by year in the following manner. Thirty days before the festival they chose by lot from amongst themselves a young and handsome man, who was then clothed in royal attire to resemble Saturn.
Thus arrayed and attended by a multitude of soldiers he went about in public with full license to indulge his passions and to taste of every pleasure, however base and shameful. But if his reign was merry, it was short and ended tragically; for when the thirty days were up and the festival of Saturn had come, he cut his own throat on the altar of the god whom he personated. In the year A. The threats and arguments of his commanding officer Bassus failed to shake his constancy, and accordingly he was beheaded, as the Christian martyrologist records with minute accuracy, at Durostorum by the soldier John on Friday the twentieth day of November, being the twenty-fourth day of the moon, at the fourth hour.
Since this narrative was published by Professor Cumont, its historical character, which had been doubted or denied, has received strong confirmation from an interesting discovery. In the crypt of the cathedral which crowns the promontory of Ancona there is preserved, among other remarkable antiquities, a white marble sarcophagus bearing a Greek inscription, in characters of the age of Justinian, to the following effect: How long the sarcophagus was deposited in the church of San Pellegrino, we do not know; but it is recorded to have been there in the year At all events it appears certain from the independent and mutually confirmatory evidence of the martyrology and the monuments that Dasius was no mythical saint, but a real man, who suffered death for his faith at Durostorum in one of the early centuries of the Christian era.
Finding the narrative of the nameless martyrologist thus established as to the principal fact recorded, namely, the martyrdom of St. Dasius, we may reasonably accept his testimony as to the manner and cause of the martyrdom, all the more because his narrative is precise, circumstantial, and entirely free from the miraculous element. Accordingly I conclude that the account which he gives of the celebration of the Saturnalia among the Roman soldiers is trustworthy.
This account sets in a new and lurid light the office of the King of the Saturnalia, the ancient Lord of Misrule, who presided over the winter revels at Rome in the time of Horace and Tacitus. It seems to prove that his business had not always been that of a mere harlequin or merry-andrew whose only care was that the revelry should run high and the fun grow fast and furious, while the fire blazed and crackled on the hearth, while the streets swarmed with festive crowds, and through the clear frosty air, far away to the north, Soracte showed his coronal of snow.
When we compare this comic monarch of the gay, the civilised metropolis with his grim counterpart of the rude camp on the Danube, and when we remember the long array of similar figures, ludicrous yet tragic, who in other ages and in other lands, wearing mock crowns and wrapped in sceptred palls, have played their little pranks for a few brief hours or days, then passed before their time to a violent death, we can hardly doubt that in the King of the Saturnalia at Rome, as he is depicted by classical writers, we see only a feeble emasculated copy of that original, whose strong features have been fortunately preserved for us by the obscure author of the Martyrdom of St.
In Rome itself and other great towns the growth of civilisation had probably mitigated this cruel custom long before the Augustan age, and transformed it into the innocent shape it wears in the writings of the few classical writers who bestow a passing notice on the holiday King of the Saturnalia. But in remoter districts the older and sterner practice may long have survived; and even if after the unification of Italy the barbarous usage was suppressed by the Roman government, the memory of it would be handed down by the peasants and would tend from time to time, as still happens with the lowest forms of superstition among ourselves, to lead to a recrudescence of the practice, especially among the rude soldiery on the outskirts of the empire over whom the once iron hand of Rome was beginning to relax its grasp.
The resemblance between the Saturnalia of ancient and the Carnival of modern Italy has often been remarked; but in the light of all the facts that have come before us, we may well ask whether the resemblance does not amount to identity. We have seen that in Italy, Spain, and France, that is, in the countries where the influence of Rome has been deepest and most lasting, a conspicuous feature of the Carnival is a burlesque figure personifying the festive season, which after a short career of glory and dissipation is publicly shot, burnt, or otherwise destroyed, to the feigned grief or genuine delight of the populace.
If the view here suggested of the Carnival is correct, this grotesque personage is no other than a direct successor of the old King of the Saturnalia, the master of the revels, the real man who personated Saturn and, when the revels were over, suffered a real death in his assumed character. Whether that was so or not, we may conclude with a fair degree of probability that if the King of the Wood at Aricia lived and died as an incarnation of a sylvan deity, he had of old a parallel at Rome in the men who, year by year, were slain in the character of King Saturn, the god of the sown and sprouting seed.
How that happened is a matter of considerable controversy, with popular theories ranging from fiercer policing, to abortion, lead paint, and computer-assisted crime prevention programs. David Greenberg, a sociologist at New York University, believes none of the theories stand up on their own.
It could be all or none of the above, he said. It could also be that Western civilization is just becoming more civilized and less violent, and it is finally showing up in the statistics, even with recent mass shootings in the United States. Crime rates have fallen in most of the Western world as well as most American cities, but what has happened in New York City, with a population of 8 million, is extraordinary. The rate of violent crime began to decrease in the s, before jumping in the s when crack cocaine made it to the streets in many cities.
Then it sank and has continued to do so. In , there were 2, murders in the city. Last year the number was , the lowest since police began keeping reliable records. In one remarkable day, Nov. The same is true for other violent crimes, including robberies and assaults. Greenberg said experts typically offer two common explanations. One is that in the New York Police Department installed CompStat, a computer program that tracks crime and allows police departments to manage personnel better. Essentially, the police department believed that cracking down on offenses from prostitution to begging and excessive noise could help suppress felony crime.
Either way, the NYPD takes credit. For CompStat, the crime rate had already begun dropping when the software was installed. Greenberg also failed to find a causal relationship between an increase in misdemeanor charges and the overall crime rate. Other theories also have been proposed. There were fewer young males, the demographic sector most responsible for crime. Both theories are highly controversial. Another theory credits removal of lead from gasoline and paint. Lead causes brain damage and could account for some criminal activity so when lead was removed from gasoline and paint, fewer children were affected.
Surprisingly, some sociologists think civilization is simply getting less violent and more civilized, Greenberg said. Elias wrote that interpersonal violence had been in decline since the Middle Ages, a statement historians now accept. Elias said that for divine monarchs, like Louis XIV of France, their worth was more measured by their ability at witty badinage and manners than swordsmanship. This more civilized tendency spread to the European middle class and finally, in the nineteenth century, to the working classes. The decrease also could be partly due to immigration to the city, an influx of people who may be particularly motivated to avoid legal trouble, especially if they are undocumented or because they are determined to make good lives for themselves, Greenberg said.
Another possibility, frequently ignored, is that New York is a college town. The City University of New York system alone enrolls , undergraduates and they are a substantial—and generally peaceful—portion of the young population. Joel Shurkin is a freelance writer based in Baltimore. He is the author of nine books on science and the history of science, and has taught science journalism at Stanford University, UC Santa Cruz and the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Hard Times, Fewer Crimes. So what explains the disconnect? Big changes in American culture, says James Q. When the FBI announced last week that violent crime in the U. It had been a dismal year economically, and the standard view in the field, echoed for decades by the media, is that unemployment and poverty are strongly linked to crime. The argument is straightforward: The economist Gary Becker of the University of Chicago, a Nobel laureate, gave the standard view its classic formulation in the s. Observation may appear to bear this theory out. After all, neighborhoods with elevated crime rates tend to be those where poverty and unemployment are high as well.
But there have long been difficulties with the notion that unemployment causes crime. For one thing, the s, a period of rising crime, had essentially the same unemployment rate as the late s and early s, a period when crime fell. Among the explanations offered for this puzzle is that unemployment and poverty were so common during the Great Depression that families became closer, devoted themselves to mutual support, and kept young people, who might be more inclined to criminal behavior, under constant adult supervision.
Big-city reports show the same thing. Boston, Chicago and Los Angeles witnessed similar declines. But other economic indicators tell much the same story.