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Originally published in , this book provides an English translation of a number of Semper's published writings. The introduction seeks to trace the course of Semper's theoretical development over thirty-five years. Semper's ideas, like those of his contemporaries, John Ruskin and Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, had enormous influence on the genesis of modern architectural theory and will appeal to both architectural historians and architects.

Looking for beautiful books? Visit our Beautiful Books page and find lovely books for kids, photography lovers and more. Other books in this series. The Wild Bull and the Sacred Forest: The Italian Renaissance Palace Facade: Table of contents Gottfried Semper: Comparative Theory of Building; Part V. The Textile Art Excerpt: A service has four properties according to one of many definitions of SOA: It is a black box for its consumers. It may consist of other underlying services. Service-oriented architecture integrates distributed, separately-maintained and deployed software components.

Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software is a software engineering book describing software design patterns. The book is divided into two parts, with the first two chapters exploring the capabilities and pitfalls of object-oriented programming, and the remaining chapters describing 23 classic software design patterns. It has been influential to the field of software engineering and is regarded as an important source for object-oriented design theory and practice. More than , copies have been sold in English and in 13 other languages.

The authors are often referred to as the Gang of Four GoF. A wood-frame American Foursquare house in Minnesota with dormer windows on each side and a large front porch The American Foursquare or American Four Square is an American house style popular from the mids to the late s. A reaction to the ornate and mass-produced elements of the Victorian and other Revival styles popular throughout the last half of the 19th century, the American Foursquare was plain, often incorporating handcrafted "honest" woodwork unless purchased from a mail-order catalog.

This style incorporates elements of the Prairie School and the Craftsman styles. It is also sometimes called Transitional Period. The hallmarks of the style include a basically square, boxy design, two-and-one-half stories high, usually with four large, boxy rooms to a floor, a center dormer, and a large front porch with wide stairs. The boxy shape provides a maximum amount of interior room space, to use a small city lot to best advantage. Other common features included a hipped roof, arched entries between In he took part in the May Uprising in Dresden and was put on the government's wanted list.

Later he returned to Germany after the amnesty granted to the revolutionaries. Semper wrote extensively about the origins of architecture, especially in his book The Four Elements of Architecture from , and he was one of the major figures in the controversy surrounding the polychrome architectural style of ancient Greece.

Life Early life to Semper was born into a well-to-do industrialist family Iranian architecture or Persian architecture Persian: Its history dates back to at least 5, BC with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Turkey and Iraq to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses and garden, pavilions to "some of the most majestic structures the world has ever seen".

Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, from a variety of traditions and experience. Without sudden innovations, and despite the repeated trauma of invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved "an individuality distinct from that of other Muslim countries". In software engineering, multitier architecture often referred to as n-tier architecture or multilayered architecture is a client—server architecture in which presentation, application processing, and data management functions are physically separated.

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The most widespread use of multitier architecture is the three-tier architecture. N-tier application architecture provides a model by which developers can create flexible and reusable applications. By segregating an application into tiers, developers acquire the option of modifying or adding a specific layer, instead of reworking the entire application. A three-tier architecture is typically composed of a presentation tier, a domain logic tier, and a data storage tier.

While the concepts of layer and tier are often used interchangeably, one fairly common point of view is that there is indeed a difference. This view holds that a layer is a logical structuring mechanism for the elements that make up the software solution, while a tier is a physical structurin AVX provides new features, new instructions and a new coding scheme. AVX2 expands most integer commands to bits and introduces fused multiply-accumulate FMA operations. Each YMM register contains: The width of the SIMD register file is increased from bits to bits, and renamed f Post and lintel construction of the World Heritage Monument site Airavatesvara Temple, India Leinster House in Dublin retains columns under a pediment for aesthetic reasons.

Timber frame of a modern building under construction, also using trusses Stonehenge, an example of Neolithic architecture post and lintel construction. In architecture, post and lintel also called prop and lintel or a trabeated system is a building system where strong horizontal elements are held up by strong vertical elements with large spaces between them.

This is usually used to hold up a roof, creating a largely open space beneath, for whatever use the building is designed for. The horizontal elements are called by a variety of names including lintel, header, architrave or beam, and the supporting vertical elements may be called columns, pillars, or posts. The use of wider elements at the top of the post, called capitals, to help spread the load, is common to many traditions. The trabeated system is a fundamental princ House on the lands where a German farmstead was once active A house is a building that functions as a home.

They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, brick, concrete or other materials containing plumbing, ventilation, and electrical systems. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers.

Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, and a living room. A house may have a separate dining room, or the eat Kerala architecture is a kind of architectural style that is mostly found in Indian state of Kerala. Kerala's style of architecture is unique in India, in its striking contrast to Dravidian architecture which is normally practiced in other parts of South India.

The architecture of Kerala has been influenced by Dravidian and Indian Vedic architectural science Vastu Shastra over two millennia. The Tantrasamuchaya, Thachu-Shastra, Manushyalaya-Chandrika and Silparatna are important architectural sciences, which have had a strong impact in Kerala Architecture style. The Manushyalaya-Chandrika, a work devoted to domestic architecture is one such science which has its strong roots in Kerala.

Modern atria, as developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries, are often several stories high and having a glazed roof or large windows, and often located immediately beyond the main entrance doors in the lobby. Atria are a popular design feature because they give their buildings a "feeling of space and light. Users like atria because they create a dynamic and stimulating interior that provides shelter from the external environment while maintaining a visual link with that environment. Designers enjoy the opportunity to create new types of spaces in build Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia, considered the first Cathedral, traditionally believed to be constructed in AD current structure mostly from AD.

Salisbury Cathedral from the east. An essay in Early English Gothic with the tallest spire in England. The architecture of cathedrals, basilicas and abbey churches is characterised by the buildings' large scale and follows one of several branching traditions of form, function and style that all ultimately derive from the Early Christian architectural traditions established in the Constantinian period. Cathedrals, as well as many abbey churches and basilicas, have certain complex structural forms that are found less often in parish churches.

They also tend to display a higher level of contemporary architectural style and the work of accomplished craftsmen, and occupy a status both ecclesiastical and social that an ordinar The word Chhatri means "canopy" or "umbrella. The usual and more widely understood meaning is of a memorial, usually very ornate, built over the site where the funeral cremation of an important personage was performed. Such memorials usually consist of a platform girded by a set of ornate pillars which hold up a stone canopy. The word chhatri is also used to refer to the small pavilions that mark the corners and roof of the entrance of a major building.

These pavilions are purely decorative and have no utility, but are a classic folly displaying the status and wealth of the owner. Chhatris are commonly used to depict th An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform. The three orders of architecture—the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—originated in Greece.

To these the Romans added, in practice if not in name, the Tuscan, which they made simpler than Doric, and the Composite, which was more ornamental than the Corinthian. The architectural order of a classical building is akin to the mode or key of classical musi Architecture of a Hindu temple Nagara style.


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These core elements are evidenced in the oldest surviving 5th-6th century CE temples. The Meenakshi temple complex of Madurai, mostly built between and CE, a large complex in the Dravidian architecture of South India, dominated by gopuram gatehouse towers. A Badami Shiva temple in Karnataka. The early 10th century Baroli temple complex in Rajasthan, illustrating the Nagara architecture. Hindu temple architecture as the main form of Hindu architecture has many varieties of style, though the basic nature of the Hindu temple remains the same, with the essential feature an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, where the primary Murti or the image of a deity is housed in a simple bare cell.

Around this chamber there are often other structures and buildings, in the largest cases covering several acres. On the exterior, the garbhagriha is crowned by a tower-like shikhara, also called the vimana in the south. The shrine building often incl The architecture of the United States demonstrates a broad variety of architectural styles and built forms over the country's history of over four centuries of independence and former Spanish and British rule.

Architecture in the United States is as diverse as its multicultural society and has been shaped by many internal and external factors and regional distinctions. As a whole it represents a rich eclectic and innovative tradition. The oldest surviving nonimported structures on the territory that is now known as the United States were made by the Ancient Pueblo People of the four corners region. Corner tower of the Forbidden City Beijing Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the largest building in the Temple of Heaven Beijing Chinese architecture demonstrates an architectural style that developed over millennia in China, before spreading out to influence architecture all throughout East Asia.

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Since the solidification of the style in the early imperial period, the structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Starting with the Tang Dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan, and a varying amount of influence on the architectural styles of Northeast and Southeast Asia. Chinese architecture is typified by various features; such as, bilateral symmetry, use of enclosed open spaces, the incorporation of ideas related to feng shui such as directional hierarchies, a horizontal emphasis, and the allusion to various cosmological, mythological, or other Indo-Saracenic also known as Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal, Hindoo style was an revival architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.

It drew stylistic and decorative elements from native Indo-Islamic architecture, especially Mughal architecture, which the British regarded as the classic Indian style, and, less often, Hindu temple architecture. The basic layout and structure of the buildings tended to be close to that used in contemporary buildings in other styles, such as Gothic revival and Neo-Classical, w Its origins lie in the moving circumstances of its commission and the culture and history of an Islamic Mughal empire's rule of large parts of India.

Today it is one of the most famous and recognizable buildings in the world and while the large, domed marble mausoleum is the most familiar part of the monument, the Taj Mahal is an extensive complex of buildings and gardens that extends over The design was conceived This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death.

Temple of Vesta, Rome, AD. As one of the most important temples of Ancient Rome,[1] it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto. Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture.

Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities. The style was carried to France, Germany, England, Russia and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts, The four views of the model are logical, development, process and physical view. In addition selected use cases or scenarios are used to illustrate the architecture serving as the 'plus one' view.

The logical view is concerned with the functionality that the system provides to end-users. UML diagrams used to represent the logical view include, class diagrams, and state diagrams. The process view deals with the dynamic aspects of the system, explains the system processes and how they communicate, and focuses on the runtime behavior of the system. The process view addresses concurrency, I quattro libri dell'architettura The Four Books of Architecture is a treatise on architecture by the architect Andrea Palladio — , written in Italian. It was first published in four volumes in in Venice, illustrated with woodcuts after the author's own drawings.

It has been reprinted and translated many times, often in single-volume format. The first complete English language edition was published in London by the Italian-born architect Giacomo Leoni in The First book discusses building materials and techniques. It documents five classical orders Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, composite in all their parts bases, columns, architraves, arches, capitals, trabeations , as well as discussing other building elements vaulted ceilings, floors, doors and windows, fireplaces, roofs and stairs.

The Second book covers the designs of privat It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was widely used, especially for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century. Its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows.

Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior, particularly over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the largely illiterate parishioners. These technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller, lighter and Software architecture refers to the high level structures of a software system and the discipline of creating such structures and systems. Each structure comprises software elements, relations among them, and properties of both elements and relations.

Gottfried Semper, The Four Elements of Architecture and Other Writings - PhilPapers

Software architecture choices include specific structural options from possibilities in the design of software. For example, the systems that controlled the space shuttle launch vehicle had the requirement of being very fast and very reliable. Therefore, an appropriate real-time computing language would need to be chosen. Additionally, to satisfy the need for reliability the choice could be made to have multi The Taj Mahal, the most famous building of Mughal architecture and possibly of Indian architecture as a whole. The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.

Indian architecture progressed with time and assimilated the many influences that came as a result of India's global discourse with other regions of the world throughout its millennia-old past. The architectural methods practiced in India are a result of examination and implementation of its established building traditions and outside cultural interactions. The economic reforms of further bolstered the urban architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the world's economy.

Traditional Vastu Shastra remains influential in India's architecture during the contemporary era. The modern English word domestic comes from Latin domesticus, which is derived from the word domus. Along with a domus in the city, many of the richest families of ancient Rome also owned a separate country house known as a villa.

Many chose to live primarily, or even exclusively, in their villas; these homes were generally much grander in scale and on larger acres of land due to more space outside the walled and fortified city. The elite classes of Roman society constructed their residences with elaborate marble decorations, inlaid marble paneling, door jambs and columns as well as expensive paintings and frescoes. Distribution by country UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.

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As of the programme compiles two lists. An ab anbar water reservoir with double domes and windcatchers openings near the top of the towers in the central desert city of Yazd, Iran A windtower wind catcher Persian: The devices were used in ancient Iranian architecture. Windcatchers remain present in Iran and can also be found in traditional Persian-influenced architecture throughout the West Asia, including in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.

Most buildings are constructed from thick ceramic with high insulation values. Towns centered on desert oases tend to be packed very closely together with high walls and ceilings, maximizing shade at ground level. The heat of direct sunlight is minimized The city of Paris has notable examples of architecture of every period from the Middle Ages to the 21st century. In the 20th century, the Art Deco style of architecture first appeared in Paris, and Paris architects also influenced the postmodern architecture of the second half of the century.

The 12th-century temple of Angkor Wat is the masterpiece of Angkorian architecture. Constructed under the direction of the Khmer king Suryavarman II, it was to serve as the monarch's personal mausoleum and as a temple to the Hindu god Vishnu. Based on Dravidian architecture, it was designed as a pyramid representing the structure of the universe: The broad moat around the complex represented the oceans that surround the world.

In Khmer architecture Khmer: In any study of Angkorian architecture, the emphasis is necessarily on religious architecture, since all the remaining Angkorian buildings are religious in nature. During the period of Ang William Henry Playfair, University of Edinburgh: A voussoir is a wedge-shaped element, typically a stone, which is used in building an arch or vault. The keystone is the centre stone or masonry unit at the apex of an arch. The springer is the lowest voussoir on each side, located where the curve of the arch springs from the vertical support or abutment of the wall or pier.

An enlarged and sometimes slightly dropped keystone is often found in Mannerist arches of the 16th century, beginning with the works of Giulio Romano, who also began the fashion for using voussoirs above rectangular openings, rather than a lintel Palazzo Stati Maccarani, Rome, circa Architecture Semi-domes are a common feature of apses in Ancient Roman and traditional church architecture, and in mosques and iwans in Islamic architecture.

A semi-dome, or the whole apse, may also be called a conch after the scallop shell often carved as decoration of the semi-dome all shells were conches in Ancient Greek , though this is usually used for subsidiary semi-domes, rather than the one over the main apse. Islamic examples may use muqarnas decorative corbelling, while in Late Antique, Byzantine and medieval church architecture the semi-do The interior side view of the main dome of Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey Ottoman style Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day for today it is known as Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman, Byzantine, Persian and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries.

It developed distinct characteristics in the form of buildings, and the decoration of surfaces with Islamic calligraphy and geometric and interlace patterned ornament. The principal Islamic architectural types for large or public buildings are: From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture. Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as , is a dystopian novel by English writer George Orwell published in June Oceania is ruled by the "Party", who employ the "Thought Police" to persecute individualism and independent thinking.

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The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a rank-and-file Party member. Smith is an outwardly diligent and skillful worker, but he secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother. Smith rebels by entering a forbidden relationship with fellow employee Julia. As literary political fiction and dystopian science-fiction, Nineteen Eighty-Four is a classic novel in content, plot, and style.

A map of Beijing showing streets and landmarks renamed during the Cultural Revolution. Most of the Cultural Revolution-era name changes were later reversed. The four elements referred to were Old Custo The Parthenon under restoration in The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people Hellenic people whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around BC.

The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around BC. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway propylon , the public square agora surrounded by storied colonnade stoa , the town council building bouleuterion , the public monument, the monumental tomb mausoleum and t The Taj Mahal ;[4] Hindi: It was commissioned in by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan reigned from to , to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

It also houses the tomb of Shah Jahan, the builder. The tomb is the centerpiece of a hectare acre complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years.