All sweets are cooled slightly before being shaped. How the solution is cooled also affects the type of candy. If you cool quickly after you boil at a known heat, the candy forms as a crystalline or brittle type such as rock candy. At a bit slower cooling after boiling at the same temperature, the candy forms a non-crystalline structure known as a taffy or caramel. For more crystalline candy like fudge, the mixture is set aside to cool slowly. Then it is stirred again to break crystals into smaller pieces, making the fudge smooth and creamy.
Lastly, if you add a gelatin, starch, pectin, or gum to the boiling mixture the sugar will gel and make products like jelly beans, Turkish delight, and licorices. Most simply, the boiled mass is poured onto a table this should be made from metal, stone, or marble to cool the recipe uniformly. It is important that the boiled mass is cooled sufficiently, since if it is to be formed by hand there is a danger that you may suffer burns. My pan has baked-on crystallized sugar which I am having much trouble removing when I clean the pans.
Is there a good way to remove this sticky stuff? Pans with baked on crystallized sugar are unavoidable. Fill the pan water, put it on the stove, turn the burner up to high, and let the crystallized sugar dissolve as the water boils. Then clean as usual. You can also put any utensils that you used in boiling the sugar into the pan to clean at the same time. Stir the candy at the proper stirring temperature.
In the case of caramels and lollipops, no stirring is necessary; candy may be transferred directly to serving pan. For candies that must be stirred, continue until mass is thick and stirring difficult due to crystallization. Beating is a process which controls the process of crystallization and produces crystals of a small size.
For example in the production of fudge, the mass is poured onto the table, left to cool, and then beaten with a wood or metal beater. There are two main ways of forming sweets: Molds may be as simple as a greased and lined tray. Others can be made from rubber, plastic, metal, starch, or wood. The mixture is poured into the impressions and allowed to set. Combine the brown sugar, granulated sugar, corn syrup and water in a 3-quart saucepan over medium-high heat. Heat and stir with a wooden spoon until the sugar is dissolved. You should no longer to feel any grains of sugar against the bottom of the pan when you stir Move pan off the heat, with a wet pastry brush or wet paper towel, wipe any grains of sugar from the sides of the pan above the liquid level.
Place pan back on heat. Clip on candy thermometer and bring the syrup to a boil. Read the thermometer at eye level.
Do not stir or shake. When it has reached this stage, stir in the butter and the mixture will cool down. Remove from heat and stir in remaining ingredients and nuts as the recipe directs. Pour onto baking sheets when thoroughly mixed. Heat the chocolate, sugar, half-and-half and corn syrup in a heavy saucepan over medium-low heat, scraping down the sides of the pan with a wooden-handled, heat-proof spatula.
Clamp on a candy thermometer on the side of the pan. Boil the mixture gently, scraping frequently to prevent burning until the temperature is degrees F degrees C. Turn off the heat. Drop 2 tablespoons of butter on top and stir quickly. Allow to cool to degrees F 43 degrees C.
Add other ingredients from the recipe and beat. Pour or knead and press into greased pan. Using the Candy Thermometer: Before you start making candy, calibrate your candy thermometer: Water should boil at degrees F. Measure the boiling point of water with your new thermometer by leaving it in boiling water for 10 minutes. Add or subtract any difference when determining the end-point of the boil of your sugar slurry. The temperature the sugar solution boils to and its color determine whether or not the sugar solution will harden into a soft and creamy Fudge or a hard and brittle, Nut Brittle.
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Temperature and color are recorded on a Sugar Syrup Chart. The chart tells you how hot to boil the sugar solution to, its corresponding color and what it looks like when dropped in cold water, called the Cold Water Viscosity Test. The temperature and color are directly related to the type of candy you're making. Experienced candy makers can just look at the sugar syrup's color and know when it's done, but for beginners and even experienced candy makers , I recommend using a Candy Thermometer at all times.
Ranked from best to worst are: Don't double a candy recipe -- rather, make 2 separate batches instead. Increasing the amount of ingredients changes the cooking time, adversely affecting the final recipe. A Candy Thermometer makes candy-making easier and more foolproof by indicating the exact temperature, and thus the concentration of the syrup. The concentration of the syrup determines whether the finished product is a soft and creamy fudge or a hard and brittle.
Note the exact temperature to boil the sugar syrup to will differ by recipe and type of candy being made. At higher altitudes candy cooks faster. Read thermometer at eye level.
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Watch the sugar solution carefully and read the thermometer frequently. Look at the thermometer at eye level to read it accurately -- do not remove it from the pan until your recipe is done cooking. Buy a thermometer with a clip that attaches to the side of your pan.
Every time you place the thermometer in the pot, make sure it is spotless and dry. A speck of old sugar left on it could ruin the whole batch by crystallizing it. When you start to cook your candy, have the thermometer nearby, resting in a container of warm water. Be sure to dry it before using.
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Then it will be preheated when you lower it into the hot mixture. Clip the candy thermometer to pan after cleaning the sugar from the sides of the pan with a damp pastry brush and the right before syrup boils. The bulb of the thermometer must be covered with boiling liquid, not just foam, but it should never touch the bottom of the pan. Knowing when to stop boiling the sugar solution is crucial.
Stopping the boil at degrees F really means degrees F. Don't sit and watch the thermometer climb to degrees F 'just to be sure. When you remove the thermometer, put it back into the warm water. To remove sticky sugar, while still warm, place in hot water. Dry and let the thermometer cool before putting away.
I keep mine in the drawer where it won't be disturbed. The importance of temperature in candy making: With sugar and water, you can make five kinds of candy through temperature and density! Of course, you add other ingredients to the candy at different times depending on the recipe i. Often, you add food color to improve eye appeal but temperature remains the key to the kind of candy you make whenever you cook up a sugar mixture. Suppose you put sugar and water in a pan over heat, cover the pan and, shaking the pan, bring the mixture to a boil dissolving the sugar. Uncover the pan and continue cooking it at a low boil until the syrup reaches the soft-ball stage to degrees F?
If you take some out at this point, you can make fondant, fudge or penuche with it. If you continue cooking the syrup remaining in the pan until it reaches the firm-ball stage to degrees F? By cooking the rest of the syrup to the hard-ball stage to degrees F? Continue cooking the syrup still in the pan to the soft crack stage to degrees F? Bring the last of the syrup to the hard crack stage to degrees F? The most important thing to do before making any kind of candy is having all the essential tools. Here are some that I recommend, however they will vary by recipe. Most tools you will have on hand already; others can be purchased at a general cookware or cake decorating store.
Not all tools are needed when making a candy recipe; it will direct you as to what you need. For stores carrying candy making supplies, see Pantry: Heavy copper, anodized aluminum, cast aluminum or cast iron pot with a 2- to 3-quart capacity for making sugar candy. Make sure it's a smooth, heavy-bottomed pan with straight sides for candy cookery because the sugar solution will boil upwards and you don't want to get burned or make a huge mess.
Many candies scorch easily in lightweight pans. The saucepan should be an appropriate size for the recipe and match the size of the burner or be slightly smaller to minimize heat fluctuations in the candy.
A double-boiler for chocolate candy making. The bowl needs to be heat safe since you'll be pouring molten sugar syrup directly into it. This effectively rules out plastic bowls. Long handled wooden spoons unless you can find heat proof metal spoons. Plastic spatula will melt since this solution is much hotter than boiling water. Mine is mounted on a metal frame and made by Taylor, and it works very well for this.
Select one that registers from to degrees F and handles easily in hot mixtures, such as one with a plastic handle. The thermometer should be immersed below the surface of the syrup, but it should not touch the bottom or sides of the pan. Hold the thermometer at eye level to read it accurately. It should be left there for the duration of cooking. When finished, let thermometer completely cool before washing. Spatulas 2 - 3 - ones that can handle high temperatures Ice water in a large bowl, big enough to fit the pot when immersed and ready to dip your hands in in case of burns.
Pastry brushes are little tools you will also use a lot. Whenever a recipe calls for a hot, cooked sugar mixture, you will need to wash down the sides of the pan with a brush dipped in hot water. This prevents crystallization that would ruin the batch. For a candy making surface that can take the heat, use a sheet of foil. Spread candies such as peanut brittle, fudge and almond bark into a thin layer on a foil-lined cookie sheet.
There's no sticking and no cleanup. Vegetable oil spray Timer or clock Good oven mitts, preferably ones that cover your forearm. Candy molds Cooling racks Rubber cleaning gloves or surgical gloves? Either thickness will also protect the sugar from any dampness on your hands as you work with it. Dehumidifying agent silica blue gel or quicklime to protect the finished pieces.
Glycerin; glycerine The commercial name for glycerol, a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid--chemically, an alcohol--obtained from fats and oils and used to retain moisture and add sweetness to foods. It also helps prevent sugar crystallization in foods like candy. Heat lamp to keep sugar warm and pliable? Leaf mold to form larger rose leaves? Oiled metal spatula for sugar ribbons. Ladle, copper or stainless steel mixing bowl or other bowl to form cage shape? Knife-sharpening steel or wooden spoon to form corkscrews? Dinner knife or narrow metal spatula for teeter-totters and shards.
Each type of candy is always stored according to its type. Airtight storage in a cool place is best. Some candies may be frozen, but avoid freezing those made with fruits and nuts. Protect taffies, caramels, nougats, and popcorn balls from dampness by wrapping them individually in clear plastic wrap; Store individually wrapped candies in boxes, tins or cartons with tight-fitting lids. For small hard candies, sprinkle candy with finely ground sugar not powdered and store in jar with tight-fitting lid.
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Do not mix candies that absorb moisture caramels, mints, hard candies in the same container as candies that lose moisture fudge, fondants, meringues. If these types of candies are mixed, the hard candies will become sticky. For instance, brittles soften if stored with creamy candies. Use waxed paper to individually wrap or separate layers of fudge in storage container. Most candies freeze well for longer storage. Wrap tightly in plastic food wrap or aluminum foil.
Be sure to label with contents and date. When ready to eat, thaw wrapped candy at room temperature for 1 to 2 hours. Be sure to use coating chocolate for candies that need to be dipped, otherwise freezing and storing can cause "bloom", which is when the cocoa butter comes to the surface and causes gray or white streaks and dots - it doesn't mean that the candy has spoiled but it doesn't look very nice.
Some candy information and resources from: There is no magic solution to weight loss. Try these six great tips and you will begin to change your diet into a healthy version, which will help you lose weight and keep it off this time! Even if you regularly indulge, you probably realize that diet soda is not good for you. And, it is highly addictive. Here are some tips that may help you break the cycle. Sign in with Facebook. Please click here if you are not redirected within a few seconds. Basic candy making steps: The table below outlines the processing stages for a selected range of confectionery items.
Follow all instructions to the letter. Nut Brittle Combine the brown sugar, granulated sugar, corn syrup and water in a 3-quart saucepan over medium-high heat. Classic Fudge Heat the chocolate, sugar, half-and-half and corn syrup in a heavy saucepan over medium-low heat, scraping down the sides of the pan with a wooden-handled, heat-proof spatula. Tools for more specialized work: Dinner knife or narrow metal spatula for teeter-totters and shards For Spun Sugar: Metal whisk with end cut off and wires spread slightly or long, narrow metal spatula For Pulled Sugar: Lemon juice delays re-crystallization and gives sugar flexibility?
Small drop bottle Candy Storage: Keeping candy for short term two months or less: Keeping candy for long term up to 12 months: Powerful Pecans Pecans are so much more than the basis for a delicious Thanksgiving pie! Why You are Hungry Right after Eating? Click here to get started on CraftyBaking. Place the sugar in the bottom of the pot, taking care not to get it on the sides because it will crystallize after the sugar dissolves and approaches boiling.
After the sugar is placed in the pan, pour in the water or liquid, if applicable, carefully around in the inside perimeter of the pan. If adding honey or liquid sugars, pour in the middle. Using your finger make an X in the pan to help the water gently mix with the sugar so it has the texture of wet sand. Check on whether all sugar grains are moistened. Wipe the sides with a damp, lint free towel to clean all sugar from it. A dampened pastry brush works well, too. Make sure the bristles are not loose. The pot used needs to be spotless and dry, as well as the spoon used to stir.
Trouble in candy land
Any existing sugar crystals or a foreign object in the sugar syrup, such as old dried caramel, cause crystallization. Crystals will form and congregate on a foreign object. Some grease the upper sides of the pan, above the liquid level, to prevent crystallization before adding ingredients, if the recipe calls for butter. If the recipe calls for melting the butter first, coat the sides of the pan before adding sugar and other ingredients. When mixture bubbles up, grains of sugar can't cling because of the greasy sides.
Some candy makers butter the sides of the pan right up to sugar syrup's water line before you begin cooking. Because the fat is slippery, the crystals won't cling to the sides of the pan. I personally don't like to do that because the buttered coating high inside the pot is likely to burn, introducing an off flavor to the candies. But even that is no guarantee, if the metal gets really hot, which is common.
Basically it just makes the whole process more fragile. Always stir until sugar is dissolved. One sugar crystal can cause whole mixture to be grainy. Not washing the sides of the pot during cooking, where sugar crystals like to congregate. After the sugar dissolves and approaches boiling, make sure the inside sides of the pot are completely clean. If not, sugar crystals could fall into the batch, crystallize and ruin it.
If necessary, take pot off the heat only for a moment and brush down the sides with a dampened pastry brush. Cover the mixture with a lid and boil for 2 to 3 minutes. With a lid, steam will form in the pot, washing down the sides the pot, preventing further crystals from forming. Always uncover pot away from you because the steam that collects inside is intense. You can also leave the cover on the pan so steam forms, condenses and then washes off the side of the pan. Some people may take that to mean that you can just leave the lid on the pot. I think this should be clarified to say that you can bring the pot to a boil with the lid on.
But you must boil the syrup uncovered or else its temperature will never rise. Clean Candy Thermometer after each use. Store cleaned thermometer in a cup of warm water while using. Wipe the thermometer clean with a towel every time you dip it in the pot -- be careful, it's hot. If you put it under cold water when hot, it will shatter. Touching the ingredients with a spoon, moving or shaking the pot at the wrong time. Do not touch the pot during cooking, unless the recipe specifies otherwise.
Even accidentally bumping into it will jar the mixture; I always place my pot on my stove's back burner to avoid having this happen. Having a foreign object in the pan, like old, dried caramel or dirt. Thoroughly clean AND dry any utensils used to make candy with. Dipping an unclean or previously used wooden spoon into the syrup. Grease it if the sugar solution sticks to the spoon. Wrong crystal size caused by stirring the sugar syrup too soon or too much or not enough.
Follow the recipe to the letter when it specifies when to stir; this is very important. Metal spoons conduct heat and get too hot to hold - so I don't recommend them. Plastic spatula will melt since this solution is much hotter than boiling water. Scraping the sides of the pan: Scraping the sides during the cooling helps create sugar crystals.
Follow the recipe's instructions. Not boiling the sugar enough or too much. Boiling the sugar syrup to the right temperature, ensures that it will have the proper sugar saturation necessary for the type of candy being made.