As such, the film illustrates how ideological messages — which are unquestionably present — had to take a back seat because foreign audiences were largely wary of German militarism and sensitive to fascist political indoctrination. Goebbels, who originally wanted changes to the conclusion of the film by adding a more explicit condemnation of American capitalism, retracted his demands when the film fared well at the International Film Festival in Venice. Rather, the case of Der Kaiser von Kalifornien foregrounds the tensions between propaganda and spectatorship, economic imperatives, and institutional pressures that become particularly salient when a national cinema is subject to extreme political circumstances.
Beyond its ideological importance as a means to consolidate power, which has been well Communities in Nordamerika und Zentraleuropa, ed. Besides gaining a maximum level of control over content, the new legislation was also designed to help to improve the popularity of German films at home and abroad. Industry and state officials had been alarmed by poor box office returns for some time. Notwithstanding severe rises in production costs, the percentage of German films shown domestically fell from IB Tauris, , pp. Droste, , p.
The table of foreign feature films exhibited in the Third Reich is reproduced in Rentschler, p. Palgrave Macmillan, , pp. The aim was to, first, increase the market share in foreign territories and, second, to cater more efficiently for German domestic audience tastes — particularly in the major cities where American feature films remained popular throughout the s despite increasing pressure to hinder Hollywood A-films appearing on German screens.
As a production that was part of a broader film policy of economic expansion, Der Kaiser von Kalifornien was backed by the RMVP and the industry from the start. This fact alone weakens accounts that tell the well-worn story of Trenker struggling to turn his artistic vision into a feature film against overwhelming political and institutional pressures. Der amerikanische Spielfilm im Dritten Reich Trier: Wisscenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, , pp. Bertelsmann, , pp.
The fledgling relationship between the German and the Italian cinema was of particular interest and led to several visits by Luigi Freddi, the head of the General Directorate for Cinematography Direzione Nazionale per la Cinematografia, DGC , to Germany. In the same year, Trenker significantly engaged in a follow-up project, this time in Italy, with the historical drama Candottieri on the life of the Renaissance prince Giovanni di Medici. The scale of its international marketing was unprecedented. Indeed in promotional terms the film was announced as an international production.
For example, when Trenker was to leave Germany for America, the trade journal ran a high- profile cover feature promoting the twin ambitions of the director and the head of the internationally-oriented Tobis-Cinema-Film AG, Fritz Mainz: Moreover, the epic orchestral score by Guiseppe Becce, which added mood to the impressive nature shots, the grandeur of the sets, the tragic-dramatic fate of the protagonist and his family, the easy-to-follow plot and the action spectacle underline the international appeal of the film.
In fact, Trenker and Third Reich Cinema generally applies many of the strategies that have already been developed in the mids during the Film Europe movement in order to compete with Hollywood. There is an historical irony here: So, quite naturally, the splendour is always in the foreground and suppresses the human element. Rather than an aberration or a rupture, Third Reich cinema does not seem radically disconnected from international developments of the German film culture prior to Der Kaiser von Kalifornien not only builds upon existing production strategies but in turn serves as a model, or prototype, for the German and Italian western of the post-war years.
Above all, Der Kaiser von Kalifornien prompted a fierce dispute between Universal and Tobis-Rota over story rights and intellectual property. McKay, in a hysterical internal memo that is worth citing at length: Trenker is coming here on behalf of the German Rota company, who are our gents in Germany. They wanted to force us to make the picture in company with them, but they were so utterly unfair that I would not even consider doing business with them. They are unquestionably the meanest concern I ever dealt with in all my years in this business.
It is a pity that we have to have such people as these as our German representatives. And I am sure you will find a way how to go after Trenker and his company. The name of his company is Rota Film. Now, however, he was also indebted to Universal for having offered him a job after his flight from Nazi Germany. Being caught in a predicament of incongruous allegiances, Kohner initially poured oil over troubled water on 6 July Furthermore, […] it will take Trenker at least six to eight months to finish his picture, and in the meantime our production will be on the market.
Again, little was left to chance. Deeply impressed by the initial success of Der Kaiser von Kalifornien, UFA quickly decided on producing their own westerns. Indeed, the review argued that the scenic location filming allowed the film to include long scenes — particularly during the first half — that placed more emphasis on visual symbolism and atmosphere than forward narrative momentum. Not coincidentally, the German release of Der Kaiser von Kalifornien coincided with the opening of the Olympic Games in the summer of The film here served, in the context of the Games, as a prominent and prestigious marker of an allegedly internationalist, cosmopolitan culture.
Edition und Dokumentation, ed. Whenever possible, reports on the German triumphs should appear in bold heading on the front pages.
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Its significance lay in its assumed exemplary status for German artistic expression and the resourcefulness and superiority of fascism as a cultural imperative: The economy, unemployment figures, technical achievements, the Olympic Games, and now also the cultural sphere as represented by the victory of German filmmaking in Venice are evidence for the continuing progression of the German people in every aspect of life.
Such a success illustrates that artistic creativity is achievable in totalitarian states, too.
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In fact, the achievements were made possible by the firm administration and leadership in Germany. Almost all other countries, by contrast, face a constant decline in their abilities and accomplishments. The success in Venice is not limited to the world of cinema but also — and this ought to be stressed — a success of [German] film policy. It also was the last piece of glue needed to cement the already close cinematic and political bond between the two nations. It was hardly surprising, given that Trenker could be regarded as an Italian son, that the Italian press bathed the film in superlatives.
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The most rare of the Western subgenres, pornographic Westerns use the Old West as a background for stories primarily focused on erotica. Sweet Savage starred Aldo Ray , a veteran actor who had appeared in traditional Westerns, in a non-sex role. Among videogames, Custer's Revenge is an infamous example, considered to be one of the worst video games of all time. After the early s, many American filmmakers began to question and change many traditional elements of Westerns, and to make Revisionist Westerns that encouraged audiences to question the simple hero-versus-villain dualism and the morality of using violence to test one's character or to prove oneself right.
One major revision was the increasingly positive representation of Native Americans , who had been treated as "savages" in earlier films. A few earlier Revisionist Westerns gave women more powerful roles, such as Westward the Women starring Robert Taylor. Another earlier work encompassed all these features, The Last Wagon In it, Richard Widmark played a white man raised by Comanches and persecuted by whites , with Felicia Farr and Susan Kohner playing young women forced into leadership roles.
The science fiction Western places science fiction elements within a traditional Western setting. John Jakes 's "Six Gun Planet" takes place on a future planet colonized by people consciously seeking to recreate the Old West with cowboys riding robot horses New Vegas is an example of a video game that follows this format, with futuristic technology and genetic mutations placed among the western themes and desert sprawl of the Mojave Wasteland.
The Space Western or Space Frontier is a subgenre of science fiction which uses the themes and tropes of Westerns within science fiction stories. Subtle influences may include exploration of new, lawless frontiers, while more overt influences may feature literal cowboys in outer space who use ray guns and ride robotic horses. The classic western genre has also been a major influence on science fiction films such as the original Star Wars movie of During the s and s, a revival of the Western emerged in Italy with the " Spaghetti Westerns " also known as "Italo-Westerns".
The most famous of them is The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Spaghetti Westerns were characterized by the presence of more action and violence than the Hollywood Westerns. Also, the protagonists usually acted out of more selfish motives money or revenge being the most common than in the classical westerns. The Western films directed by Sergio Leone were felt by some to have a different tone than the Hollywood Westerns. Eastwood, previously the lead in the television series Rawhide , unexpectedly found himself catapulted into the forefront of the film industry by Leone's A Fistful of Dollars.
The Weird Western subgenre blends elements of a classic Western with other elements. The Wild Wild West television series, television movies, and film adaptation blend the Western with steampunk. The Jonah Hex franchise also blends the Western with superhero elements. The film Western Religion , by writer and director James O'Brien , introduces the devil into a traditional wild west setting. Old Man Logan graphic novel combines the elements of superhero and post-apocalyptic fiction with western. In the s academic and critical attention to cinema as a legitimate art form emerged.
With the increased attention, film theory was developed to attempt to understand the significance of film. From this environment emerged in conjunction with the literary movement an enclave of critical studies called genre studies. This was primarily a semantic and structuralist approach to understanding how similar films convey meaning. One of the results of genre studies is that some [ who?
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For example, a very typical Western plot is that an eastern lawman heads west, where he matches wits and trades bullets with a gang of outlaws and thugs, and is aided by a local lawman who is well-meaning but largely ineffective until a critical moment when he redeems himself by saving the hero's life. This description can be used to describe any number of Westerns, but also other films such as Die Hard itself a loose reworking of High Noon and Akira Kurosawa 's Seven Samurai , which are frequently cited examples of films that do not take place in the American West but have many themes and characteristics common to Westerns.
Likewise, films set in the American Old West may not necessarily be considered "Westerns. Being period drama pieces, both the Western and samurai genre influenced each other in style and themes throughout the years. Despite the Cold War , the Western was a strong influence on Eastern Bloc cinema, which had its own take on the genre, the so-called " Red Western " or "Ostern". Generally these took two forms: An offshoot of the Western genre is the "post-apocalyptic" Western, in which a future society, struggling to rebuild after a major catastrophe, is portrayed in a manner very similar to the 19th-century frontier.
Many elements of space travel series and films borrow extensively from the conventions of the Western genre. This is particularly the case in the space Western subgenre of science fiction. Gene Roddenberry , the creator of the Star Trek series, pitched his show as " Wagon Train to the stars" early on, but admitted later that this was more about getting it produced in a time that loved Western-themed TV series than about its actual content.
More recently, the space opera series Firefly used an explicitly Western theme for its portrayal of frontier worlds.
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Anime shows like Cowboy Bebop , Trigun and Outlaw Star have been similar mixes of science fiction and Western elements. The science fiction Western can be seen as a subgenre of either Westerns or science fiction. Elements of Western films can be found also in some films belonging essentially to other genres. For example, Kelly's Heroes is a war film, but action and characters are Western-like. The character played by Humphrey Bogart in film noir films such as Casablanca and To Have and Have Not —an individual bound only by his own private code of honor—has a lot in common with the classic Western hero.
In turn, the Western, has also explored noir elements, as with the films Pursued and Sugar Creek. In many of Robert A. Heinlein 's books, the settlement of other planets is depicted in ways explicitly modeled on American settlement of the West.
For example, in his Tunnel in the Sky settlers set out to the planet "New Canaan", via an interstellar teleporter portal across the galaxy, in Conestoga wagons , their captain sporting mustaches and a little goatee and riding a Palomino horse—with Heinlein explaining that the colonists would need to survive on their own for some years, so horses are more practical than machines.
Stephen King 's The Dark Tower is a series of seven books that meshes themes of Westerns, high fantasy , science fiction and horror. The protagonist Roland Deschain is a gunslinger whose image and personality are largely inspired by the " Man with No Name " from Sergio Leone 's films. In addition, the superhero fantasy genre has been described as having been derived from the cowboy hero, only powered up to omnipotence in a primarily urban setting.
The Western genre has been parodied on a number of occasions, famous examples being Support Your Local Sheriff! George Lucas 's Star Wars films use many elements of a Western, and Lucas has said he intended for Star Wars to revitalize cinematic mythology, a part the Western once held. The Jedi , who take their name from Jidaigeki , are modeled after samurai, showing the influence of Kurosawa. The character Han Solo dressed like an archetypal gunslinger, and the Mos Eisley cantina is much like an Old West saloon. Meanwhile, films such as The Big Lebowski , which plucked actor Sam Elliott out of the Old West and into a Los Angeles bowling alley, and Midnight Cowboy , about a Southern-boy-turned-gigolo in New York who disappoints a client when he doesn't measure up to Gary Cooper , transplanted Western themes into modern settings for both purposes of parody and homage.
Western fiction is a genre of literature set in the American Old West , most commonly between the years of and The genre's popularity peaked in the s, due in part to the shuttering of many pulp magazines, the popularity of televised Westerns , and the rise of the spy novel. Readership began to drop off in the mid- to late s and reached a new low in the s. Most bookstores, outside of a few Western states, now only carry a small number of Western novels and short story collections. Literary forms that share similar themes include stories of the American frontier , the gaucho literature of Argentina , and tales of the settlement of the Australian Outback.
Television Westerns are a subgenre of the Western. When television became popular in the late s and s, TV Westerns quickly became an audience favorite. As demand for the Western increased, new stories and stars were introduced. A number of long-running TV Westerns became classics in their own right, such as: The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp was the first Western television series written for adults,  premiering four days before Gunsmoke on September 6, The peak year for television Westerns was , with 26 such shows airing during primetime.
At least six of them were connected in some extent to Wyatt Earp: Future entries in the genre would incorporate elements from other genera, such as crime drama and mystery whodunit elements. In the s and s, hour-long Westerns and slickly packaged made-for-TV movie Westerns were introduced, such as: Lonesome Dove and Dr. As well, new elements were once again added to the Western formula, such as the Western- science fiction show Firefly , created by Joss Whedon in Deadwood was a critically acclaimed Western series which aired on HBO from through A number of visual artists focused their work on representations of the American Old West.
American West-oriented art is sometimes referred to as "Western Art" by Americans. This relatively new category of art includes paintings, sculptures, and sometimes Native American crafts. Initially, subjects included exploration of the Western states and cowboy themes.
Frederic Remington and Charles M. Russell are two artists who captured the "Wild West" on canvas. The popularity of Westerns extends beyond films, literature, television, and visual art to include numerous other media forms. With anime and manga , the genre tends towards the Science fiction Western [e. There are 12 guestrooms at the ranch divided into three houses with double- and triple rooms. Towels and sheets are available. You can book a single room subject to availability. For breakfast there are different kinds of bread with lots of cold cuts, cheese, ham, sausage and vegetables.
Yogurt or milk with muesli and fruit are also available. For lunch and dinner, you will get to have warm traditional Hungarian dishes such as stews, casseroles and pasta. There will even be hot food for you out on the trail ride. There are many good options for vegetarians. Different salads are served with meals and often it is the local pickled lettuce and pickled cucumbers. Seasonal fruit is available as a snack. There are different types of tours and activities on offer, everything from horse and carriage driving, to cheese testing and massage.
These are not included in riding tour and can be booked and paid for at the ranch. The ranch breeds its own Quarter Horse, Appaloosa and Paint horses that have been successful in western shows. In the spring, it is about C F during the summer it can vary between C F and in the autumn of about C F.
The evenings are cool and you have the chance to see a stunningly beautiful starlit sky. Included in the price: Accomodation, riding according to program, full board incl. There are 12 rooms at the ranch divided into three houses.