The second floor contains the executive offices, and the remaining standard floors are available to let. At the top of the building there is a staff club. Some of the main features of this block are the sound use of the ground site, the plastic quality of the external surfaces, and the flexibility of the internal distribution. En este edificio podemos distinguir tres zonas principales: Novel approach for decentralized energy supply and energy storage of tall buildings in Latin America based on renewable energy sources: This paper analyzes the concept of a decentralized power system based on wind energy and a pumped hydro storage system in a tall building.
The system reacts to the current paradigm of power outage in Latin American countries caused by infrastructure limitations and climate change, while it fosters the penetration of renewable energy sources RES for a more diversified and secure electricity supply. The suitability, applicability and the impacts generated by such power system are furthermore discussed at economic, social and technical level.
The background notes by the U. State Department on Venezuela emphasize the unique economic conditions in this oil-rich nation, and include information on its people, geography, history, government politics, defense and foreign relations. Venezuela , located on the north coast of South America, has 17,, people, growing at a rate of 2. Infant mortality is 2. Geography ranges from the scarcely populated highlands between the Orinoco river and Guyana, the Orinoco plains, to the populated Andes mountains and coast.
Literacy is a priority at Venezuela has a long history of self government, having become independent in Now the democratic constitutional government is effective in improving both internal and regional development and human rights. The economy is based on oil production and refining, as well as steel and aluminum, all nationalized industries.
Self-sufficiency in agriculture is a national goal. Because of the rapid population growth rate, however, per capita income and GNP are stagnating. Edificio de viviendas residenciales, en Caracas Venezuela. Full Text Available This is a very well designed building, both in its internal distribution and inner and outer ornamentation. It has 12 storeys, and an outstanding feature of it is the exceptional landscaping of its terraces, and the very attractive aspect of the external elevations.
There is every evidence of carefully and elaborate design, leading to a fine example of good taste and excellent architecture. Todo denota un cuidadoso y elaborado estudio, que ha conducido al logro de una muestra perfecta de buen gusto y de arquitectura ejemplar. Ni las distancias ni el tiempo preocupaban a los moradores. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela. Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas Venezuela. The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of m.
The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela 's main export article. However, there is a controversial discussion regarding its acceptation and welcoming and is missing information in regard the topic especially in developing countries. The researchers will use a survey that was previously applied to consumers from USA, Japan and some other South American countries.
Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology.
One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids. The Guyana- Venezuela Border Dispute: Universidad de los Andes. Territorlo Federal de Amazonias , Venozuela: Suministro de Crudo a Republica Dominicana.
Astrobiology is the study of the origin, distribution and future of life in the universe, biomolecules are molecules produced by living organisms. This talk reviews known facts and open questions about biomolecules in the context of Astrobiology and introduces a research project on "Creating a Reference Set of Amino Acids Structures for Use in Multiple Astrobiology Investigations" that tries to find answers using computational methods.
Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security. The most important Venezuelan exports in the 19th century were cocoa and coffee. The national language is In , the adult literarcy rate was 63 percent Today the adult literacy Oficina Central de Informacion. Caracas , Venezuela , Venezuela at the Polls: The National Elections of. Production rate of 18 F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. In this talk, I will give the AbGradCon attendees an overview of astrobiology activities ongoing at NASA as well as a brief description of the various funding programs and careers that they can pursue.
After this, I will present to them the case that the future of the field is theirs to determine, and give input on how to effectively make astrobiology and NASA responsive to the needs of the community. This presentation will leverage my experiences leading various efforts in the early career astrobiology community, where I have served as a conference organizer, primer lead editor, community blogger, and unofficial liaison to NASA headquarters.
This debut volume in the new Springer series Physical Chemistry in Action, composed of expert contributions, is aimed at both novice and experienced researchers, and outlines the principles of the physical chemistry deployed in astrochemistry and astrobiology. The interdisciplinary field of Astrobiology constitutes a joint arena where provocative discoveries are coalescing concerning, e. Biologists, astrophysicists, biochemists, geoscientists and space scientists share this exciting mission of revealing the origin and commonality of life in the Universe.
The members of the different disciplines are used to their own terminology and technical language. In the interdisciplinary environment many terms either have redundant meanings or are completely unfamiliar to members of other disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology serves as the key to a common understanding. Each new or experienced researcher and graduate student in adjacent fields of astrobiology will appreciate this reference work in the quest to understand the big picture.
The carefully selected group of active researchers contributing to this work and the expert field editors inten Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo y observacional. Principales medidas de Resultados: Hospital Vargas de Caracas. Astrobiology in the Classroom. Astrobiology is a relatively new field of study in science, one that has found a home in the curriculum of many major universities. It is a multidisciplinary field that draws participants from a range of scientific specialties: At the middle level, it….
An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins.
Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. Venezuela 's current economic and demographic situation is described. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mids as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased.
In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela 's total population is This area constitutes only 2. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city Maracaibo. The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising.
The annual population growth rate is 3. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other. Astrobiology , a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives.
This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space mi Venezuela and Energy Security of Latin America.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela 's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America.
The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security.
Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states. Educational Outreach for Astrobiology. Astrobiology , the search for life in the universe, has fascinating research areas that can excite students and teachers about science.
Its integrative nature, relating to astronomy, geology, oceanography, physics, and chemistry, can be used to encourage students to pursue physical sciences careers. The students get images of asteroids, comets, stars, and extrasolar planets from the Faulkes Telescope North located at Haleakala Observatories on the island of Maui and owned by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network. They also do real time observing with DeKalb Observatory telescope personally owned by Donn Starkey who willing allows any student access to his telescope.
We believe that research experience stimulates these students to select STEM science, technology, engineering and mathematics majors upon entering college so a longitudinal study is being done. International collaborations with Brazil, Portugal, and Italy astronomers have begun. We envision joint project between hemispheres and crossing time zones. The establishment of networking teachers, astronomers, students and educator liaisons will be discussed. The search for life and its study is known as astrobiology. Conducting that search on other planets in our Solar System is a major goal of NASA and other space agencies, and a driving passion of the community of scientists and engineers around the world.
We practice for that search in many ways, from exploring and studying extreme environments on Earth, to developing robots to go to other planets and help us look for any possible life that may be there or may have been there in the past. The unique challenges of space exploration make collaborations between robots and humans essential. The products of those collaborations will be novel and driven by the features of wholly new environments.
For space and planetary environments that are intolerable for humans or where humans present an unacceptable risk to possible biologically sensitive sites, autonomous robots or telepresence offer excellent choices. The search for life signs on Mars fits within this category, especially in advance of human landed missions there, but also as assistants and tools once humans reach the Red Planet. For planetary destinations where we do not envision humans ever going in person, like bitterly cold icy moons, or ocean worlds with thick ice roofs that essentially make them planetary-sized ice caves, we will rely on robots alone to visit those environments for us and enable us to explore and understand any life that we may find there.
Current generation robots are not quite ready for some of the tasks that we need them to do, so there are many opportunities for roboticists of the future to advance novel types of mobility, autonomy, and bio-inspired robotic designs to help us accomplish our astrobiological goals. We see an exciting partnership between robotics and astrobiology continually strengthening as we jointly pursue the quest to find extraterrestrial life. Philosophy and data in astrobiology. Creating a unified model of life in the universe - history, extent and future - requires both scientific and humanities research.
One way that humanities can contribute is by investigating the relationship between philosophical commitments and data. Making those commitments transparent allows scientists to use the data more fully. Insights in four areas - history, ethics, religion and probability - demonstrate the value of careful, astrobiology -specific humanities research for improving how we talk and think about astrobiology as a whole. First, astrobiology has a long and influential history. Second, astrobiology does not decentre humanity, either physically or ethically.
Third, astrobiology is broadly compatible with major world religions. Finally, claims about the probability of life arising or existing elsewhere rest heavily on philosophical priors. In all four cases, identifying philosophical commitments clarifies the ways in which data can tell us about life. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America EELA initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria.
La mamá de Kepler y otros asuntos científicos igual de apremiantes
The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years.
These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. Des Marais, David J. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M. How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next years.
These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. Caracas is located at the Caribbean - South America plate boundary zone, with an associated strike slip fault system, which accommodates the relative movement of both plates and is responsible for the seismic hazard in the region. The damage pattern of the Caracas earthquake emphasized the existence of important site effects due to the sedimentary basin fill of the Caracas valley.
A revised map of the sedimentary thickness was developed during this study, based on drill holes mostly fro Periodontal status of mentally handicapped school children in Caracas , Venezuela. Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactor pathology, characterized by the progressive destruction of the dental structures support tissues. Patients with some type of disability have a higher predisposition to develop periodontal disease, due to bad hygiene, product of their motor and psychological deficiencies, and to their systemic alterations that difficult the defense against periodontopathogenic microorganisms.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the periodontal status of a group of children with special needs, and a control group. After gathering the data and tabulating the results, a 1. On the other hand, on the group of regular patients, there was a 1. Calculus percentage was similar on both groups.
However, a large percentage of children with mild gingival inflammation was observed in the group of special patients We review the current state of knowledge concerning microbial extremophiles and comets and the potential significance of comets to Astrobiology. We model the thermal history of a cometary body, regarded as an assemblage of boulders, dust, ices and organics, as it approaches a perihelion distance of - IAU. The transfer of incident energy from sunlight into the interior leads to the melting of near surface ices, some under stable porous crust, providing possible habitats for a wide range of microorganisms.
We provide data concerning new evidence for indigenous microfossils in CI meteorites, which may be the remains of extinct cometary cores. Data Sharing in Astrobiology: Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary area of scientific research focused on studying the origins of life on Earth and the conditions under which life might have emerged elsewhere in the universe. NASA uses the results of Astrobiology research to help define targets for future missions that are searching for life elsewhere in the universe.
The understanding of complex questions in Astrobiology requires integration and analysis of data spanning a range of disciplines including biology, chemistry, geology, astronomy and planetary science. However, the lack of a centralized repository makes it difficult for Astrobiology teams to share data and benefit from resultant synergies.
Moreover, in recent years, federal agencies are requiring that results of any federally funded scientific research must be available and useful for the public and the science community. AHED is a central, high-quality, long-term data repository for mineralogical, textural, morphological, inorganic and organic chemical, isotopic and other information pertinent to the advancement of the field of Astrobiology.
Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology. A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers.
Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs light-emitting diodes for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths.
When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: Astrobiology , Sustainability and Ethical Perspectives. Astrobiology , a new field of research associating the prospects and constraints of prebiotic chemistry, mineralogy, geochemistry, astrophysics, theoretical physics, microbial ecology, etc. In the same way as sustainable development, astrobiology must also take into account the temporal dimension specific to its field of investigation and examine its underlying conception of Nature.
In the same way as sustainable development, astrobiology must also take into account the temporal dimension specific to its field of investigation and examine Full Text Available Astrobiology , a new field of research associating the prospects and constraints of prebiotic chemistry, mineralogy, geochemistry, astrophysics, theoretical physics, microbial ecology, etc. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela.
Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed. Embarazo adolescente como factor de riesgo en la salud infantil. Principales medidas de resultados: Embarazo adolescente, morbilidad infantil, servicios de salud.
Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology. Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational infrared spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes.
One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases in the interstellar medium ISM. Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life.
Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean. From Astrochemistry to Astrobiology. Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty five years thanks to significant developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics.
Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon-rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium ISM considered impossible. Today the composition of interstellar dust is reasonably well understood. In molecular clouds, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained.
Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this talk will describe how infrared spectroscopic studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations of interstellar ice chemistry, have revealed the widespread presence of interstellar PAHs and the composition of interstellar ices, the building blocks of comets.
The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and astrobiology. Within a molecular cloud, and especially the presolar nebula, materials frozen into the ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. As these materials are the building blocks of comets and related to carbonaceous micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials delivered to the early Earth and their composition may be related to the origin of life.
Radiation doses in angiography in the University Hospital of Caracas. In the present work is evaluated, in angiography procedures carried out in the Radiology Department of the University Hospital of Caracas , the radiation dose received by the exposed professional when they carry out these explorations invasive and the followed norms of radiological protection during the exploration.
The measurement was carried out on the exposed professional conformed by a medical interventionist, a medical assistant resident , a nurse and a technical radiologist. Dosimeters TL was placed in the inter-orbital line at level of the crystalline lens, on thyroid, on the hands, thorax, breast, and on the gonads. The maximum values of dose in mGy that were measured: Astrobiology - The New Synthesis.
Background In connection with the complex planetology-education in Hungary  we have compiled an Astrobiology coursebook - as a base of its teaching in universities and perhaps in secondary schools as well. We tried to collect and assemble in a logical and thematical order the scientific breakthroughs of the last years, that made possible the fast improvement of astrobiology. The followings are a kind of summary of these. Introduction - The ultimate science Astrobiology is a young science, that search for the possibility, forms and places of extraterrestrial life.
Astrobiology is one of the most dynamical-developing sciences of the 21st century. To determine its boundaries is difficult because the complex nature of it: The fundamental questions are very simple : When, where and how converted the organic matter into life?
However, trying to find the answers is quite difficult. So an astrobiologist has to be aware of the basics of astronomy, space research, earth and planetary sciences, and life sciences mainly ecology, genetics, molecular and evolution biology. But it is not enough - the newest results of these at least as important as the basic knowledge.
Exoplanets was a particular year in astronomy: Since that time the discovery of exoplanets progress fast: The detailed analysis of these distant objects. Life in Extreme Environments. Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe.
It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela. Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas , Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country.
To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela , we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per thousand inhabitants in to 12 in , 19 in and 50 in The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of in Caracas.
We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mids and their remarkable increase during the H. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.
In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas , Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons.
Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.
We present some recent developments in philosophy of astrobiology which illustrate usefulness of philosophy to astrobiology. We cover applications of Aristotelian views to definition of life, of Priest's dialetheism to the question if viruses are alive, and various thought experiments in regard to these and other astrobiology issues. Thought experiments about the survival of life in the Solar system and about the role of viruses at the beginning and towards the end of life are also described. The article gives an account of the results of a research intended to know violence reported by individual between couples and towards children and also to establish the importance of social sex, income, education, civil status, work status, gun license, alcohol abuse, attraction to violent TV programs and cultural social norms about aggression between couples and children punishment, and capacity to express anger and handle conflicts in a non-violent ways predictors in such behavior.
The instrument was a questionnaire with on scale answers Likert type. The information was treated with multi-varying statistical analysis, using the association technique between two variables by means of the Chi-square test, with conditional independence log-linear for three variables. The results suggest relatively low violence levels between couples and towards children.
Regarding children, women tend to be more violent with them, most probably explained by factors relating income and unemployment. It was found that the bigger the accord with the norm to discipline children with physical violence, the bigger the frequency of violent behavior towards them. On the contrary, the bigger the conviction to be skilled in handling situations without violence, the lesser the frequency of violent behavior.
Regarding violence between couples no association was found with the sex variable, but one can certainly talk about violent couples, which is related to the way of coupling, unemployment, and lack of formal education. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: References to the student text are cited.
This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for high school students. Topics include plane geometry, real numbers, triangles and angles, congruence, construction, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, and parallelograms. The text is written in Spanish. This is Part 2 of the teacher's commentary for the grade 4 mathematics program. Part 2 includes the commentary for chapters 6 through Topics covered include addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, geometrical figures, lines and lineal measurement, and fractions.
The participants included …. Dona Ana No Esta Aqui. This guide in English and Spanish examines the roles assigned to women in social studies textbooks and the omission of women from history books. It analyzes the topics, textbooks, pictures, and narrations in use, and offers alternatives to these biased materials. A pre-test and post-test are included to measure the user's awareness of textbook…. Vamos juntos a la escuela: Consejos para ayudar a los padres a asegurar el exito academico de sus hijos Let's Go to School Together: Noting research showing that when parents are involved in their children's learning, students achieve more and are less likely to drop out of school, this videotape kit offers Spanish-speaking parents tips to help them become involved in their children's learning, from infancy through adolescence.
The kit is intended for use in schools,…. Building on the theorem that a positive self-identity is fundamental to completion of an education, a study was conducted to learn how schools with differing backgrounds affected the ethnic identity of students. Two schools in Denver Colorado were selected for this case study. El Odio Se Cura: Designed for use in middle schools and youth organizations, this curriculum, in Spanish, deals with the extent of hate crime in the United States and presents strategies for reducing hate crimes among our youth.
This flexible nine-unit curriculum is based on the principles that violence and prejudice are learned and therefore preventable, and that…. Mi Primer Libro de Maquinas Simples: Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9. This is the first book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume defines force and work by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate scientific principles. Answers to the questions are provided;…. Mi Quinto Libro de Maquinas Simples: This is the fifth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines.
This volume explains the principles and some of the uses of inclined planes, as they appear in simple machines, by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book…. Mi Tercer Libro de Maquinas Simples: La Rueda y la Polea. The Wheel and the Pulley. This is the third book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. This volume explains principles governing wheels and pulleys by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate the scientific principles. Como Prepararse a Tiempo para la Universidad: This Spanish language booklet, also available in English, provides "los cuatro pasos"--four steps that parents and children can take to ensure that students properly prepare for college.
Step one discusses why it is important to go to college; reasons include better job opportunities, more earning potential, and the increased variety of jobs one…. Mi Cuarto Libro de Maquinas Simples: Otras Modificaciones de la Rueda. Other Modifications of the Wheel. This is the fourth book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. This volume explains further refinements of the wheel which is introduced in volume three. The fourth volume explains principles behind gears and the relationship between velocity and force by….
Mi Segundo Libro de Maquinas Simples: This is the second book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. By suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate the scientific principles, this book explains the workings of three types of levers. This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially….
This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the stereotyped work roles assigned to men and women. The guide examines educational materials that perpetuate these roles and presents teaching alternatives which reinforce students' self esteem and confidence. A pre-test and post-test are included to measure the user's awareness of…. A Resource Guide for K Educators. This guide focuses on the issue of school-based harassment. It is intended to help educators prevent or curtail all forms of harassment by highlighting school-based harassment issues, by describing remedies and prevention strategies, and by providing additional resources.
It details some of the problems school-based harassment engenders, and it…. La Implementacion de la Tecnologia en el Salon de Clases: Una guia para los que toman decisiones en las escuelas rurales Putting Technology into the Classroom: A Guide for Rural Decision Makers.
This guide is intended for superintendents and central office staff in small, rural school districts who are considering ways of using technology in the classroom. It provides information about why technology is worth the trouble and what it can accomplish, lays out the basic issues and tasks involved in integrating technology into classroom….
Como ayudar a su hijo a tener exito en la escuela , con actividades para ninos entre las edades de 5 a 11 anos Helping Your Child Succeed in School, with Activities for Children Ages 5 through At the heart of the No Child Left Behind Act of is a promise to raise standards for all children and to help all children meet those standards. This Spanish-language booklet provides information that parents can use to help their child succeed in school. Following an introduction, the second section of the booklet, "The Basics," offers….
Como Ayudarle a su Hijo con la Tarea Escolar: Una guia para padres de alumnos de escuela primaria y secundaria Helping Your Child with Homework: This Spanish-language booklet is designed to provide parents of elementary and junior high school students with an understanding of the purpose and nature of homework along with suggestions for helping their children complete homework assignments successfully. Following a discussion of why teachers assign homework, how homework can help children…. Comunidad, Escuela y Curriculo 4: Community, School and Curriculum 4: The Major Project for Education for Latin America and the Caribbean has given indigenous populations priority attention and has sponsored workshops and seminars to address the educational needs of these peoples.
Traditionally, the language and culture of indigenous peoples have been viewed as obstacles rather than valuable resources for education. Valores, Creencias Y Objectivos: Base del programa de la Escuela Experimental P. Values, Beliefs and Objectives: The Basis of Experimental Schools P. The values, beliefs, and objectives that form the core of the program at the Experimental School P.
Yonge in the University of Florida are presented in this paper which is written in Spanish. This experimental school serves approximately students from grades one through twelve. The function of the school is to conduct research to solve…. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres. Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical or vocational education tailored to a specific job.
In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…. This guide informs parents about some instructional practices that work well for all elementary school students, in particular English learners. It includes questions parents can ask teachers and principals to help them understand how their children's school approaches teaching and learning. Both English and Spanish versions of the document are…. This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles.
A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. America vuelve a la escuela: Informacion para familias y miembros de la comunidad America Goes Back to School: Information for Families and Community Members. This Spanish-language brochure provides several tips for families and for community members to help them encourage student achievement and success. The tips are grouped into three categories: Building Support for Better Schools: Siete pasos para lograr la participacion de todas las comunidades. After conducting more than fifty interviews, SEDL developed seven steps to help….
The challenges of bilingual education in English and Spanish in public schools of New York: Objectives, models and curricula - The first section of this article describes the conceptual differences between educational objectives, educational model context and structures and curriculum units of study or sequential study guides. The second section analyses how these three concepts were put into practice in five bilingual elementary schools serving immigrant students in New York City. The educational objectives reflect the leadership and work expectations which the principal establishes within the school and with the community.
The educational model is translated into a clear language allocation policy that is reached by consensus between the principal and the teachers. The curriculum adaptations reflect the context and culture of the students, but without neglecting the educational objectives. The development of academic language the language based on academic texts is an element that attracts vast interest in American schools, but is ignored in many bilingual ones.
The development of academic language occupies a central role in the curriculum of these five schools. This is, to a great extent, the result of the limited exposure to literacy that many students have had outside of the school environment. The final section of this article describes how these schools disregard the antagonism towards immigrants and bilingual education that is currently characteristic of the United States and focus on the quality of their programmes.
A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Surgical Res ; 2: A prospective, randomized, controlled, multi-center Tiss Eng ; 8 2: Properties of the amniotic membrane for Measurement of blood flow by the Xe clearance technique to grafts of amnion used in vestibuloplasty. Aunon-Chancellor arrived at the complex on June 8 at the start of a six and a half month mission. She was collecting breath samples to analyze and measure red blood cell function to help doctors understand how blood cell production is altered in microgravity.
Results may improve the health of astronauts on long-term missions and help patients on Earth with mobility and aging issues. Immunomodulation of RAW A group of 11 medicinal plants, including Lavandula pubescens, Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Silene villosa, Bogonvillea glabra, Cakile maritime, Gomphrene celesoids, Mirabilis jalaba, and Silene nocturna growing in Egypt, were extracted and examined for their immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities.
First, the proliferation index of macrophages cells was evaluated revealing that Trigonella foenugricium, Silene succulenta and Silene villosa have a significant cytotoxic effect on RAW cells. Interestingly, we observed enhancement of macrophages phagocytic function of by all extracts except Cakile maritime, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. Afterwards, macrophages were challenged by incubation with LPS and the effect of various extracts on inflammatory responses was investigated; the generation of NO from activated macrophage was substantially suppressed by 7 extracts namely, Trigonella foenugricium, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Bougainvillea glabra, Mirabilis jalaba, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna.
All extracts except Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Silene succulenta and Mirabilis jalaba significantly inhibited COX-2 production from stimulated macrophage. Moreover, evaluating the potential antioxidant activity of these extracts showed that Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Bogonvillea glabra and Mirabilis jalaba exhibited some antioxidant activities. Taken together, our results suggest that some of these extracts may have a considerable antinflammatory and antioxidant effects and may be a potential therapeutic choice in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
The sandstone's chromatic alteration of the florentine cultural heritage. Pietra Serena is one of the materials more used in Florentine architecture. It is a sandstone that outcrops in the hills north of the city in the municipality of Fiesole and it has been employed mainly for ornamental purposes. This litotype belongs to the the Macigno Formation Oligocene Upper- Miocene Lower which consists of beds of turbiditic sandstones separated by pelitic levels which are the finest components of each single turbidity layer.
Petrographically, Pietra Serena can be defined as a medium-coarse-grained greywacke made of quartz, feldspars, micas, fragments of metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The clayey matrix is quite abundant, mainly composed by illite, kaolinite and chlorite-vermiculite present only in some quarries.
It is well known that the processes of decay of the sandstones are related to the type of matrix, the amount of cement, the kind of clay minerals and to the pore size distribution, which lead to water infiltrations, swelling of the clay minerals, separation of the clayey matrix, with resulting exfoliation and peeling of the stone artefacts. Pietra Serena has a bluish-grey colour in fresh cut, but many times it is easily oxidized acquiring an ochraceous-reddish brown colour on buildings.
Such changes in colour, appear to be due in part to the oxidation of iron, proceeding very quickly from the surface to the inside, though the cohesion is not affected. It is possible to hypothesize that the chromatic changes not necessarily involve a progressive state of alteration of the artefact, but they may often to represents a natural patina acquired with the time. Nevertheless it is necessary to remember that the oxidized layer and its hardness could also be the result of treatments performed in the past. Houston, We Have a Podcast. I'm Gary Jordan, and I'll be your host today.
So if you're new to the show, we bring in NASA experts to talk about all the different parts of our space agency. And sometimes we get lucky enough to bring in astronauts to tell their story. So today we're chatting with Serena Aunon-Chancellor. She's a US astronaut, and she's about to launch to the International Space Station for her first space flight.
She told us about her education going for engineering and medicine, her time at NASA as a flight surgeon, and her training and expectations before her first trip to space. So with no further delay, let's go light speed and jump right ahead to our talk with Dr. Houston, we have a podcast. Serena , thanks so much for coming on the podcast today. You were really busy beforehand. You actually had to run -- [ Laughter ] Serena Aunon-Chancellor: And we're actually doing it while you're here, too. That's right, that's right. Well, I really appreciate your time honestly. Because now that you're about to go to the International Space Station, this is the perfect time to sit down and kind of go through your story.
So let's just start with that. Let's just start from the beginning. You said you were born in Indiana, but you're more of a Colorado girl, right? And so my father worked at Purdue University for many years. And then when I was in junior high school he went to go work for Colorado State University. And for me, high school was kind of my formative -- I consider those a lot of my formative years.
And it was just. This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural…. New Perspectives in Experimental and Theoretical Science. Volume 8, Number 8, August Monday marked the 50th anniversary of Glenn's historic flight as the first American to orbit Earth. The effect of cationically-modified phosphorylcholine polymers on human osteoblasts in vitro and their effect on bone formation in vivo. The article "The effect of cationically modified phosphorylcholine polymers on human osteoblasts in vitro and their effect on bone formation in vivo", written by Jonathan M.
After publication in volume 28, issue 9, page it was noticed that the copyright was wrong in the PDF version of the article. The trio is scheduled to launch to the International Space Station in June and will be part of Expeditions 56 and Evaluation of cell binding to collagen and gelatin: The article "Evaluation of cell binding to collagen and gelatin: Farndale, Samir Hamaia, Serena M.
Best and Ruth E. Cameron, was originally published Online First without open access. After publication in volume 27, issue 10, page it was noticed that the copyright was wrong in the PDF version of the article. The Open Access license terms were also missing.
Over the last two decades, La Serena 's population has increased by about 70 percent. Some of the steps involved are discussed briefly here. Gemini Observatory consists of two telescopes in different hemispheres. It also operates mostly on a queue observing model, meaning observations are performed by staff working shifts as opposed to PIs. For these two reasons alone, maintaining and distributing a diverse software suite is not a trivial matter. We present a way to make the appropriate tools available to staff at Gemini North and South, whether they are working on the summit or from our base facility offices in Hilo, Hawai'i and La Serena , Chile.
We investigate the star formation process in the infrared dark cloud IRDC La Serena , and The aim is to characterize the stellar content of the three clusters and to investigate the star formation sequence in a filamentary dark cloud. We present a new photometric analysis of VVV images, and we use data from others surveys. We confirmed the presence of the three VVV clusters. And also, we propose a new cluster.
In this article I present some findings of an action research study intended to find out to what extent a teacher-student partnership in writing assessment could promote high school students' autonomy. The study was conducted in a U. Two main action strategies in the assessment process were the use of symbols as the form of feedback…. Narratives used by parents in Mexican working-class families to motivate their children to study are examined for the advice offered and parental attitudes about the importance of school. The integration of contemporary pressures about the value of schooling is investigated, as well as the ways in which the value of schooling is being….
Investigated reading and writing skills of socioeconomically deprived first graders in Santiago, Chile. Found that the children had low achievement in reading and writing and at the end of the school year had not acquired sufficient linguistic competence to successfully master these skills. Also found a dissociation between observed practice and….
El Cambiante panorama demografico de la poblacion estudiantil en los departamentos de lenguas: Describes an interdisciplinary program offering modified Spanish classes to students with special needs. Through preliminary identification, eligible students are signed up for classes. Exemplifies an effective way to confront problems related to a more diverse student population; to comply with regulations imposed by the Americans with….
Lo que los Padres Necesitan Saber sobre This brochure, written in Spanish, discusses strategies that Spanish-speaking parents can use to support the interests of their children and how to recognize and extend their children's talents. Parents are urged to: Los Esterioripos de la Mujer en la Television. Fara Usar con la Grabacion Help! Sexual Stereotyping of Women. This guide in English and Spanish provides information for teachers concerning the roles assigned to women in television, and the stereotypes on which these roles are based.
The guide contains a pre-test and a post-test to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Four object lessons examine: No Le Falle a Sus Hijos. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects.
The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…. Measurements of the Earth-Moon Distance. The aim of this project is to approach High School students to Science. We propose to measure the Earth-Moon distance using the parallax. The observation and measurements techniques and all the calculations needed are described in this paper. The results obtained in a test experience realized during are presented.
This test shows that this is a feasible project and also shows which things needed to be improved. This manual has been prepared to orient school personnel in the development of programs for the transition of students with disabilities from school to adult life so that they can fulfill their responsibilities in planning and providing services.
The laws under which such services are required are reviewed, and the services and planning are…. Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as…. This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" LANGHI, The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program.
This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's and students' reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: List of Participating Institutions: A total of 1, institutions in 94 countries participated, including 47 nursery schools, primary schools, 1, secondary schools, and teacher training institutions.
Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro, E-mail: Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data length and weight and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis.
Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. This paper discusses the professionalization of nurses in Argentina during Peron's administration We will focus on two nursing schools during such period: We will analyze the institutional disputes over budgetary positions in the context of greater government intervention in public health issues.
Remote Sensing across the Globe: Fifty participants at each location reported on a remote-sensing activity conducted by hundreds of students during February, March and April, The students became acquainted with the geography and geology of their area using Landsat satellite remote sensing imaging. The Tucson students then analyzed images of La Serena and students from Chile analyzed images of Tucson. Since top-down satellite views may not provide complete information, students from one country emailed students from the other country and requested them to be human "rovers," taking local pictures of areas under question to establish ground-truth.
Student reaction to the project was unequivocally positive. I learned how to use a map of La Serena , Chile. I learned about the electromagnetic spectrum, used to form false color images. It was incredible for us Latino students to use our Spanish language to e-mail students in Chile", said Bisbail Dorame, student coordinator for the project at Howenstine High School in Tucson.
The success of this cross-cultural program has motivated NOAO outreach staff to broaden the project to schools in other countries, coordinated by students as their service-learning project.
See a Problem?
To facilitate this effort, a special, yet generic, worksheet is being developed. The worksheet can be by teachers to include local landmarks and geographical features. Once completed and tested, the worksheet will be placed on the NOAO website, along with Landsat7 satellite images for different areas around the world.
Aunon's fit check will help evaluate a crew's maneuverability in the spacecraft and test communications. Boeing's CST is being designed to transport crew members or a mix of crew and cargo to low-Earth-orbit destinations. CCiCap is intended to make commercial human spaceflight services available for government and commercial customers. To learn more about CCP, visit http: Boeing's CST is being designed to transport crew members or a mix of crew and cargo to low-Earth-orbit destinations, including the International Space Station.
Direct thermal desorption in the analysis of cheese volatiles by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: Direct thermal desorption DTD has been used as a technique for extracting volatile components of cheese as a preliminary step to their gas chromatographic GC analysis. In this study, it is applied to different cheese varieties: Camembert, blue, Chaumes, and La Serena. Volatiles are also extracted using other techniques such as simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace.
Separation and identification of the cheese components are carried out by GC-mass spectrometry. Approximately compounds are detected in the examined cheeses. The described results show that DTD is fast, simple, and easy to automate; requires only a small amount of sample approximately 50 mg ; and affords quantitative information about the main groups of compounds present in cheeses. Gemini base facility operations environmental monitoring: BFO was identified as a key project for Gemini's transition program, as it created an opportunity to reduce operational costs.
In November , the Gemini North telescope started operating from the base facility in Hilo, Hawaii. In order to provide the remote operator the tools to work from the base, many of the activities that were normally performed by the night staff at the summit were replaced with new systems and tools. This paper describes some of the key systems and tools implemented for environmental monitoring, and the design used in the implementation at the Gemini North telescope. Hygienist and public health expert]. He was always ready to defend his ideas but tolerant to other's.
He studied the clinical aspects and epidemiology of infectious diseases becoming one of the famous physicians who collaborated in public health from to During 21 years he was head of the former Public Hygiene Institute. His work during the bubonic plague and smallpox epidemics on the second half of the nineteenth and the first years of the twentieth centuries was intelligent and shrewd.
He was born in La Serena. For further information, email Connie Walker at cwalker noao. Evidences from mercury isotopic compositions in sediments and lichens. A dilution or mixing trend in Hg isotope signatures versus the distance to the mine was found in sediments along the Valdeazogues River-La Serena Reservoir system and in lichens.
This study confirms the applicability of Hg isotope signatures in lichens and sediments as an effective and complementary tool for tracing aquatic and atmospheric Hg contamination sources and a better constraint of the spatial and temporal fate of Hg released by recent or ancient mining activities. The first case of Chikungunya virus in Honduras was identified in The virus has spread widely across Honduras via the Aedes aegypti mosquito, leading to an outbreak of Chikungunya virus CHIKV in that significantly impacted children.
A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with CHIKV and admitted to the National Autonomous University of Honduras Hospital Escuela Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, was accomplished with patients who were assessed for clinical features and neurologic complications. Of children admitted to Hospital Escuela with CHIKV, the majority had symptoms of fever, generalized erythematous rash, and irritability. Fourteen percent had clinical arthritis. Ten percent of patients had seizures. Six percent had meningoencephalitis. There were 2 childhood deaths during the course of this study, one from meningoencephalitis and another from myocarditis.
Chikungunya virus can cause severe complications in children, the majority of which impact the central nervous system. Translating ubuntu to Spanish: Unfortunately the initial efforts were disappointing due to high early recurrence rate. Experience led to refinement of technique, with acceptable recurrence rates. This combined with the advantages of minimal invasive surgery resulted in a gradual rise in worldwide acceptance of this technique. Our preferred approach for inguinal hernia repair is laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal TEP ; only in complicated hernias sliding or incarcerated inguinal hernias we use the transabdominal preperitoneal repair TAPP technique.
Records of all patients who underwent TEP repair for inguinal hernia at our centre in last 15 years were retrospectively analysed. We have done hernias in patients by TEP approach. We have developed minor modifications for the TEP repair over the years. Out of total hernias was right sided and left sided. Of these, hernias were unilateral and the remainder were bilateral; cases of recurrent hernias following open repair underwent TEP.
Most of the patients were males with a mean age of 46 years. Indirect hernias were most common, followed by direct hernias. Right-sided hernias were more common than left-sided hernias. In 39 cases conversion to TAPP was needed. There were intra-operative problems in patients 3. Postoperative complications were seen in patients 2. There was no mortality. Recurrence rate was 0. The TEP technique is comfortable and highly effective. Our port placement maintains triangular orientation that is considered vital to the ergonomics of laparoscopy. Laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: Two revolutions in inguinal hernia repair surgery have occurred during the last two decades.
The first was the introduction of tension-free hernia repair by Liechtenstein in and the second was the application of laparoscopic surgery to the treatment of inguinal hernia in the early s. The purposes of this study were to assess the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal TEP repair and to discuss the technical changes that we faced on the basis of our accumulative experience. Patients who underwent an elective inguinal hernia repair at the Department of Abdominal Surgery at the Institute of Laparoscopic Surgery ILS , Bordeaux, between June and May were enrolled retrospectively in this study.
Patient demographic data, operative and postoperative course, and outpatient follow-up were studied. A total of 3, hernia repairs were included in the study. Eleven percent of the hernias were recurrences after conventional repair. Mean operative time was 17 min in unilateral hernia and 24 min in bilateral hernia. There were 36 hernias 1. The incidence of intraoperative complications was low. Most of the patients were discharged at the second day of the surgery. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 2. The incidence of recurrence rate was 0.
The recurrence rate for the first repairs was 2. Background The major hindrance to multidetector CT imaging of the left extraperitoneal space LES , and the detailed spatial relationships to its related spaces, is that there is no obvious density difference between them. Traditional gross anatomy and thick-slice sectional anatomy imagery are also insufficient to show the anatomic features of this narrow space in three-dimensions 3D. To overcome these obstacles, we used a new method to visualize the anatomic features of the LES and its spatial associations with related spaces, in random sections and in 3D.
Principal Findings What calls for special attention of our results is the LES consists of the left sub-diaphragmatic fat space and gastric bare area. The appearance of the fat pad at the cardiac notch contributes to converting the shape of the anteroexternal surface of the LES from triangular to trapezoidal. Moreover, the LES is adjacent to the lesser omentum and the hepatic bare area in the anterointernal and right rear direction, respectively.
Conclusion The LES and its related spaces were imaged in 3D using visualization technique for the first time. This technique is a promising new method for exploring detailed communication relationships among other abdominal spaces, and will promote research on the dynamic extension of abdominal diseases, such as acute pancreatitis and intra-abdominal carcinomatosis.
Early assessment of bilateral inguinal hernia repair: A comparison between the laparoscopic total extraperitoneal and Stoppa approaches. The present clinical trial was designed to compare the results of bilateral inguinal hernia repair between patients who underwent the conventional Stoppa technique and laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair LTE with a single mesh and without staple fixation. Totally, 50 male patients, with a bilateral inguinal hernia, older than 25 years were considered eligible for the study. The following parameters were analysed during the early post-operative period: LTE procedure was longer than the Stoppa procedure The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure LPEC for incarcerated inguinal hernia IIH repair.
del inca observations: Topics by ejisytoqys.tk
The laparoscope and one pair of grasping forceps were placed through the same umbilical incision. In IIH repair, the herniated organ was gently pulled using the grasping forceps with external manual pressure. If it was difficult to reduce the herniated organ with one pair of forceps, another pair of forceps were inserted through a multi-channel port without extending the umbilical incidion. Using the LPEC needle, the hernia orifice was closed extraperitoneally.
All procedures were completed by single-incision without open conversion. A multi-channel port with another pair of forceps was needed in three cases. There were no major complications and there was no evidence of early recurrence in any patient. Perioperative outcomes and complications of open vs laparoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair in a mature surgical practice. Although the laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal TEP approach to hernia repair has been associated with less pain and a faster postoperative recovery than traditional open repair, many practicing surgeons have been reluctant to adopt this technique because of the lengthy operative times and the learning curve for this procedure.
Selection of surgical approach was based on local hernia factors, anesthetic risk, previous abdominal surgery, and patient preference. Statistical analyses were performed using unpaired t-tests and chi-squared tests. TEP repairs were performed in patients and open repairs in patients. This study was undertaken to assess the short-term outcomes of neoadjuvant short-course radiation therapy SCRT followed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery TEM for T1-T2 N0 extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Recent studies suggest that neoadjuvant radiation therapy followed by TEM is safe and has results similar to those with abdominal rectal resection for the treatment of extraperitoneal early rectal cancer.
One patient required a colostomy. Long-term results of a non-ramdomized prospective mono-centre study of laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repairs. Information concerning short-term results for laparoscopic extraperitoneal hernia repair is available, but long-term results remain poorly documented. The purpose of this non-randomized prospective study was to evaluate recurrence and chronic pain after hernia repair over a period longer than 10 years. From to , all patients aged 30 years or more, manifesting with inguinal hernia, were included in our study.
Patients aged 20 to 30 years presenting with bilateral hernia, recurrent hernia, or who were heavy workers were also included. Patients who had pelvic irradiation, strangulated hernia, prostatic cancer resection, or a contra-indication to general anaesthesia were excluded. Of hernia repairs performed, patients were excluded and underwent open repair and patients The sex ratio male: Seven hundred and fifty-three hernias There were no mortalities.
The conversion rate was 1. Average follow-up was 39 months in Hernia recurrence rate was 1. Chronic pain occurred in 2. During this follow-up, 22 contra-lateral hernias appeared in those patients who initially had unilateral hernia repair 3. All of these contra-lateral hernias could be successfully treated using a laparoscopic total extraperitoneal approach.
The long-term results of this study demonstrate that preperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair is a safe technique with a very low recurrence rate and low prevalence of chronic pain. Improvement of ventral hernia repair. Despite the use of mesh and other recent improvements, the currently popular techniques of ventral hernia repair have specific disadvantages and risks. The operation is performed transhernially via a small incision with light-holding laparoscopic instruments either under direct, or endoscopic visualization. Propensity score matching of incisional hernia operations comparing the results of the MILOS operation with the laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh operation IPOM and open sublay repair from other German Hernia registry institutions was performed.
Compared with laparoscopic IPOM incisional hernia operation, the MILOS repair is associated with significantly a fewer postoperative surgical complications P Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block and local anesthetic infiltration for laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure in children.
Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block and local anesthetic infiltration are the standard options to improve postoperative pain for children undergoing surgery with a midline incision. However, there is no study comparing the effect of ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block with local anesthetic infiltration for children undergoing laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this trial was to compare the onset of ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block with that of local anesthetic infiltration for laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure in children.
We performed an observer-blinded, randomized, prospective trial. Enrolled patients were assigned to either an ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block group or a local anesthetic infiltration group. Of the 37 patients enrolled in this study, 34 completed the study protocol. A significant difference in the pain scale between the ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block group and local anesthetic infiltration group was found at 0 min median: No significant difference was found in anesthesia time between the ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block and local anesthetic infiltration groups.
No procedure-related complications were observed in either group. The association between the outcomes of extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and the anthropometric measurements of the prostate by magnetic resonance imaging. To determine the association between the anthropometric measurements by magnetic resonance imaging MRI and perioperative outcomes of extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy ELRP. The medians of operating time and blood loss were 2.
The total post-surgical complication rate was 1. The median hospital stay was 6. The pathological stages for T2 and T3 were The rate as positive surgical margins PSMs was Laparoendoscopic single site totally extraperitoneal TEP hernia repair showed to be a feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic hernia repair; nevertheless single site surgery, with the loss of instruments triangulation can be a demanding procedure.
In March , three consecutive male patients mean age Feasibility, codification of the technique, operative time and perioperative outcomes were recorded. All the procedures were completed as scheduled, with no conversion to other techniques. Mean operative time was Patients reported satisfactory postoperative course, with no recurrence of inguinal hernia and satisfaction in cosmetic result at 6-month follow-up.
DV-SS TEP inguinal hernia repair showed to be feasible and effective surgical option for bilateral groin hernia repair. Patients' outcome was uneventful, with optimal cosmetic results. Total extraperitoneal TEP mesh repair of inguinal hernia in the developing world: Creation of extraperitoneal space during TEP repair requires an expensive commercially available balloon. Fifty-six patients suffering from uncomplicated primary unilateral or bilateral groin hernia were randomized into two groups; group indigenous balloon dissection and group direct telescopic dissection. Creation of extraperitoneal space was considered as satisfactory in majority of patients Peritoneal breach was noticed during dissection in 36 There was one 3.
Distance between pubic symphysis to umbilicus was an important factor, which affected the easiness of dissection. In patients with this distance extraperitoneal space in TEP repair was equally satisfactory with both low-cost indigenous balloon group 1 and telescopic dissection group 2. Balloon dissection was associated with significantly reduced postoperative pain at 6 h, scrotal edema, and seroma formation. However at 3 months follow-up balloon dissection did not offer significant advantage over direct telescopic dissection in the overall long-term outcome of TEP repairs.
If balloon dissection is considered useful for the beginner, low-cost indigenous. Preliminar modelling of the chemical impact of possible TLEs on the lower ionosphere of Saturn. Lightning on Saturn has been confirmed by radio  and optical signal observations . On Earth, lightning activity is accompanied by a diversity of Transient Luminous Events TLEs above the thunder clouds in the stratosphere, where crawlers and blue jets take place, and in the mesosphere where elves, sprites, halos and giant blue jets occur.
Optical emissions from TLEs are produced by electric breakdown in the mesosphere 50 - 90 km due to the field generated by the electric charges accumulated in the trophospheric thunder clouds. The existence of powerful lightning on Saturn might produce, as on Earth, elves and other TLE phenomena in the lower ionosphere of Saturn . The use of a mesh with good biocompatibility properties is of decisive importance for the avoidance of recurrences and chronic pain in endoscopic hernia repair surgery. As we know from numerous experiments and clinical experience, large-pore, lightweight polypropylene meshes possess the best biocompatibility.
However, large-pore meshes of different polymers may be used as well and might be an alternative solution. The mean mesh shrinkage rate was The partial volume of the inflammatory cells was The markers of cell turnover, namely Ki67 and the apoptotic index, were comparable at 6. Confessions of a popularizer: This paper presents some author's thoughts about scientific outreach, developed along her professional path, an unfinished way from intuition to trade. First, identity signs of outreach are revised; then, ideas, experiences and resources, sifted by practice and further critical analysis, are reviewed.
Activities related to Astronomy, being one of the most spectacular and rewarding, are remarked 1. Prevalencia y factores asociados1. In the fourth century, during the Chinese Dong Jin dynasty, the doctor Ge Hong described good results after the oral administration of a suspension prepared from human faeces in patients with severe diarrhoea or food poisoning. Faecal microbiota transplantation has been used for five years in order to treat different diseases in addition to the severe diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile 1.
This paper aims to confirm that intestinal microbiota transplantation succeeds in reducing the negative impact of diseases such as severe diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, allergies, metabolic syndrome and others and that it is not only indicated for severe diarrhoea caused by C. This preliminary study included six patients who underwent faecal microbiota transplantation, aged 83, 76, 66, 37 and 36 years four men and two women.
The methodology and criteria to be followed with donors are described and the results are listed in three tables. The methodology followed for the microbiota transplant is the same as that reported by other researchers for the treatment of C. The discussion addresses the issues raised in other parts of the world in handling different pathologic entities, as well as genetic advances.
The conclusions show encouraging results. Bilateral totally extraperitoneal TEP repair of the ultrasound-diagnosed asymptomatic contralateral inguinal hernia. The aim of this series is to determine the clinical utility of routine ultrasound US of the contralateral, clinically normal groin when a unilateral inguinal hernia is referred for hernia repair-specifically assessing the morbidity and short-term change in quality-of-life QoL due to repair of this occult contralateral hernia when also repairing the symptomatic side.
TEP inguinal hernia repair affords the opportunity to repair any groin hernia through the same small incisions. Complications' rates were similar amongst all 3 groups. Factors contributing to worse scores were: Bilateral TEP for the clinically unilateral groin hernia with an occult contralateral groin hernia can be performed without increased morbidity, accepting a minor and very temporary impairment of QoL.
Laparoscopy has been widely used in surgical practice in pediatric age, and many techniques for laparoscopic hernia repair have been described till now. In this study, we compared two laparoscopic techniques performed by two surgeons; each surgeon practicing only one of the two techniques. A retrospective analysis was performed on the surgical charts, enrolling 71 patients with uncomplicated inguinal hernia. Patients were divided into two groups according to the type of surgery: Group A, 24 patients aged 2 months-8 years laparoscopic percutaneous internal ring suturing technique and Group B, 47 patients aged 35 days years three-port mini-laparoscopic technique.
Any unexpected contralateral opening was repaired in the same manner for both groups. Follow-up period was 4 months-2 years and 9 months-8 years, respectively. Operative time and complications were analyzed. To determine the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair seems superior to open techniques with respect to short-term results.
An issue yet to be studied in depth remains the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. After informed consent, all resource costs, both in and outside the hospital, for patients between August and July were recorded prospectively. Actual costs were calculated in a standardized fashion according to international guidelines. The main measures used for the evaluation of inguinal hernia repair were the number of averted recurrences and quality of life measured with the Short Form 36 questionnaire.
Resource costs were recorded for patients, in the open and in the laparoscopic group. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Average total hospital costs were Dfl Societal costs, including costs for days of sick leave, were lower for the laparoscopic repair and offset the hospital costs by Dfl At present, the recurrence rate is 2.
Thus, 38 laparoscopic repairs, costing an additional Dfl 9,, prevent the occurrence of one recurrent hernia. Quality of life was better after laparoscopic repair. A better quality of life in the recovery period and the possibility of replacing parts of the disposable kit with reusable instruments may result in the laparoscopic repair becoming dominantly better--that is, less expensive and more effective from a societal perspective. A rare complication from total extraperitoneal TEP laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: We report a rare complication of TEP herniorrhaphy.
A year-old man underwent TEP inguinal hernia repair. Bladder rupture was noted after balloon dissection. The defect was sutured, and the hernia was repaired under laparoscopy. Cystoscopy showed the site of injury at anterior bladder neck. This is the first report of bladder rupture associated with balloon dissector in a patient with no prior abdominal surgery. Evaluation of combined oncologic and functional outcomes after robotic-assisted laparoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy: Outcomes of continence, erectile function, and oncologic control are well-described in isolation especially for the retropubic open approach.
However, only few series have yet reported combined results after radical prostatectomy. To determine the proportion of men who are continent, potent, and cancer-free trifecta rate 2 years after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy RALRP. We included patients who underwent a RALRP at our department and who were followed during at least 2 years.
Men who were impotent or incontinent before the surgery were excluded from the analysis. Overall, men were included. The study end point was the trifecta rate cancer control, continence, and potency at 2 years of the surgery. Predictive factors of the trifecta outcome were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Median age and PSA level were The use of self-gripping mesh during laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repairs may eliminate the need for any additional fixation, and thus reduce post-operative pain without the added concern for mesh migration.
Long-term outcomes are not yet prospectively studied in a controlled fashion. Under IRB approval, from January April , 91 hernias were repaired laparoscopically with self-gripping mesh without additional fixation.
Patients were followed for at least 1 year. Demographics and intraoperative data defect location, size, and mesh deployment time are recorded. Morbidities, narcotic usage, days to full activity and return to work, and CCS scores are reported.
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Sixty two patients, with 91 hernias repaired with self-gripping mesh, completed follow-up at a mean time period of Seventeen hernias were direct defects average size 3. Mesh deployment time was RR pain was 1. Thirteen small asymptomatic seromas were palpated without any recurrences or groin tenderness, and all seromas resolved by the 6 month visit. Transient testis discomfort was reported in five patients. Urinary retention was 3. At the first post op visit, 4. There are no recurrences thus far. The author concludes that counselors may be the prime cause of miscommunication and prejudicial evaluation in relations with persons from divergent racial and ethnic groups.
Counselors must recognize and value the ethnicity of other persons if they are to foster an open, trusting, and productive counseling relationship with them. Volumes I and II. Designed to be used as part of a comprehensive social studies program on Mexican culture, this two-volume manual, written in Spanish, offers an instructional package on Mexican culture, stressing an art-architecture perspective, which can be used at the secondary, college and adult levels.
The teacher's guide, Volume I, includes a discussion of a…. Adult Latino College Students: Experiencias y la Educacion. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the learning experiences of adult Latino college students, as described directly in their own voices. The study was guided by two research questions: The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee T. A fragment of bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA.
Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida including in the sample analyzed here but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype 11 of the 12 samples from Cuba and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: Preliminar Considerations on Interindividual and Intraindividual Variation.
The study reports the evolution of the demyelinization process based on cholesterol [CHOL] levels quantified in median nerve samples and collected at different times-from death from both right and left wrists. The statistical data show that the phenomenon evolves differently in the right and left nerves. Such a difference can reasonably be attributed to a different multicenter evolution of the demyelinization. For data analysis, the enrolled subjects were grouped by similar postmortem intervals PMIs , considering 3 intervals: Data obtained from tissue dissected within 48 hours of death allowed for a PMI estimation according to the following equations: At present, this correlation cannot be considered to be definitive because of the limitation of the small size of the samples analyzed, because the differences in the sampling time and the interindividual and intraindividual variation may influence the demyelinization process.
Balance de carbono en un bosque novedoso de Castilla elastica: During June 17 and 18, , a Castilla elastica forest located in El Tallonal, municipality of Arecibo, functioned as a carbon sink. The net photosynthetic rate ranged from Hydrological evolution of Atlantis basin, Sirenum Terrae, Mars. The Atlantis basin is one of the martian highlands areas where there was proposed the existence of an ancient lake during the early geological history of Mars    . The existence of some morphological features inside the basin and in the surrounding area, allow to check the existence of liquid water in the past of the planet.
On the other hand, other morphological features indicate the existence of snow and liquid groundwater in recent times. The detailed study of the geomorphologic features allows to make an approach to the hydrological evolution of the Atlantis basin. The most clearly morphological feature indicative of the existence of water in the surface of Mars in the past are the numerous channels that end into Atlantis basin from the highest terrains.
In addiction to these fluvial channels, the existence of mass flow deposits is also indicative of the existence of water in the area. Some of these slumps are in the internal slopes of impact craters, but others cover huge extensions around the chaotic terrains of the studied area. The lobated ejecta deposits observed in the Atlantis basin region are indicative of the existence of groundwater solid or liquid . Serrated reliefs and tables in the borders of the basins are indicative of the existence of a water sheet. Beneath this water sheet some deposits was formed which was eroded, due to the gradual desiccation of the basin, forming the tables and serrated reliefs.
The existence of different chaotic terrains in the area implies the existence of huge amounts of water under the surface according to the different models of chaotic terrain formation  . The existence of groundwater could be decided by the existence of collapses in the near to the chaotic terrain that it occupies the Atlantis basin centre . Finally, the two features that indicate the existence of water in the most recent past of the basin are the gullies and icy dust surfaces.
Gullies appears in the internal slopes of some impact craters located at the South of the Atlantis basin. Although different origins are discussed for the water that eroded these gullies    their formation implies the flow of water in surface during a relatively short time period. The mantels of icy dust have been described in several places of Mars and they imply the existence of frozen water in the most superficial layer  . The low craterization of the deposits of the gullies and the icy dust surfaces indicates the extreme youth of these features.
All these geomorphologic features show the existence of water in the surface or in subsurface of Mars in the region of the basin Atlantis in different moments of its geologic history. The previos studies of the MOLA topographic data Mars Global Surveyor   indicate that this basin is part of the great Eridania Lake  whose gradual drying originated the formation of small lakes, one of them, the Atlantis lake , was located inside the studied basin. The fluvial channels observed in the edges of the basin should contribute with some water to this lake.
The hypothesis of existence of a lake is supported by the existence of tables and serrated reliefs formed during the descent of the water sheet. The formation of the chaotic terrain, collapse areas, lobated ejecta of some impact craters and the mass flow deposits, all indicate the existence of water in the subsurface after the disappearance of the Atlantis Lake. Finally, the gullies and the icy dust surfaces indicate that water still exists at different depths in the ground.
Oxford University Press, New York. Automatic segmentation and 3D reconstruction of intravascular ultrasound images for a fast preliminar evaluation of vessel pathologies. Intravascular ultrasound IVUS imaging is used along with X-ray coronary angiography to detect vessel pathologies. Manual analysis of IVUS images is slow and time-consuming and it is not feasible for clinical purposes. A semi-automated method is proposed to generate 3D reconstructions from IVUS video sequences, so that a fast diagnose can be easily done, quantifying plaque length and severity as well as plaque volume of the vessels under study.
The methodology described in this work has four steps: Preprocessing is intended to remove noise from the images without blurring the edges. Segmentation of media-adventitia contour is achieved using active contours snakes. In particular, we use the gradient vector flow GVF as external force for the snakes. The detection of lumen border is obtained taking into account gray-level information of the inner part of the previously detected contours. A knowledge-based approach is used to determine which level of gray corresponds statistically to the different regions of interest: The catheter region is automatically discarded.
An estimate of plaque type is also given. Finally, 3D reconstruction of all detected regions is made. Estudio general de la region del Lago Titicaca evaluando en forma preliminar un sistema de analisis interactivo de imagenes multiespectrales. ERTS-1 digital data in the form of computer compatible tapes provide the geoscientist with an unusual opportunity to test the maximum flexibility of the satellite system using interactive computers, such as the General Electric Image System.
Approximately 9 hours of computer and operator time were used to analyze the Lake Titicaca image, , acquired 9 October The total area of the lake and associate wetlands was calculated and found to be within 3 percent of previous measurements. The area was subdivided by reflectance characteristics employing cluster analysis of all 4 bands and later compared with density values of band 4.
Reflectance variations may be attributed to surface roughness, water depth and bottom characteristics, turbidity, and floating matter. Wetland marsh vegetation, vegetation related to ground-water effluents, natural grasses, and farm crops were separated by cluster analysis. Sandstone, limestone, sand dunes, and several volcanic rock types were similarly separated and displayed by assigned colors and extended through the entire scene.
Waste dumps of the Matilde Zinc Mine and smaller mine workings were tentatively identified by signature analysis. Histograms of reflectance values and map printouts were automatically obtained as a record of each of the principal themes. These themes were also stored on a work tape for later display and photographic record as well as to serve in training.
The Image System is rapid, extremely flexible and very useful to the investigator in identifying subtle features that may not be noticed by conventional image analysis. The entire scene, which covers 34, km2, was analyzed at a scale of 1: Costs to the user can be reduced by restricting its uses to specific areas, objectives, and procedures, rather than undertaking a complete analysis of a total scene. The well known Pyramid El Castillo, located in the archaeological site of Chichen Itza, in the Yucatan Peninsula is the emblematic structure of this archaeological site and elected as one of the man-made world seven wonders.
The archaeological team that restored this structure during the 's discovered a smaller pyramid inside this prehispanic body, which corresponded to an older Mayan period. The possibility of finding other constructive periods inside this edifice should be important to reconstruct the Mayan history. Previous geophysical studies carried out by us in , employed novel Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT arrays that surrounded the pyramids surface with flat electrodes to obtain a 3D image of the subsoil. At that time, a low resistivity body was found beneath the pyramid, which was associated to a sinkhole filled with sweet water.
Employing the same technique, a series of flat electrodes were deployed on each body conforming the pyramid, a total of 10 bodies were covered, employing a different number of electrodes trying to keep the distance between each electrode constant 3 m. Each body was treated as a single observation cube, where the apparent resistivity data measured was later inverted. A precise topographic control for each electrode was realized and introduced in the inversion process. Initially, each working cube corresponding to a given pyramid's body was inverted.
A composition of each inversion was assembled to form the resistivity distribution within the pyramid using a smooth interpolation method. A high resistivity anomaly was found towards the northern portion of the model that could be associated to the main stairway of the inner pyramid. The cavity detected during the survey was observed as a low resistivity anomaly found at the pyramid's base. At the moment, we are assembling the full observed resistivity data as a single file to compute an integrated geophysical model that could be inverted.