There seems to be a problem serving the request at this time. Skip to main content. All Auction Buy It Now. Forman--Yale Divinity School In this book Timothy Yates throws fresh light on an important, but little known, part of Christian mission history. Published by Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Hodder and Stoughton, London. The book is in good condition and is well bound. Date de l'edition originale: Vie de Saint Martin Ed.
Vie de saint Martin. Author Ignace Louis Gondal. Pour plus d'informations, rendez-vous sur. Science et religion; The Hamilton, Ontario Revival. At The Nile, if you're looking for it, we've got it. Country of Publication France. Illustrations Illustrations, black and white. Movies served as another arena for religious expression in the era of the Great Migration, and one that also highlights complex interactions between African American church traditions and popular culture. Rather, with films such as Body and Soul , in which Paul Robeson — made his film debut, Micheaux raised questions about the political utility of churches and clergy and offered a critique of what he saw as the emotionality of southern black religious culture.
In the era of sound films, veteran race movie actor and Louisiana native Spencer Williams Jr. In addition to developments within black Christianity, the movement of people and the exchange of cultures in the Great Migration generated new groups that offered people of African descent in the United States a range of religious options outside of the dominant Protestant Christianity.
The stage for these changes was set, in part, by the establishment of Harlem as the headquarters for the Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA , founded by Jamaican political activist Marcus Garvey — to foster global black unity and self-determination in Africa. Garvey and his organization promoted black nationalism through the Negro World newspaper, in conventions, public rallies, and parades, and with the establishment of the Black Star Line of steamships.
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But Garvey did not insist upon Catholic or even Christian commitment for membership, which made the organization accessible to a range of people of African descent, including African Americans and immigrants from the Caribbean, in the United States as well as in other countries. Raised a Methodist in Barbados, Ford studied the Bible and apocryphal texts avidly and became persuaded that black people were Israelites descended from King Solomon and the Ethiopian queen of Sheba.
Ford moved to Ethiopia in to begin the work of establishing a community and forging connections to the indigenous Ethiopian Jewish community, but he became ill and died before he was able to do so. By the mids, Matthew had become the most prominent advocate in the United States of Ethiopian Hebrew identity as the true identity of people of African descent, and his congregation served as the nucleus of a group of other congregations in the Northeast served by rabbis whom Matthew had ordained.
A number of groups founded in the first decades of the 20th century promoted versions of Islam as the original religion of black people. Timothy Drew — , taught that blacks in America are the descendants of the ancient Moabites. Drew Ali offered his followers a composite scripture in The Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple , combining material from published texts in the Western esoteric tradition and text he wrote himself outlining the origins of Moorish Americans.
After his death the movement fractured under the leadership of different followers contending for succession, but it continued to promote this view of Moorish Muslim identity. In Detroit in the early s, a group of African American migrants from the South gathered around W.
Little is known about Fard except that he was successful in attracting thousands of followers to the Nation of Islam NOI before the Detroit police forced him to leave the city in and he disappeared. Elijah Poole — , a Georgia Baptist migrant, succeeded Fard. Muhammad took on the role of Messenger of Allah and began to teach that Fard was not simply a prophet but was, in fact, Allah in the flesh.
While the Moorish Science Temple embraced Americanness as part of Moorish American identity, the NOI rejected the United States as evil and doomed to destruction and set economic and territorial independence as a goal. He promised his followers health, agelessness, and eternal life if they would renounce the things of mortal life. Divine enjoined his followers to vote in aid of transforming the world according to his vision and, in , the movement drafted a Righteous Government platform that included political, economic, and educational programs.
At its height of popularity in the late s, the Peace Mission Movement, which drew blacks and whites, counted as many as fifty thousand members in missions in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Australia, and the British West Indies. The number of adherents in the black new religious movements of the Great Migration was small in comparison to the large numbers of blacks affiliated with Christian churches. However, their cultural impact extended beyond membership figures as they offered people of African descent in the United States new ways of thinking about their religious and racial identities, varied understandings of the relationship between the two, and approaches to politics that derived from these collective identities.
Religious beliefs, practices, institutions, and leaders contributed to post—World War II campaigns for civil rights in a variety of ways. Religious understandings of the power of nonviolence to effect change were important for many activists, such as James M. In Lawson moved to Nashville as the southern field secretary for the FOR and began to conduct workshops on nonviolent resistance as Christian practice. Many of the young students Lawson introduced to nonviolence as an activist strategy, including John Lewis b.
Other local civil rights campaigns emerged among southern blacks and many of the participants grounded their work in Christian commitment and religious community. The action continued for more than a year under the direction of the newly formed Montgomery Improvement Association, whose members pressed Martin Luther King Jr. In the course of the year, community members gathered in mass meetings at churches to support one another in their commitment to nonviolence and to gain courage in the face of increasing violence against them.
The action came to an end in following a Supreme Court decision declaring segregated buses unconstitutional.
King became a national figure in the course of the year as a result of his captivating preaching and public advocacy of nonviolent resistance. King and SCLC became the public face of the Civil Rights movement on the national and international stages, but a variety of grassroots organizations and local groups served as the engines of the activism. When Hamer finally succeeded in registering in , she was arrested and beaten badly in jail; nevertheless, she continued to advocate for civil rights, drawing others to the work with powerful speeches articulating a theology of civil rights that insisted on the revolutionary role of Jesus as a liberator.
Hamer came to national attention when her testimony at the Democratic National Convention on behalf of the MFDP delegates was televised, showcasing the theological richness and courage of local activists in the movement. Christian theology, religious commitment to nonviolence, and church culture all played important roles in the southern Civil Rights movement of the s and s. Religiously grounded grassroots organizing combined with the work of national organizations such as the SCLC contributed to the legislative and judicial successes by which formal segregation was dismantled.
His Black Power and Black Theology garnered a great deal of attention and energized a new generation of African American theologians, who explored the liberating potential of Christianity for black people worldwide. Grant and others charged that the work of black male theologians ignored the contributions of women to black church history and failed to take into account how gender shaped the experiences of black women in unique ways that a black theology also needed to address.
The Womanist Theology movement emerged in the late s and early s in the ethical and theological writings of women such as ordained Presbyterian professor Katie Geneva Cannon b. Some critics of Black Theology and Womanist Theology questioned the relevance of an academic enterprise based in seminaries and universities to the daily life struggles facing African Americans in the period after the end of legal segregation. As the 20th century came to a close, the historical black denominations that had been important arenas for cultivating a sense of collective identity, fostering economic and educational development, and motivating political organizing faced the challenge of maintaining relevance in the face of increasing class divisions among African Americans and a generational divide that pointed to the possibility of decreased participation of young people in institutional church life.
A number of significant trends that began at the end of the 20th century continue to shape religious life for people of African descent in the United States in the 21st century. The American religious landscape has been greatly influenced by increased immigration from Africa, the Caribbean, and Latin America, which followed U. The presence of these traditions in the American religious landscape offer new religious options to African Americans even as tensions between native-born and immigrant black populations have sometimes limited religious exchange.
Nevertheless, some African Americans have found fulfillment in Afro-Caribbean traditions, and some African and African American Muslims make their spiritual homes and worship in the same mosques. African American Muslims make up almost one-third of the population of Muslims in the United States, and most of these are connected to the Sunni branch of Islam.
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Others have been drawn to Islam through individual journeys in search of spiritual fulfillment and through encounter with other adherents, which is also the case for many African American Buddhists and Jews in contemporary America. This development is not exclusive to black churches and, in many cases, predominantly white congregations have attracted significant numbers of African American members while churches with majority black membership and black pastors have white congregants.
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Many, like Crenshaw Christian Center, based in Los Angeles with a branch in New York City and claiming more than 20, members, are nondenominational, reflecting a growing trend in black Christianity. The influence of Pentecostal beliefs and practices is strong in African American megachurches whether denominational or nondenominational.
While formal membership figures do not necessarily reflect the number of active congregants, these are strikingly large congregations that offer congregants a variety of ministries targeted at interest and demographic groups. The social engagements of black megachurches tend to focus on community development rather than electoral politics or organized protest, and they use some of their considerable financial resources to sponsor social, economic, and educational services such as legal clinics, family counseling, health projects, housing developments, and schools.
Other prominent African American prosperity preachers in the first decade of the 21st century include Eddie Long b. In addition, prosperity gospel can be found in churches that operate on a much smaller scale than these megachurches led by celebrity pastors, but key to the success of preachers such as Price and Jakes has been their use of multiple media, including satellite network televangelism and broadcast over the Internet, to promote their theologies in the United States and, increasingly, in the Caribbean and Africa. Critics have charged that the focus on individual financial gain has turned black churches away from addressing the broader issues of racism and economic inequality.
Personal scandals involving figures such as Eddie Long, accused of sexual misconduct with young men in one of his church organizations, and Gaston Everett Smith, pastor of Friendship Missionary Baptist Church in Liberty City, Florida, who was convicted of stealing public grants made to his church to aid the poor, have also raised questions about a number of celebrity ministers who contravene the sexual and financial standards they preach in their ministries. While nondenominational megachurches, prosperity gospel, and media ministries have garnered a significant presence in the African American religious landscape, a study by the Pew Research Center shows that African American commitment to historically black Protestant churches remains strong.
The process by which religious culture developed under slavery has been one of the most debated topics in the field as scholars have sought to understand the relationship of African American religious formations to the various traditions in the African contexts from which enslaved people were transported. Was there cultural continuity and, if so, how was it produced, maintained, and manifested?
Were cultural links irreparably ruptured and, if so, what were the consequences for religious developments in America? The varied terms scholars have used to describe the relationship of African diaspora religions to Africa and the process of cultural change—retention, survival, syncretism, transculturation, polyculturalism, bricolage, among others—reflect a range of approaches to addressing these questions.
One prominent scholarly narrative emphasizes a clear and enduring impact of African traditions in African American religious culture seen in understandings of the sacred, ritual practices, and general sensibilities. Scholarly accounts differ regarding the specific ways these influences are manifested in African American religion. Another narrative argues that the break with African cultures proved so profound that the religious orientations of African Americans bear few traces and represent entirely diasporic formations facilitated by religious exchange with European Americans.
Recent developments in the study of the transatlantic slave trade have encouraged scholars of African American religious history to attend in greater detail to the ethnic origins of enslaved Africans, to the cultural distinctiveness of different regions and states, and to change over time as African American religious culture developed. Such work focuses less on generalized answers to the question of the relationship of diasporic religion to Africa and more on exploring specific cases, such as the impact of Kongo culture in a particular region of North America.
Scholarly analysis of African American religion has focused heavily on politics, highlighting questions about the role of Christianity in the formation of black collective identity and its impact on the possibility of political mobilization under slavery and beyond. Did Christianization accommodate enslaved people to their status in significant ways? To what extent did Christian theology and institutional formations enable and support resistance to slavery, oppression, and racism?
Scholars have also debated the degree and nature of the contributions black religious leaders and churches made to the modern Civil Rights movement. Some of this work has highlighted the political conservatism of some black church leaders and other work identifies a retrospectively romanticized view of black church activism, presenting a much more complex range of positions on politics among black Christians.
In light of changes in the broader literature on the Civil Rights movement in shifting from a focus on national organizations and prominent leaders to local activism, recent scholarship on religion and civil rights has also sought to tell a broader range of stories about the movement and its participants. Historians most often attend to religion in their narratives of African American history in relation to politics and have been less interested in questions of theology and culture.
The dominance of the political narrative has brought to the fore certain aspects of African American religious life, such as moments of resistance, mobilization, and electoral politics, but it has offered little insight into the cultures, theologies, and spiritual experiences of black religion in the United States.
Recent scholarship on the cultures of African American religious life, including music, the visual arts of painting, photography, and film, and media such as phonograph records, radio, and television, has highlighted the richness of these sources for the study of black religion. Attention to African American religion in literature, theater, and other arts in recent work has also broadened the source base for scholarship and underscored the complex engagements between the mainstream of orthodox black Protestant Christianity and the post-Christian, the secular, and religious alternatives.
Despite the fact that African American women constitute the majority of members in the Protestant churches that dominate in African American religious history, they remain underrepresented figures in scholarship. Narratives emphasizing the role that leaders of black church institutions have played in politics beyond the churches necessarily devote little attention to women, who have often been excluded from assuming formal leadership roles.
Much of the scholarship on black women in churches has focused on the struggle over gender and ordination in the 19th century and on recovering the stories of significant figures in the movement. In addition, scholars are only beginning to attend to questions of gender and sexuality in African American religious history in ways that reflect the complex contributions that religious beliefs and practices have made to the construction of gender and sexual identity.
Scholarly narratives of African American religious history most often end with the Civil Rights movement, and they sometimes chart the rise of Black Power as representing a secular rejection of religiously inspired social protest. Historians of African American religion have yet to fully assess the religious developments of the s and s, and the field would benefit from greater attention to the impact on black religious life of Reagan-era economic policies, the rise of black conservatives, the AIDS epidemic, and the war on drugs as well as the emergence of the prison-industrial complex, multiracial church congregations, and cultural developments such as rap music.
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African American narratives published in the 19th century are useful sources for considering the role of religion in shaping black identity and culture. Foote, and black Baptist missionary Virginia Broughton, among others. Voices of Ex Slaves Pilgrim Press, The Consortium of Pentecostal Archives houses a number of digitized collections, including The Apostolic Faith periodical produced from the Azusa Street revival, and the Pentecostal and Charismatic Research Archive has information on archival collections around the country related to the Church of God in Christ and other black Pentecostal denominations.
The scrapbooks in the Alexander Gumby Collection of Negroiana at Columbia University , also available on microfilm, contain materials on the African American new religious movements of the Great Migration and a range of other earlyth-century religious subjects. Collections related to African American religion and music are available at numerous archives, including the Thomas A.
The Camille Billops and James V. Hatch Archives at Emory University is an excellent resource for studying religion and African American theater. Various collections of photographs provide insight into aspects of African American religious life and history not accessible through text as well as examples of the aesthetics of black photography of religious subjects. The Center for Southern Folklore houses the Rev. Taylor Collection of photographs and films from the s through the s, focusing not only on Memphis, but also on National Baptist Convention subjects.
On the African Jewish diaspora. Johnny Ray Youngblood of St. Paul Baptist Church in Brooklyn. The Life and Death of Peoples Temple dir.
Haitian Vodou in New York. On black churches and marriage equality. On the history of early gospel music and featuring Thomas A. On Memphis Baptist minister Reverend L.
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Bill Jersey and Barbara Connell, Religion and the Civil Rights movement in Omaha, Nebraska. Multipart television series tracing the history of African American religion. On the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Murray Pamphlet Collection at the Library of Congress contains materials from to , including religious magazines, organizational annual reports, school catalogues for religious schools, sermons, catechisms, and more. Passionately Human, No Less Divine: Religion and Culture in Black Chicago, — Princeton University Press, Women in the Church of God in Christ: Making a Sanctified World.
University of North Carolina Press, Oxford University Press, University of Chicago Press, Harvard University Press, Setting Down the Sacred Past: African American Race Histories. Your Spirits Walk Beside Us: The Politics of Black Religion. Islam in the African American Experience.
Indiana University Press, Young, Rituals of Resistance: An Anthropological Perspective Boston: Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks: Cambridge University Press, Palgrave Macmillan, ; Stephen R. Ulrike Treusch fragt anhand von individual und Werk Bernhards von Waging? Bernhard von Waging aus dem Kloster Tegernsee warfare einer der bekanntesten Vertreter der benediktinischen Reformbewegung von Melk. Er wirkte nicht nur als praktischer Reformer, sondern vor allem als Autor theologischer Reformschriften.
Religion in African American History
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