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In he was granted an honorary diploma by the Accademia Ravegnana di Belle Arti thanks to his earlier writings. In October he won the competition to be chair of eloquence at the college on the retirement of Dionigi Strocchi from the post. This faced some opposition due to his involvement in the risings and so he only began teaching in January He was elected a member of the Roman Constituent Assembly of to represent Ravenna but following for his vote against the maintenance of the church's temporal power he was excluded from teaching and later jailed and exiled from the Papal States.

He moved to live in Florence , where he spent five years before returning to Ravenna in thanks to the mediation of Giuseppe Pasolini. In he took part in the Romagna Assembly as deputy for Ravenna in the first college.

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The state primary school in the centre of Ravenna is named after him[1] — it houses a inscription[2] and a bust of him. His family wished him to become a notary, but he refused and instead concentrated on studying Italian and Latin literature. During this period he translated several works, including Girolamo Rossi's Historiarum Ravennatum libri decem and several classical works by Seneca, Plutarch and Theocritus. In October he won the competition to be chair of eloquence at the college on the retire Family His father Giacomo Tombesi dall'Ova was a nobleman and one of the four senators of Ravenna in the first half of the 15th century, whilst it was under the control of the Da Polenta family.

He also had a daughter called Lieta who married Giuliano Rasponi a Ravennese patrician and another whose name is unknown who married Paolo Aldobrandini or Aldovrandini , a captain. Gurlino's brother Bartolomeo, founder of the Tombesi branch, mov He is most notable for his designs for the Tomb of Dante and the facade of Santa Maria in Porto Basilica, both in his home-town of Ravenna.

Perspectives on Fighters in the Middle Ages, ed. The Body of the Condottiero.

Italian art historians

Therefore, I asked myself the following questions: If the answer is yes, with what connotation? Did they rely on a moral system which identified the positive and negative characteristics of the military action?

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In the space of this article I shall attempt to answer to these questions, well aware of the fact that this subject needs, due to its extent, a wider documentary spectrum. This article aims only to be a preliminary and exploratory work, with the intent to offer some starting points for a consequent reflection. Within the tight space allowed, it is not possible to deeply investigate the mass of more and less famous condottieri who populated Italy during the XV century. For each of these captains I refer in particular to the commentarii of their lives, to personal letters, to Renaissance literature and to coeval chronicles.

The selected sources, instead, can be enlightening if they are considered not for the accurate narration of the events, but for the stylistic elements which were used to consecrate the condottiero to posterity. In other words, it is possible to identify some exemplary virtues and behaviours ascribable to the perfect condottiero or to the perfect soldier, and the symbols that embodied these virtues. Then, the spectrum of investigation may be expanded by the comparison between these sources and the military and moral treatises of the Renaissance; thus, the extent at which the measure of the idealization of the behaviours present in the treatises has permeated the everyday life of the soldier can be observed.

Braccio da Montone e i Fortebracci. About the genre of commentarii see: From here, the encounter between this biography and the genre of the de arte militari treatises can be noticed through an accurate reading. Furthermore, the biographies written in the XVI century by Giovan Battista Tedaldi have to be taken into account, who personally served Giovanni, and by Gian Girolamo Rossi , bishop of Pavia.

On this subject see also: Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani.

File:Bartolomeo Colleoni.jpg

Fortitudo is one of the four cardinal virtues, according to the system invented by Plato, in which the fortitude, often combined with the courage, is the one that grants resoluteness and tenacity in difficulties. In the laical context, fortitude is the typical characteristic of the strong man who does not hesitate in front of enemies or obstacles, and is therefore often associated to the military world.


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In the military context, fortitudo have to deal, at the same time, with the fear of death and with bravery and for this reason, both boldness and military skills derive from fortitude. The professor asserts that war is composed of three elements: It symbolised the virtue of the soldier who is able to attack but also to wait and to endure deprivations and suffering, without falling prey to the instinct but applying an essentially human rationality.

For the entire narration of the fact see: Again, Braccio makes this idea explicit when he affirmed: This interpretation of the body is well integrated in an arc of development which increasingly understands the body as a machine, starting with the anatomy treatises of the XVI and XVII century. The gloss of fortitude says: Drawn positioned under the feet of the magister, fortitude is the first and basic virtue a fencer must learn during its education. This iconography of the elephant as representative of fortitude had a wide diffusion.

On the downside of these medals, dated and , the personification of fortitudo sustained by two elephants is represented, which were both the heraldic animals of the Malatesta family and both the animal representation of fortitude.

Filippo Mordani | Revolvy

In this article I refer to the Getty manuscript. For example, in the Arte Gladiatoria dimicandi by Filippo Vadi although written on the basis of the Floss the virtues of the fencer are embodied by other animals, namely the bear, the ram, the snake and the greyhound. On the interpretation of the animals see: See also the marble medallion representing fortitudo with the same characteristics inside the Malatestian Temple in Rimini, probably made by Antonio di Duccio, in: The concept of fortitudo was dear to the cultural framework of Sigismondo, as he wrote in one of his sonnets: For example, Braccio says about the opponent soldiers: H ALE, , pp.

I, book I, pp.

In particular the deprivations of the body were a badge of honour for soldiers and their condottieri, since the good training of the soldier corresponded to his ability to endure pain and strain. For now, it can be noticed how the same themes are proposed in many descriptions and eulogies. The conduct of Sigismondo Malatesta, for example, during the siege of Piombino, is described by Roberto Valturio in these terms: He was happy to break the mouldy and black bread with his soldiers that otherwise would have been thrown to the dogs […] He was not nauseate to drink the muddy and sulphate waters; on the contrary he savoured them so playfully that, by seeing him, the soldiers did not mind the deprivations of wines and clean waters.

Braccio, as reported by Giovanni Campano, describes the soldiers as: Therefore the love, that the army had for him, was born, and the goodwill of the soldiers. The subject of the difference between glory and spoils, between the motivation of the condottiero and of the soldiers, although of a great interest, is too extended to be analyzed in this article. This characteristic of the Italian armies is well illustrated by Braccio in the aforementioned dispute with Alfonso, while explaining the peculiarity, or the supposed superiority, of the Italian soldiers.

The Italian warfare is more technical, more professional and involves a smaller number of soldiers more expert in the profession of arms, well trained at the military life. Document written out in full in: And there are no more dishonoured wounds than those in the back and, on the contrary, none is more honoured than those in the chest and in the face. One may therefore think that to be injured during the battle was a source of pride among the soldiers.

About armors and warfare during the Italian wars see: The battle took place on July 12th This interpretation of scars, endurance and training of the body, and its symbolic meaning, was well known within the Italian military system and played a role even in the selection of the soldiers. Surely is the casing, the sack in which the body mass resides, namely the bone structure, the flesh and the blood; but it is also fundamentally what characterises and identifies.

Denique illis emolliti domesticis deliciis animi ferri aciem expavescebant; Braccianis durata sole ventoque et plena vulneribus corpora ne ictus quidem gladiorum formidabant […].