The application deadline for the class is February 1, Founded in , the White House Fellows program is America's most prestigious program for leadership and public service. White House Fellowships offer exceptional young men and women first-hand experience working at the highest levels of the federal government. White House Fellows typically spend a year working as full-time, paid special assistants to senior White House Staff, the Vice President, Cabinet Secretaries and other top-ranking government officials. Fellows also participate in an education program consisting of roundtable discussions with renowned leaders from the private and public sectors, and trips to study U.
Fellowships are awarded on a strictly non-partisan basis. The White House Fellows Program web site at www. Please encourage interested individuals to apply for this program. Los Pachucos y Su Lenguaje. Griego, April All Rights Reserved. The unusual nickname was given to Arturo at age fifteen when he was working as an assistant in a funeral parlor. One day the body of a young lady friend of his came in and Arturo picked her up and started waltzing around with her.
The shocked employees asked what he was doing. Arturo said that he was giving his friend her last dance. One of the guys said, "Man, you look just like Count Dracula. My father disliked Arturo, saying he was a pachuco and a marihuano. But there was an alluring attraction to him.
He had flashing hazel eyes, pale skin and sandy hair slick-backed into a ducktail, which was made darker with pomade. Arturo was handsome, slender and tall with a sauntering walk; he would swing his arms slightly from side to side and sway his shoulders. He wore long-sleeve lisas buttoned all the way up to the neck, baggy pegged-pants drapes with reet pleats worn high on the waist and fitted tightly at the ankles, and highly shined calcos with pointed toes. When he danced, he moved his feet but slightly and gently rocked to the rhythm. He made the woman come to him, while he just stood there and twirled her around.
The girl did all the work; he was cool and aloof. Count was a natural leader. He seemed older than he was and although he was the youngest, he became the head of his clica in the Sawmill neighborhood of Alburquerque. When the batos met they would greet each other with a backward motion of their heads. Their speech was full of words and phrases like: Around outsiders the pachucos were reserved and hermetic, with a dangerous air about them. Moreover, I would be immediately rebuked if I ever used some of the pachuquismos in front of my parents. Once, I inked a " pachuco cross" on the web between my thumb and forefinger with a pen.
Youngsters used to do this and then prick the ink with a pin in order to achieve a permanent, if crude, tatoo. I had not reached that point when my father spied the offending cross on my hand and made me immediately wash it off with an admonition to me never to try that again.
Who were these pachucos? Why did they talk that way? Why were they despised by so-called respectable people? What happened to them? There are several books on pachucos , at least one major film and, more recently, a national public television special.
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Yet, no single source covers all the bases about this fascinating group among our people. One of the early commentators on pachucos was Octavio Paz, Mexican poet, writer and Nobel laureate. In his classic book Laberinto de la Soledad he writes,. Y el primer enigma es su nombre mismo: Queramos o no, estos seres son mexicanos, uno de los extremos a que puede llegar el mexicano. Paz was an insightful observer, but he got a lot it wrong.
First of all, the term " pachuco " comes from a nickname for the city of El Paso, which was often referred to as " El Pachuco " or simply " El Chuco ". Groups of youth from El Paso migrated to Los Angeles in the s and they were referred to there as pachucos. This Gypsy language in turn is the Spanish adaptation of Romani, the original tongue of the Gypsies that migrated to Europe.
The Gypsies of today, numbering some 12 million scattered throughout the world, have their origin in India. The ancestors of the Gypsies formed lower caste artisans and workers in the Rajput Confederacy of northwestern India. In the 11 th century Muslims, from what is now Afghanistan, under the leadership of Mahmud Ghazni invaded India and defeated the Rajput Confederacy. Many of these lower castes fled in order to avoid massacres and slavery. There were three branches of this migration: Their migration continued on to Armenia, Byzantium, Greece and Rumania. From Rumania, the Roma split up into.
The dark-skinned Roma were. The languages of the three emigrant Gypsy groups were closely related to Sanskrit, from which modern Indo-Aryan languages are descended. The language of the Roma is called Romani and it derives from the word "rom" which means "man". Meanwhile, Roman borrowed from the languages of those countries along the way of their travels.
In contrast Domari, the language of the Dom, has many Arabic loan words, but its grammar is essentially Sanskritic. Roma found hostility and oppression everywhere they went and there were attempts to extinguish their Romani language. Gypsies have constituted the quintessential pariah group in Europe owing to their dark skin, foreign tongue, nomadic ways, and their fierce independence and defense of Gypsy culture.
Roma operated at the margins of society and, in response to discriminatory laws, some got involved in shady or criminal activities, which gave rise to stereotypes that have plagued the entire people. In Spain due to. Gitanos came from Spain to the Americas early on. Various expulsion attempts of the Roma from Spain were made as early as and beginning in the 16 th century substantial numbers. Many gitanos were transported to the New World out of a desire to get rid of them, in stark contrast to the shipment of Black Africans who were brought to the Americas for.
Gitanos continued to be exploited and persecuted in the Spanish colonies in which they came to form an underclass. In Mexico, as elsewhere, some. The concept of mexicanos as being los hijos de la chingada the sons of the violated one, i. One can refer to the writings of Octavio Paz and Carlos Fuentes for extensive commentary about this complex phenomenon.
There have been two foci of the pachuco world: El Paso is a caldron of conflict and creativity, a place where worlds collide — the Mexican and the North American. Certainly, much of pachuco culture was created in El Paso. However, Los Angeles is where the full expression of pachuco culture took place and where its most assertive expressions were displayed for all to see. The Mask, with Jim Carrey, features this star also wearing a zoot suit, although the movie is not explicitly about pachucos. These are words from old Spanish that are common in New Mexico and in rural areas of Mexico.
Pachucos also utilized such words, being that they were sometimes from these communities. These are terms that are derived from English or that have been literally translated into Spanish. Various sources attribute chante as deriving from " shanty ".
Full text of "A new English and Spanish vocabulary : alphabetical and analogical"
Since chante is an old word that exists and is used in central Mexico, far removed from English influence, it is certain that "shanty" has no relevance. Note that chantarse or achantarse means "to get married" in pachuco — you are setting up house when you get married — similar to the standard Spanish casa house and casarse to get married. There are two types: These are standard words that are adopted with changes or extensions of meanings.
Thus, al alba — alert, sharp, smart — usually "at dawn" — the early bird gets the worm, i. Plays on words alterations. The metaphors and alterations exemplify the true sense of playful spirit and inventiveness of the language of the pachucos. Inventions or words of uncertain origin. Cobos claims ramfla comes from the English word "rambler" which I doubt , while others state that ranfla is a Mexican colloquialism for "old vehicle". Thus, the language of the pachucos was complex and inventive.
In New Mexico I have encountered those who say that pachuquismo was a Los Angeles phenomenon and deny that our home was ever a stage for pachucos. This is a historical blindness induced by shame and antagonism. Cuando yo me estaba criando. World War II marked the zenith of pachuco cultural influence among la raza. Pachucos soared onto the national stage due to the infamous "Zoot Suit Riots" that occurred during June in Los Angeles. It would be more accurate to call these disturbances the "Sailor Riots" since they were characterized by attacks by American sailors and other servicemen on zoot suiters.
Conflicts over access to women aggravated the relations between the mostly white servicemen and zoot suiters, who were mostly Black and Mexican. The Chicano zoot suiters or pachucos were also targets because they were viewed as avoiding military service by means of questionable tactics and they were conspicuously different in language, dress, deportment and skin color. A zoot suit featured a knee-length coat with outrageously padded shoulders. The zoot suiter topped things off with a wide-brimmed pancake tando hat and a long gold chain hanging down to his knees.
The zoot suit, which required yards of war-rationed material, became the symbol of the pachuco uniform and attitude and it was a target of disdain and attacks by the servicemen in Los Angeles in The harassment spread to all Mexican American youth, pachuco or not, some of whom had the bad luck simply of affecting the zoot suit style of dress.
The servicemen often stripped the zoot suiters of their clothes and sometimes cut their ducktails. Local newspapers played an important role in fomenting an atmosphere of racial hysteria against Blacks, Filipinos and Mexicans that resulted in violence. Meanwhile, the police stood aside or even aided the rioting servicemen. The Los Angeles City Council got into the act by making it "a jail offense to wear zoot suits with reet pleats within the city limits of L.
Mexican Americans throughout Los Angeles became confused and frightened over the hatred and violence directed against their youth. A lot of raza did not care much for pachucos themselves, but it disturbed the Mexican community that many non- pachuco youngsters were also the targets of racist attacks. Finally, the military authorities did what the L. No disciplinary actions were taken against the servicemen, but the jails were full of Mexicans and Blacks.
Race riots later spread to Phoenix, Chicago, Philadelphia and New York during that hot summer of Pachucos were alienated from both traditional Mexican American society and from the mainstream American way of life. Youth everywhere have questions of identity — who am I?
Certainly, rebellious youth everywhere do similar things, but mainline Anglo American kids were not the victims of racism and class discrimination as were the pachucos. La pachucada flaunted an independent spirit that would not take any crap from anyone. During the Chicano Movement of the late s and s pachucos became a symbol of resistance and cultural pride. Pachucos themselves were thoroughly non-political and they never sought to organize their communities outside of their own immediate clicas. Thus, it is ironic that the distant and alienated pachuco was redefined as a revolutionary, a cultural hero.
He would combine the colors on a single disk and make psychedelic combinations long before the hippies came up with the idea. Count was into drugs — marihuana and harder stuff. His second wife finally gave him an ultimatum to choose either drugs or her. He chose her and cleaned up his act. He just smiled and shrugged his shoulders, although it was clear that he regretted his previous behavior. Count died at the young age of 40, the victim of chemical poisoning that he contracted at a job with a refrigeration company. I got the chance to visit him a few years before he passed away and he was gracious and generous with me in spite of the conflict he had with my family.
His daughter my niece ran across Dave Brubeck a few years ago and he still remembered Count fondly. Many people found Count unforgettable. Pachucos had their day in the sun during the s and 50s. Their heirs in the s and 70s were the vatos locos or cholos and today it is the homeboys who carry on the spirit and some of the tradition of the pachucos. The spirit of the pachuco speaks to us even to this day. My son plays guitar in a global Latin music band and I had occasion to be at one of his gigs. Count would have felt right at home. You'd think the greatest threat to the republic wasn't terrorism, but the suspicious hyphen.
How can you be a loyal American and still cling to your Mexican, Chicano or other ethnic roots? Not even American of Mexican descent. Just call me American, period. And my English is better and I am more Americanized than she ever was. The lesson I eventually learned from those tortured discussions was that we should separate ethnicity from American national identity in much the same way we have separated church and state in our form of government.
We can choose to be as culturally Mexican, Vietnamese, Italian or Cuban as we like and still be percent American citizens. Of course it doesn't. One would never ask an Irish-American on St. Patrick's Day if he's loyal to America. So what does it mean then, really, to be Mexican-American? It surely involves the pleasures of food, language, music and holiday customs. But on a deeper level, being Mexican-American means that this group's ethnic culture will form the core of a large, regional identity evolving in the Southwest and parts of the West.
Does this spell a Mexican ''reconquista''? Of all the experiences of being Mexican-American, one of the most important is an awareness that cultural assimilation is a two-way street. I will become more like you and you will become more like me. New cultures evolve by borrowing and sharing. Mexican-Americans have become who they are after centuries of cultural evolution between Spaniards and Indians and blacks in Mexico, and then from decades of acculturation between Mexicans and Americans in the United States.
So, being Mexican-American shouldn't be seen as holding on to a foreign identity. It's another way of being an American, so much so that you can now buy a piece of Mexican-American culture at the all-American shopping mall. Young Latinas are not supposed to spend time away from home unescorted by a family member. The Girl Scouts of Tejas Council says that of the 3, girls to join in the last two years, 2, are Hispanic.
This follows a national trend. Bilingual pamphlets are distributed to homes and schools, there are advertisements in Spanish, and word-of-mouth is growing. Norma Uriarte is allowing her two daughters - 7-year-old Alexandra and 6-year-old Stephanie - to participate in the organization's functions and perhaps one day go on camping trips.
The brochure and the girls' enthusiasm convinced her that Girl Scouts would be something positive for her daughters. However, other immigrant families don't know the significance of being a Girl Scout because the organization is uncommon in their countries. Additionally, it is unusual in Latin America for daughters to travel or sleep outside their homes without their parents or siblings, said Laura Gonzalez, anthropology professor at the University of Texas at Dallas.
That's why they don't want them to go to a university far away from home. It's part of the Latin culture," Gonzalez said. Gradually, the taboo is breaking apart because of the work by people such as Martinez and Irene Olivares, leader of Girl Scout Troop Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities http: One Dupont Circle N.
Suite Washington D. Unfortunately, according to recent figures education isn't a priority among Hispanics. In the year , 64 percent of Hispanic 18 to year-olds had completed secondary schooling, compared to 92 percent of Whites and 84 percent of Blacks. The average status dropout rate for Hispanics is partly attributable to the markedly higher dropout rates among Hispanic immigrants. Hispanic immigrants' dropout rate is 44 percent, higher than the rate for first-generation Hispanic youth, which is 14 percent and 8. According to a study done by the Pew Hispanic Center, one of the reasons why there's a huge difference between Hispanic immigrants' drop out rates and U.
Nonetheless, they are still considered dropouts if they did not complete high school in their country of origin. In the case of the Hispanic youths educated in Mexico nearly all of them haven't completed high-school. Many Hispanic youths drop out because they believe that, no matter how hard they work, they will still get funneled into low-paying jobs or even no jobs at all. They think their chances that education will propel them to success to be too low to make the effort worthwhile.
Apart from immigrants being introduced into the labor force too early, the lack of English-language ability is also a prime characteristic of Hispanic dropouts. And much of that stems from language limitations. One of the findings had to do with Hispanic children sometimes finding themselves feeling like outsiders in schools. Although she understands the reason why children are told at school not to speak Spanish, educators don't understand that children might take that as a disapproval of their culture.
Although the high school completion rate among foreign-born Hispanics rose from 32 percent to In the traditional age group, only 25 percent of foreign-born Latinos who graduated from high school are enrolled in an undergraduate institution. And of those enrolled, 46 percent attend two-year schools. Erika Robles, a contributing columnist to HispanicVista. The organization, Practical Parent Education, will team up on the project with the Mexican government, which recently donated 5, books for the project. The courses are set to begin in the spring. The literacy program aims to help immigrant families become self-sufficient, said Juliette Echaniz, Practical Parent's Hispanic services coordinator.
Eventually, the adults and children will pursue educational opportunities and jobs, she said. The program has partnerships with 12 Mexican consulates in Texas, including Dallas, Austin, Houston and San Antonio, according to the organization. Founded in , the program helps public agencies provide services to Mexican immigrants.
In Dallas County, for instance, the program offers free literacy courses through schools and public libraries. The program serves 30, students in the Houston area. Practical Parent's classes in Plano will be designed for parents, their children and other recent arrivals who are illiterate in Spanish, said Lucy Long, executive director.
Learning to read and write in English is easier after they become literate in Spanish, she said. Long said the agency sometimes provides financial assistance, such as rent, to poorer families. The assistance is funded by the city, she said. The agency, which has operated in Plano for more than 20 years, is part of a national chain of organizations that provides a variety of educational services for parents and parenting trainers, according to brochures. It is supported by grants from the United Way, other foundations and gifts from individuals and corporations.
Immigration Collection, a unique resource providing international and immigration-focused content in one convenient, growing online research tool. Available as a subscription through Ancestry. Immigration Collection provides a dynamic resource for discovering information about an ancestor's first steps on the land of their hopes and dreams. Immigrants dreaming of better lives found their way to these shores in crowded ships--fleeing war, disease, poverty, and famine," said Tom Stockham, president and CEO of MyFamily. This means it doesn't take long for many people to run into a foreign-born ancestor as they trace their family history.
Anyone can now conveniently search for ancestors who may have emigrated from many countries to multiple ports in the United States during a five-century period. Immigration Collection includes passenger lists for all of America's major Atlantic ports. Today, more than 10 million individuals whose names appear in ships' passenger lists, port arrivals, and naturalization records are included in the collection.
These records allow researchers to pinpoint an ancestor's homeland and learn more about their journey to America. The records contain valuable information such as the immigrant's name, names of family members, dates of vital events, port and date of arrival, and much more. Some of the records found in the U. Eighty percent of all immigrants to America came through the port of New York. Available online exclusively at Ancestry.
View the actual passenger list images and see who your ancestors traveled with. Includes exclusive and hard to find records such as: Immigration Collection will continue to grow as more names and records are added weekly, growing to well over 25 million names in the collection in the coming year.
This collection can be accessed online at http: To learn more about the U. Immigration Collection go to http: Register, Firms hope to tap into a population that shies away from checking accounts, credit cards and retirement funds. Despite their rising incomes, the 40 million Latinos living in the United States haven't yet become big consumers of financial services.
About half of all Latinos don't even have bank accounts or credit cards, and only one in three has life insurance, compared with about half of the general population. Very few own stocks. The Bank of America has divided the Hispanic market into three segments - new arrival, transitional and established- offering basic bank accounts to the first group, mortgages and retirement accounts to the second, and brokerage services and other more sophisticated products to the third.
Since early last year, nearly banks, looking to edge their way in, have begun accepting the Mexican consular card, virtually the only ID available for millions of illegal immigrants who are big remittance senders. Remittances offer banks "the opportunity to turn an un-banked consumer into a consumer of the bank," Alice Perez, head of Hispanic marketing for U. Bank, said recently in congressional testimony. The word tortilla comes from the Spanish word torta, which means round cake. What we know today as the corn tortilla was, according to an ancient Mayan legend, invented by a peasant as a gift for his monarch.
The flour tortilla originated either in Texas as a convenient food during roundups, or in northern Mexico to form burritos for people working in mines or fields. Over forty associated organizations made the year's successes possible. We have committee members located in various cities across the nation, so do not hesitate to inquire. We want to get the message out. On November 1, , Mr. The second, was awarded to Mr. En la Orden de Calatrava, fueron admitidos: The Philharmonic Society presents: Tickets for Fiesta Navidad are on sale now.
Fiesta Navidad , featuring the musicians of Mariachi Los Camperos, takes the audience on a musical journey through the various regions of Mexico while exploring their holiday traditions. The dancers of Ballet Folklorico Ollin colorfully complement the 12 musicians and singers with dances from colonial Mexico. Nati Cano is a pioneer of the mariachi renaissance in both the United States and Mexico.
He is credited with taking the mariachi form from the streets to prestigious concert halls throughout the United States. Born in Ahuisculco, Jalisco in to a family of day laborers, Cano studied the violin at the Academia de Musica in Guadalajara. Born in Lares, Puerto Rico in , Jose Feliciano has been acclaimed by critics throughout the world as "the greatest living guitarist. His love affair with music began at the age of three when he first accompanied his uncle on a tin cracker can. When he was five, his family migrated to New York City.
Young Jose learned to play the concertina at age six, using a handful of records as his teacher, and at nine, Jose performed at The Puerto Rican Theater. Wanting to venture beyond the accordion, he taught himself to play the guitar with undaunted determination and again, with nothing but records as his teacher for as many as 14 hours a day. Jose had taken long-time standards and made them brand new. He re-worked and re-fashioned them with his own style of acoustic guitar artistry and the vocal inflections of his jazz and American influences he had acquired during his adolescence.
By the time he was 23, Jose Feliciano had earned five Grammy nominations and won two Grammy Awards for his album "Feliciano! Jose has recorded over 65 albums in his impressive career. Still humble with all the success he has had, Jose feels that his career is just beginning and that he has just started to share his talents with the world.
Tickets are available at all Ticketmaster outlets, www. Tickets on sale now. Chair and Master of Ceremony Hon. A start your family history area was manned by Dr. LeAnne Hull, hullla ldschurch. TELACU has built hundreds of quality, affordable homes, created thousands of quality jobs and lent millions of dollars to families and small business entrepreneurs to enhance and empower the community. TELACU Education foundation has also provided millions of dollars to fund scholarships to more than talented high school students each year. Recently partnered with Brigham Young University Marriott School of Business Management's scholarship program, even more students of merit will have the opportunity to pursue their dreams of higher education.
He is sought after as a resource for his guidance on issues involving the Hispanic community, business and civic affairs, inner-city lending and real estate development. Prior to accepting a full-time calling to serve in Church administration in Salt Lake City, Utah, he was founder and executive of Franklin-Covey. The Southern California Public Affairs Council The Council consists of dedicated professionals from the fields of administration, business, journalism, law, education and public relations who volunteer their time and expertise to the creation and development of community service projects and the building of relationships with various community, civic and interfaith organizations throughout Southern California.
Reaching from San Luis Obispo in the north to San Diego in the south, literally hundreds of projects each year benefit youth, law enforcement, schools, hospitals, food pantries, shelters and literacy programs - directed toward bettering the quality of life for all within its reach. The exhibit features 25 historic documents, including the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, the Emancipation Proclamation and Thomas Edison's patent application fro the electric lamp.
More than diplomatic employees, families, friends and others enjoyed a "Fiesta" highlighting the culture, food and talent of Central America at the Calamigos Ranch here. Complementing the food, games and activities was a performance by the colorfully dressed BYU dancers "Latin Living Legends. And thus began the Mexican-American War.
The war in California ended less than a year later with the Treaty of Cahuenga, signed on January 13, Another year later, on February 2, , the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo forced Mexico to hand over to the United States , square miles of landing, including California. Of the treaty's twenty-three articles, four defined the rights of Mexican citizens and Indian people in the territories.
Californians were given the freedom to live in ceded territories as either American or Mexican citizens. The new American citizens would be entitled to "the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States according to the principles of the constitutions. For six weeks from September to November the Constitutional Convention created a constitution that would guarantee rights to all citizens living within California's borders. The final Constitution - written in both English and Spanish - provided that all major legislation in the future would be written in both English and Spanish.
Article XI, Section 21 of California's Constitution reflected the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo's guarantee, declaring, "All laws, decrees, regulations, and provisions, which from their nature require publication, shall be published in English and Spanish.
They were as follows: Pico from San Jose 2. Jacinto Rodriguez from Monterey 3. Pablo de la Guerra from Santa Barbara 4. Vallejo from Sonora 5. Manuel Dominguez from Los Angeles 7. Miguel de Pedrorena - a native of Spain - from San Diego. Covarrubias - a native of France - representing Santa Barbara.
The sad reality of this bilingual convention is that - even before the ink was dry on the official paper - certain Anglo-American interests were taking steps that would lead to a gradual and continuous appropriation of Chicano suffrage. This action, to some people, may have been regarded as the logical prerogative of a conquering people over a conquered people.
But the conquerors - once Mexico had requested peace - signed a treaty and wrote a constitution that guaranteed citizenship and voting rights to the Californios who had well-established roots in this region. This had been a promise and - by - most of these guarantees had been eliminated through legislation and plebiscites. During the first couple of decades, several prominent Californio families of Spanish and Mexican origin who held large tracts of land called ranchos, shared the reigns of power with the Anglos who were arriving in their territory in ever-greater numbers.
But, in the First California Constitutional Legislature, which commenced on December 15, in San Jose, was attended by a nineteen delegates from the northern states of the U. Another ten hailed from the southern states, but no natives of California were represented in the Assembly. Covarrubias, a Californio landowner in the Santa Barbara area, but a native of France, was one of the few Assemblypersons with any strong California ties going back more than a decade. The first California Senate in was composed of nine members from northern states, five members from southern states, and only two members who were native Californians.
The session last four months and adjourned on April 22, Less than half a year later, on September 9, , California would be admitted as the thirty-first American state. The first session of the California Legislation after statehood commenced on January 6, and lasted until May 1, In the early days of , General Flores, recognizing that he was losing control of the situation, turned over command of his forces to his deputy, Andres Pico, and fled south to unoccupied Mexican territory.
Fremont, the commander of the American forces who was occupying the San Fernando Mission. Article 5 of the capitulation declared, "equal rights and privileges are vouchsafed to every citizen of California as are enjoyed by the citizens of the United States. He changed his party affiliation to Democrat and was elected to the Assembly from District 2 once again for the 9th and 10th legislative sessions.
Another Californian landowner, Jose M. Covarrubias, served on the California state assembly off and on from to , representing Santa Barbara district. For the first three decades after statehood, some Chicanos were able to find the occasional support of their constituency and represent their home districts. Carrillo of Santa Barbara served as a delegate from the 2nd District in Castro of San Luis Obispo served as a delegate from the 2nd District in and from the 6th District in Esteban Castro from Monterey served in the State Assembly as a delegate to the 3rd District and the 6th District Ygnacio Sepulveda of Los Angeles became a member of the California State Assembly in as the representative of the 2nd District.
Another Californio, Mariano G. Pacheco served as a representative of California's 3rd District from to It was Mariano's brother who stands as the most spectacular Chicano legislator during California's Nineteenth Century. Romualdo moved on to serve in the State Assembly in and In , he first started serving in the California State Senate and he continued to serve intermittently, also in and But Romualdo Pacheco's best days were ahead of him.
During the Republican State Convention of , Governor Stanford nominated Pacheco for the position of state treasurer. Fluent in both Spanish and English, Romualdo Pacheco was a popular politician who got along well with both Californians and Anglos-Americans. In , when Governor Newton Booth was elected to the U.
Senate, Pacheco became the Governor of California. His stay in the Governor's office was relatively short and, in November , Romualdo ran for and was elected to the U. House of Representatives to serve in the Forty-fifth Congress , winning by a margin of one vote. Even when Pacheco's career as a representative drew to a close, her served in his later years as a minister to several Central American countries before his death in Loren Nicholson is one of several authors who has written about Romualdo Pacheco's extraordinary career as a Chicano politician in his publication, "Romualdo Pacheco's California!: However, as the Nineteenth Century wore on, a gradual erosion of Mexican-American's rights as citizens took place.
The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, ratified in , had promised "the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. In practice, however, the Fifteenth Amendment was flagrantly violated in the years to follow by the California Legislature. One of the most blatant examples of this was the adoption of the California Constitution. The revised Constitution officially rescinded the linguistic protective provisions of the Constitution, providing that "no person who shall not be able to read the Constitution in the English language and write his or her name, shall ever exercise the privileges of an elector in this State.
Then, in , Assemblyman A. Bledsoe introduced an English literacy requirement as a proposed constitutional amendment in the State Assembly. Bledsoe had earlier belonged to the vigilante Committee of Fifteen that had expelled every person of Chinese ancestry from Humboldt. In his introduction, he lamented the "the increased immigration of the illiterate and unassimilated elements of Europe, and believe that every agency should be invoked to preserve our public lands from alien grasp, to shield American labor from this destructive competition, and to protect the purity of the ballot-box from the corrupting influences of the disturbing elements With such overwhelming support from their constituents, the Legislature hastily adopted Bledsoe's proposal as a constitutional amendment subject to ratification at the next general election.
In , the people of California voted to approve the English literacy requirement, which henceforth before part of Article II, Section 1. The anti-immigrant attitude - directed at Asians, Mexicans and Eastern Europeans - prevailed into the first half of the Twentieth Century to the point that it was even written into the California election laws. Section of the California Elections Code, as adopted in , required that elections be conducted in the English language and prohibited election officials from speaking any language other than English while on duty at the polling stations.
Such actions violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and, therefore, were unconstitutional. But the literacy law remained on the books in California until it was challenged in the California courts many decades later. In the landmark court case, Genoveva Castro et al. Although it may have appeared to be "a genuine desire to create an intelligent and responsible electorate," the court concluded "the English literacy requirement was a direct product of the narrow and fearful nativism rampant in California politics at the end of the nineteenth century.
One of the most devious means of limiting minority representation was a practice known as gerrymandering. In California, legislatures were able to divide a county or city into oddly shaped representational districts to give political advantage to Anglos in elections. Gerrymandering resulted in voter dilution, in which the political representation of a political unified minority was obstructed or diminished so severely that political representation of Latinos was nonexistent.
In some parts of Los Angeles, Chicanos were actually forcibly prevented from working. He stressed the importance of creating Hispanic districts. Although most of the redistricting that took place in resulted in obvious and continued gerrymandering of the Latino community in the Los Angeles area, one congressional district was created that would pave a way for Mr. Roybal to run for Congress.
They were also the first Latinos to be elected to serve in the State Assembly since the election of Miguel Estudillo of Riverside County in The election of these two men set a precedent for a long line of Latino legislators committed to the service of their communities.
Hundreds of thousands of Hispanic Americans served in the U. These proud veterans returned to their native land, but still experienced various forms of discrimination and prejudice. But, for the first time in a long time, one piece of legislation presented Chicano veterans with an opportunity for advancement in California. Over the next decade, Mexican-American veterans attended local and nationwide colleges to obtain college degrees. In many cases, these vets were the first members of their families to receive a higher education. Armed with the weapon of education, many of these Chicano veterans became the politicians of the s and s.
Unfortunately, in , when Moreno tried to run again, he was defeated in the Democratic Primary by Jack Fenton. In , Soto won reelection by 2, votes in the general election. Facing the same opponent in , however, he lost by 4, votes, possibly due to boundary changes of his district by the reapportionment. After serving in the U. He won, and was subsequently reelected and served until Edward Roybal took his seat in the House of Representatives on January 3, at the start of the 88th U. He would serve for twenty years from the 88th Congress to the nd Congress, retiring on January 3, At the start of his Congressional career, Representative Roybal represented the 30th District from to From to , he served in the 25th District.
In , Roybal became one of the founding members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus. In , he chose not to run for reelection. That year his daughter, Lucille Roybal-Allard, was elected to the U. House of Representatives, where she represented part of his old district, which had been divided in redistricting. The rights of Latinos were further reinforced by the passage of the Voting Rights Act of This legislation, as amended in and , prohibited the use of voting laws or procedures that discriminated against anyone on the basis of race, color, or membership in a minority language group.
The provisions of this act outlawed the literacy tests that had kept so many Latinos out of the voting booth. Garcia had been a field Representative for Congressman Ed Roybal for five years before he decided to run for office in the State Assembly. In the , three more Latinos won election to the State Assembly: Aware of their unified strength, the five Latinos serving in the State Legislature officially formed the Chicano Legislative Caucus. The establishment of the Caucus marked a significant turning point in the political empowerment of the Latino community.
- SOMOS PRIMOS: Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues.
- Full text of "Modern Spanish lyrics".
- SOMOS PRIMOS: Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues;
For the first time in California's legislative history, an agenda was established and legislative priorities were put forward to protect and preserve the rights of Latinos throughout California. The Chicano Assemblyman and Congressional delegates of the s and early s forged an important path for other people to follow, and Latino representation slowly, but steadily, increased.
After the November elections, Latinos representatives to Congress numbered seven. In the State Senate, the elections brought the number of Latinos Senators to nine, while Hispanic membership in the Assembly reached The struggle has been long and hard-fought. But, with the Latino population increasing at a significant rate, Hispanic political analysts see that time is on their side.
This work is dedicated to three men who forged a path for others to follow: List in Chronological Order. The war dead are listed according to state; however the index is not totally complete. Expected completion time in second quarter an over laping three-camera-pass ie a three-framed document per page x. A partial release is expected shortly.
You can see an example here: Collection of essays and links,. Full text of the materials will be linked to the database when possible. Information will be accessible to the public via the Internet, with multilingual searching capabilities. A Symposium on Oral Improvisational Poetry. Each verse appears in the original Euskara and also in English translation. The book may be ordered online from the NABO web site at: It is the second year in succession that the Church has staged such an event — a reflection of the growing importance of the Spanish language within the Church.
The event is free to the public, and tickets are not required. T his celebration is for everyone in the Hispanic community — not just Latter-day Saints. For information on the family contact Capri Martinez Astiz, Capri. The week before, a staffing company under contract with U. When America needs workers, it often turns to Mexico. In the past, farm hands and other manual workers have been welcomed. These days, educated professionals are actively sought after to fill specific shortages. In Mexico, they were university professors and engineers, and many have master's and doctoral degrees, although that won't necessarily help them in their new jobs, district officials said.
For many Mexican professionals, working in the United States means a huge pay raise. Foreign workers can obtain temporary working permits from U. They can bring their families with them and later apply to become permanent residents and naturalized citizens. An unlimited number of agricultural workers are allowed to work in U. Even Republican legislators are pushing for decriminalization of immigrant labor because the demand for it remains so high. John McCain and Reps. Jim Kolbe and Jeff Flake -- have sponsored a guest worker measure to allow millions of foreigners, including undocumented immigrants already in the United States, to live and work here with temporary visas for up to six years.
The sculpture's new name is intended to mark the arrival of Spanish culture in the Southwest, but critics of the council's action said it disregards history. The issue brought Texas Rep. Historian Leon Metz and a half-dozen supporters urged the council not to abandon the effort initiated in November After refusing to drop the project on a vote, the council voted to revive it. The project has run out of money with the work 70 percent complete, members of the 12 Travelers told the council. The amended contract requires the pieces of the statue to be completed by Aug.
That's the way we've been doing it for 13 years. This will make it a reality. Arturo Senclair said in a letter to the council that "the time for debate on the relative merits of the project has long since passed. In the end, a desire to see the project through kept the statue alive. Longtime civic activist Debbie Hester said the project would be a benefit to all of El Paso. Wilson may be reached at cwilson elpasotimes. Section , this material is distributed by HispanicVista.
Enlace con Sevilla Sent by Roberto Camp mexicomarketing yahoo. From the website you click to more information. The information is very diverse, migration from Europe, and stops along the way to the U. Note the list of surnames. Significant changes in publishing have occurred as a result of electronic publishing technology and its blending with networked information. Since the summer of , librarians have complemented other electronic publishing projects by creating electronic texts from print materials.
In some cases, the electronic texts were part of larger World Wide Web exhibits. In others, they represent an electronic version of rare, out-of-print works related to the Southwest. The two documents translated in this section answer that question. Huandurraga was endeavoring to defend San Xavier and the Indians living near the future site of Tucson, operating from the royal Spanish presidio at Tubac - a position obviously too far south.
His captain, Juan Bautista de Anza, was absent trying to put down the Cerro Prieto rebellion even farther south. The Huandurraga report reveals an Apache pattern often repeated before the founding of Tucson: The ambush at La Cebadilla now called Redington Pass was evidently not part of the pattern but a highly successful surprise move by the wily Indians. The letter is full of ethnographic detail on both the attacking Apaches and the defenseless Pimas of the Tucson area.
His implication throughout, corroborated by his first-hand observations, was that Tucson needed a presidio. Horcasitas, October 17, The raid occurred between eight and nine o'clock on the morning of October the second. The two soldiers stationed at the mission, together with the warriors and native governor of the San Xavier village, gave chase and recaptured some of the cattle. In the hope of recovering at least the mares of the horseherd as well, they engaged the fleeing Apaches in a running battle all the way to La Cebadilla pass. Another band of Apaches, unbeknown to our forces, had joined the fugitives and waited in ambush at the pass.
Our side defended itself with great valor and the two soldiers, together with the native governor of San Xavier, gave up their lives in the battle. When word of the raid finally reached Tubac, the ensign and twenty-five soldiers went in search of the enemy. Around eight-thirty yesterday morning Apaches attacked this village of San Xavier and at the same time began rounding up the horses and cattle that had just been let out of the corral.
The few of us who were here began to defend the village. In the exchange of arrows one Pima was wounded in the arm.
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The Apaches were thirty or more in all, most of them mounted on good horses. The few who came in afoot were even more effective, dashing into and behind the native huts nearest the church to take advantage of the safety of these vantage points to pin down anyone who might be in the church and the attached convento where our escort of two soldiers stay. They kept hurling their lances into the doors of both church and house to discourage exit from these strategic buildings. The attack was over in a matter of minutes, the time it took to make off with the livestock, which was most of what we had.
There remain only three yoke of oxen, a little over thirty head of cattle, twenty mares and a few colts. We were able to save our riding horses, which were out to pasture. I gave orders that they be brought in and only one or two were missing. I also insisted that we give chase immediately, but because of the number of Apaches and the superiority of their horses nothing could be done.
Word was sent to the mountains where most of the San Xavier villagers are gathering agave. The Tubac presidio was also advised. The ensign there assures me that he is preparing a detachment for a retaliatory campaign and urges me to call everyone back to participate. Of course all of this will be done, but we simply do not have the forces needed for effective control of the Apaches here. Something must be done!
If the Pima rebels of the Cerro Prieto have meanwhile come up to influence their Papago cousins, we are in even greater trouble. Last year I wrote you a letter which through someone's carelessness never got past Guevavi. In it I explained how things are here at San Xavier and Tucson.
During the greater part of the year my escort of two soldiers, the Pima in charge of the livestock, the native governor of the village and myself are practically alone in the village. The rest of the people are either working their fields along the river or gathering agave in the mountains. During the agave seasons the Tucson village is completely abandoned. This was the reason for yesterday's raid. Those thirty Apaches came right through Tucson. They are so overconfident that they have abandoned the element of surprise, for as they left San Xavier, they drew three circles in the sand boasting that in three moons they would return.
Harassing the Western Apaches, — Next: It also led to adding yet another distinctive Native-American component, Apaches, to the local populace. They even began presenting their infants for baptism. Nautilnilce, recognized by the Spaniards as principal chief of the Vinictinines, or Arivaipa Band, brought in 51 men, women and children. Forty-three more individuals followed the next day. That was a significant increment to the local population, especially in view of the continued decline in numbers of native Northern Piman-speaking Indians.
By the first month of , settlement of Apache bands seeking peace at various frontier posts had become more or less routine to superior officers, as the tone of the following dispatch from Manuel de Echegaray, by then promoted to commandant of arms of Sonora, indicates: He informed said captain that the following day the rest of his relatives would come in, as was effectively verified on the day set by forty-one persons, according to the dispatch of the same commander on that date.
I have ordered them rationed in conformance with that which Your Honor provided in your Instruction of the 12th of October of 91, that the ordinary people be taken care of with some sweetmeats and that the captain who is the leader of this tribe known as the Vinictinines should be taken care of with distinction and should be given a gift of clothes. Said captain sent me one of the Apaches of this band in order to gain my permission for their admission to peace, and with it Your Honor's superior approval.
I have outfitted him completely with clothes. I find that all the reduced Apaches are of good faith, having shown the commander of Tucson the ears of eight warriors whom Chief Nautilnilce killed, evidencing their faithfulness. Papelerfa, Marina, Navigacidn, Matematicas, Matices, v. Colores, 46 Medidas, v, Pesas, etc. Metales, Monedas, r. Humani- dad, Mundo, Musica, Navigacion. Cardinales y Or- dinales, II.
Numerates, Frac- cionarios, III. E x p r e s i o 11 e s numericas de varias clases, Ocupaciones, Pro- fesiones, Oficios, Oficios, v. Ocupa- ciones, Ordinales, v. Cardinals and Ordinal Nu- merals, II. Fractional Nu- merals, III. Gobierno, Preposiciones, nPala- bras Invar. Gcupa- ciones, Quimica, v. Flsica, Religion, Lugares Sa- grados, Remedies, v. Enfer- midades, 96 Reptiles, v. Insectos, Ropa de Uso, v. Ves- tido, Sentimientos, v. Tiempo, Estaciones, ; El tiempo, T41egrafos, v.
Co- rreos, Titulos, Dignidades, Utensilios caseros, r. Ropa de Uso, etc. The masculine gender is indicated by d the , or un a, an preceding a noun, or by 'in. Nouns that may be used in either gender are indicated by el la , un a. Masculine plural is indicated by los, feminine plural by las. Most of the other abbreviations, as arch, architecture , build, building , com.
Armas Sable en alto Descausen. Armas, 6 en su lugar ; Descanso Atenci6n Rompan filas. Guia a la izquierda. Sable en mano Alto el fuego. Sablazo a la derecha Desenvainen. Armas Alineacion derecha 6 iz- quierda. Alinear En su lugar. Descanso Vista al frente A formar Fuego Calen.
Armas a tierra Alto. Armas Carga en tantos tiempos according to the rifle] 1 In the Spanish equivalents, the first part of phrase is for pre- paration ; the second for fulfilment of command. Sablazo a la izquierda Variacion izquierda. Armas A relevar la centinela En vai nen. Armas Quite a la derecha Alineacion derecha. Variacion derecha Arma al brazo. Armas Arma al brazo. Armas Sable al brazo Paso ordinario.
Descanso Firmes Armaal brazo A las armas Al trote. Sobre- saliente, excellent ; Notable, remarkable ; Bueno, good ; Aprobado, passed ; Suspense, failed. The names of women are distinguished by italic capitals. The signification is given in brackets. Los nombres de mujer se dis- tinguen por mayusculas itdlicas. La significaci6n se da entre parentesis. Gregoria [stone heroine] 7riselda [ivarrior, hero] Gustavo [leader] Guido [champion, general of an army] Haroldo see JJenrietta [light] Elena, -Ehriqueta [head or chief of a house] Enrique [glory of the army] Her- berto [honourable].
Fulano de Tal el coste el coste adicional for telegrams la tarifa minima, el minimum la tarifa of letter-boxes la recogida de las cartas en la ad- ministracion de correos! I os ac tores el primer actor, la primera actriz la entrada ; price la en- trada by an order una entrada libre 6 de favor, un pase; regular la entrada un aficionado el galan el anfiteatro la entrada en escena ; first el debut los aplausos la pista de un ciroo un a artista adverb aparte, en voz baja ; noun un aparte!
Auto sacramental, or dramatic composition cf an entirely reli- gious character; Comedia de capa y espada, play of the cloak and sword, comedy of the customs and manners of the seventeenth century in Spain ; Entreme's, or farcical interlude ; Paso, short piece of a farcical character. Hist, el Gran Con- destable un conde, una condesa un vizconde, una vizcon- el condado el Czar, la Czarina el Czarewitz un dignatario la dignidad un doctor don ; fig.
Sr, , both being necessarily used in addressing letters. Su Alteza Real 8. Su Alteza Sernidad S. Reverendo Abate, Cura, etc. Fulano de Tal un hidalgote el titulo Venerable el virrey el visir Senor Alcalde, etc. IS toll- goyernor guild -hall gutter hall music town hamlet hoarding hospital lying-in hotel private house coffee custom la barrera, el portazgo el gobernador el gremio, la corporacion el ayuntamiento ; la casa consistorial of streets] el arroyo de la calle ; of a roof el cana- Ion ; seioer la alcantari- lla 6 cloaca room la sala, el salon; manor] la casa solariega, el castillo ; public build- ing fo.
Andromeda Aquila Bootes Canis major The Greater Dog un asteroide la astrologia la astronomia la atmosfera d atomismo la aurora boreal la avalancha, el alud el eje el azimut un bolido of heaven Zaboveda celeste 6 de los cielos ; la boveda estrellada un cataclismo la fuerza centrifuga la fuerza centripeta el caos un ci'rculo el circulo polar artico el circulo polar ant artico un circulo maximo c.
Mercury Venus Superior planets: From one man to another, or from a lady to a gentleman or another lady. From a gentleman to a lady. WTOng 1 , mal, injustamente yes, si yesterday, ayer yet, todavia; still todavia, aiin yonder, alia zounds! All my limbs , me duele todo el cuerpo accommodation, Is the good in that hotel? I es bueno el acomodo en esa f onda?
I a cuanto equipaje tengo derecho? He is well, better, esta bien, esta mejor! That will , bastante, eso es bastante, eso sera bastante you approve of this? Yes, 1 , si lo apruebo, me parece bien j You not believe it, you? Yes, I , si lo creo, si que lo creo, le digo a usted que lo creo. What is to be? Be so as to give me