Few composers of the Renaissance were more popular in their lifetimes than Janequin. His chansons were well-loved and widely sung. The Paris printer Pierre Attaingnant printed five volumes with his chansons. La bataille , which vividly depicts the sounds and activity of a battle, is a perennial favorite of a cappella singing groups even in the present day. Janequin wrote very little liturgical music: His secular chansons and his over 80 psalm settings and chansons spirituelles — the French equivalent of the Italian madrigale spirituale — were his primary legacy.
The programmatic chansons for which Janequin is famous were long, sectional pieces, and usually cleverly imitated natural or man-made sounds. In addition to the programmatic chansons for which he is most famous, he also wrote short and refined compositions more in the style of Claudin de Sermisy. Late in his life he wrote the Psalm settings based on Genevan tunes.
Since there is no documentary evidence, the question of whether he sympathized with the Protestants remains unanswered. Lionel de La Laurencie ", Droz, Paris Renaissance music — Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era.
From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the style of the Franco-Flemish school. The invention of the press in made it cheaper and easier to distribute music and musical theory texts on a wider geographic scale. Prior to the invention of printing, songs and music that were written down and music theory texts had to be hand-copied, demand for music as entertainment and as a leisure activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. These musicians were sought throughout Europe, particularly in Italy, where churches and aristocratic courts hired them as composers, performers.
This reversed the situation from a hundred years earlier, opera, a dramatic staged genre in which singers are accompanied by instruments, arose at this time in Florence. Opera was developed as an attempt to resurrect the music of ancient Greece. Music was increasingly freed from constraints, and more variety was permitted in range, rhythm, harmony, form.
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In the Renaissance, music became a vehicle for personal expression, composers found ways to make vocal music more expressive of the texts they were setting. Secular music absorbed techniques from sacred music, and vice versa, popular secular forms such as the chanson and madrigal spread throughout Europe. Courts employed virtuoso performers, both singers and instrumentalists, Music also became more self-sufficient with its availability in printed form, existing for its own sake.
Precursor versions of familiar modern instruments developed into new forms during the Renaissance. These instruments were modified to responding to the evolution of musical ideas, Early forms of modern woodwind and brass instruments like the bassoon and trombone also appeared, extending the range of sonic color and increasing the sound of instrumental ensembles.
From the Renaissance era, notated secular and sacred music survives in quantity, including vocal and instrumental works, an enormous diversity of musical styles and genres flourished during the Renaissance. These can be heard on recordings made in the 20th and 21st century, including masses, motets, madrigals, chansons, accompanied songs, instrumental dances, beginning in the late 20th century, numerous early music ensembles were formed. One of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music was the reliance on the interval of the third.
Polyphony — the use of multiple, independent melodic lines, performed simultaneously — became increasingly elaborate throughout the 14th century, the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the composers often striving for smoothness in the melodic parts.
The modal characteristics of Renaissance music began to break down towards the end of the period with the use of root motions of fifths or fourths. Chanson — A chanson is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular.
These usually recounted the deeds of past heroes, legendary. It was an adaptation to Old French of the Occitan canso and it was practised in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Thematically, as its name implies, it was a song of courtly love, some later chansons were polyphonic and some had refrains and were called chansons avec des refrains. A Crusade song was known as a chanson de croisade, in its typical specialized usage, the word chanson refers to a polyphonic French song of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Early chansons tended to be in one of the formes fixes—ballade, the earliest chansons were for two, three or four voices, with first three becoming the norm, expanding to four voices by the sixteenth century. Sometimes, the singers were accompanied by instruments, the first important composer of chansons was Guillaume de Machaut, who composed three-voice works in the formes fixes during the 14th century. Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois, who wrote so-called Burgundian chansons, were the most important chanson composers of the next generation and their chansons, while somewhat simple in style, are also generally in three voices with a structural tenor.
Musicologist David Fallows includes the Burgundian repertoire in A Catalogue of Polyphonic Songs and these works are typically still 3 voices, with an active upper voice pitched above two lower voices usually sharing the same range. The first book of music printed from movable type was Harmonice Musices Odhecaton and this genre sometimes featured music that was meant to be evocative of certain imagery such as birds or the marketplace. Many of these Parisian works were published by Pierre Attaingnant, composers of their generation, as well as later composers, such as Orlando de Lassus, were influenced by the Italian madrigal.
Many early instrumental works were ornamented variations on chansons, with this becoming the canzone. Printing — Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest examples include Cylinder seals and other such as the Cyrus Cylinder. The earliest known form of printing came from China dating to before A. Later developments in printing include the type, first developed by Bi Sheng in China around AD. Johannes Gutenberg introduced mechanical movable type printing to Europe in the 15th century, modern large-scale printing is typically done using a printing press, while small-scale printing is done free-form with a digital printer.
Though paper is the most common material, it is frequently done on metals, plastics, cloth. On paper it is carried out as a large-scale industrial process and is an essential part of publishing. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns that was used widely throughout East Asia and it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later on paper.
As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before A.
La premiere partie de la bataille de Janequin à trois Sheet Music by Simon Gorlier
D, the earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China. They are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty and they are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, by the tenth century,, copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, and the Confucian classics were in print.
A skilled printer could print up to 2, double-page sheets per day, Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which also used Chinese logograms, but the technique was also used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts. This technique then spread to Persia and Russia and this technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, and by around was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards.
However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine, block printing, called tarsh in Arabic developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth-tenth centuries, mostly for prayers and amulets. There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials, possibly tin, lead, the techniques employed are uncertain, however, and they appear to have had very little influence outside of the Muslim world.
Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world, initially for fabric, block printing later went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, images printed on cloth for religious purposes could be quite large and elaborate. When paper became relatively easily available, around , the medium transferred very quickly to small religious images. Poitiers — Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France. It is a commune and the capital of the Vienne department, Poitiers is a major university centre.
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The centre of town is picturesque and its streets include predominant historical architecture, especially religious architecture and this battles consequences partly provoked the Jacquerie. This area is an important geographic crossroads in France and Western Europe, poitierss primary site sits on a vast promontory between the valleys of the Boivre and the Clain.
The old town occupies the slopes and the summit of a plateau which rises feet above the streams which surround it on three sides, thus Poitiers benefits from a very strong tactical situation. This was an important factor before and throughout the Middle Ages. Inhabitants of Poitiers are referred to as Poitevins or Poitevines, although this denomination can be used for anyone from the Poitou province, as of , the population of Poitiers was , One out of three people in Poitiers is under the age of 30 and one out of four residents in Poitiers is a student, the climate in the Poitiers area is mild with mild temperature amplitudes, and adequate rainfall throughout the year.
The name is said to have come from the Celtic word for elm, after Roman influence took over, the town became known as Pictavium, or later Pictavis, after the original Pictones inhabitants themselves. There is a history of archeological finds from the Roman era in Poitiers. In fact until Poitiers hosted the ruins of a vast Roman amphitheatre, remains of Roman baths, built in the 1st century and demolished in the 3rd century, were uncovered in In a burial-place and tombs of a number of Christian martyrs were discovered on the heights to the south-east of the town, the names of some of the Christians had been preserved in paintings and inscriptions.
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Not far from these tombs is a dolmen, which is 6. The Romans also built at least three aqueducts and this extensive ensemble of Roman constructions suggests Poitiers was a town of first importance, possibly even the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Aquitania during the 2nd century. In the 4th century, a thick wall 6m wide and 10m high was built around the town and it was 2. Bordeaux — Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France. With , inhabitants and 1,, in the area, it is the fifth largest in France, after Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Lille.
It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department and its inhabitants are called Bordelais or Bordelaises. The term Bordelais may also refer to the city and its surrounding region, Bordeaux is the worlds major wine industry capital. It is home to the main wine fair, Vinexpo. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century, the historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble of the 18th century.
After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around 60 BC, its importance lying in the commerce of tin, later it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing especially during the Severan dynasty.
In it was sacked by the Vandals, further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in , the Visigoths in and the Franks in , beginning a period of obscurity for the city. In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, the city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia.
Around , a certain Gallactorius is cited as count of Bordeaux, the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in after storming the fortified city and overwhelming the Aquitanian garrison. After Duke Eudess defeat, the Aquitanian duke could still save part of its troops, the following year, the Frankish commander descended again over Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In , Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles sons Pepin and Carloman against Hunald, Hunald was defeated, and his son Waifer replaced him, who in turn confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city.
During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifers last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Shorts troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, in , Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux, probably undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, and possibly leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that very year. The episcopal seat is located in Bordeaux, Aquitaine and it was established under the Concordat of by combining the ancient Diocese of Bordeaux with the greater part of the abolished Diocese of Bazas.
The metropolitan diocese has a position to four suffragan dioceses in the archdiocese, Agen, Aire and Dax, Bayonne, Lescar, and Oloron. Since the province of Bordeaux has been modified following the abolition of the province of Auch. The same legends represent St. Martial as having brought to the Soulac coast St, the first Bishop of Bordeaux known to history, Orientalis, is mentioned at the Council of Arles, in This was during the episcopate of Delphinus of Bordeaux, who attended the Councils of Saragossa in and maintained correspondence with St.
Ambrose and with St. During this Merovingian period the church, founded in the fourth century, occupied the same site that it does today. This faubourg was thus like a city and the cemetery of St Seurin was full of tombs of the Merovingian period around which the popular imagination was to create legends. At the other extremity of the city, Benedictines drained and filled in the marshes of LEau-Bourde, during the whole 8th century and part of the 9th, no bishops are mentioned for Bordeaux among Vatican and local records.
Frotharius was archbishop in , when he fled the city in the face of Viking raids, in the duke of Gascony, Sancho VI, and the duke of Aquitaine, William V, joined together to select Geoffrey II, an Aquitanian Frank, as archbishop. Parts of the churches of Sainte-Croix and Saint-Seurin belong to that time, in the Middle Ages, a struggle between the metropolitan sees of Bordeaux and Bourges was brought about by the claims of the latter to the primacy of Aquitaine. Thereupon the struggle between the metropolitans of Bordeaux and Bourges assumed a character, the King of France necessarily upholding the claims of Bourges.
Pope Clement V was unfavourable to the claims of Bourges and he was born in Villandraut near Bazas, where he had built a beautiful collegiate church, was Archbishop of Bordeaux from to When he became pope, in spite of sympathies to France proper, by the late fourteenth century, the archbishops, like Francesco Uguccione, were supporters of the English.
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Anjou — Anjou is an historical and cultural region of France, a former French county, duchy, and province. Its capital was the city of Angers in the lower Loire Valley, the territory has no very clear geographical borders but instead owes its territory and prominence to the fortunes of its various rulers. Henry Curtmantle, count of Anjou, inherited the kingdom of England on October 25,, the resulting Angevin Empire would, at its peak, spread from Ulster to the Pyrenees. Count Arthur was taken prisoner by his uncle the king in , in , the county was seized by Philip II Augustus of France.
Its status was elevated to that of a duchy for Prince Louis, Anjou corresponds largely to the present-day department of Maine-et-Loire. It occupied the part of what is now the department of Maine-et-Loire. Anjous political origin is traced to the ancient Gallic state of the Andes, after the conquest by Julius Caesar, the area was organized around the Roman civitas of the Andecavi. The Roman civitas was afterward preserved as a district under the Franks with the name first of pagus—then of comitatus or countship—of Anjou. At the beginning of the reign of Charles the Bald, the integrity of Anjou was seriously menaced by a danger, from Brittany to the west.
By the end of the year , he had succeeded in occupying all the part as far as the Mayenne. By him, it was handed down to his successors, in whose hands it remained until the beginning of the 10th century, the Normans raided the country continuously as well. A brave man was needed to defend it, the chroniclers of Anjou named a Tertullus as the first count, elevated from obscurity by Charles the Bald.
A figure by that name seems to have been the father of the later count Ingelger but his dynasty seems to have preceded by Robert the Strong.
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Robert met his death in in a battle at Brissarthe against the Normans, hugh the Abbot succeeded him in the countship of Anjou as in most of his other duties, on his death in , it passed to Odo, Roberts eldest son. Lionel de La Laurencie ", Droz, Paris From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ce moys de May. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.