It was celchrated in the thirteenth quarter of Paris, I had lost sight of her; and when M. I have since learned that M. Her aspiration is not unreasonable. I consider it to be rather creditable to the French than other- wise, that in many cases where an irregular union produces children, the law is called in to sanction the marriage which has already really taken place. As this does not happen until habit has rendered the couple inseparable, neither party is afterwards visited by regret. These marriages are, in fact, generally happy, if that name can be applied to the content, the absence of turbulent desires and wishes, which characterises those who, having exhausted their hearts in youth, find enjoyment in the cessation of pain and labour, relish small comforts and domestic triumphs, and can remember the past without any marked regret or retro-active jealousy.
The system itself has its origin more in tradition and custom than in temperament. It is a heritage left by the old monarchy, whose partisans may now enjoy the maheious pleasure, of seeing their example de- stroying the energies of the generation who have displaced them. Alexandre Dumas, and feeling secretly flattered at the thought that they can be as immoral as princes.
This ludicrous complaint is too illustra- tive of French manners to be omitted. It seems to me a perfect gem, and quite bearing upon what I say ; namely J tbat the theory and practice of intrigue is precisely the same now as under Louis XV. Even a grisette speaks with perfect contempt of a baron; and keeps her mercenary heart for a banker, and her real affections for some plebeian student who may one of those days preside at the Court of Cassation. The following facts have been already written down, but they are so true to reality that I repeat them, with the variations of my own experience.
A good while ago a needy woman, with a handsome daughter, to whom she could not give a dowry, hit out a plan of life which has found imitators. It is as follows: Secret understandings are often come to, but generally the bargain is only tacit. Little parties are given, at which the young man appears as a suitor. It is whispered about that he is inspired by a romantic passion, but that his parents refuse the necessary consent. They are waiting for better times, and the courtship goes on meanwhile.
The young man begins by offering presents of little nick-nacks, and then ventures on a shawl, a bonnet, or a gown. By this time the character of the intimacy has be- come pretty evident to all. The young man takes out Eugenie or Pulcherie to walk alone. At last he disappears. The young girl puts on mourning. Melancholy inhabits the house for a month or two. A brain-fever has blighted her hopes! But another suitor soon appears, and then another and another, with increasing rapidity.
The glass of the eighth Banquo is always in the hands of the last comer ; and at length the young lady — now no longer very young — sinks to the position of an ordinary Lorette, or meets some coffee-house keeper, who is of opinion that she still looks well by candle-light and sticks her behind his counter. If these things took place in the retired quarters of society, it would be well to pass them over in silence; but they are so common and patent that they meet one at every corner in life, and in every page of literature.
However, it is worth saying that above seventy thousand natural children are born annually in France, and only two-thirds of those born in Paris are legitimate. These astounding statements, however, are accounted for, in a great measure, by the fact that workmen are deterred from marriage, partly by the fear of expense, partly by theories prevalent among them, partly from their love of a vagabond state of life.
They undertake for a certain price to convey infants to the nearest bospitalj and receive for each expedition a sum vary- ' ing from thiily to a hundred francs. Cases have been brought before the law-courts. The motives are 'generally misery or debauchery. This crime is also. In the south, crimes against modesty are committed in summer ; which is carelessly urged to prove that we obey the sun in our impulses, whereas the hot months in vine-countries are months of comparative idleness. In the north, crimes against property are committed in January and December; of coarse, because then there is less work and more misery.
Everywhere infanticide is commoner in winter than in other seasons. This crime is on the increase in France ; but, as is well known, the system of sending infants to the Foundling Hospitals has always been only another form of infanticide. Very few are reared. Some jocular writers and poets have talked of the beauty and strength of natural children. Most of the girls placed in the Foundling Hospitals are ugly and uninteresting. One featurej and the most disagreeable, in French manners — and perhaps this applies in some degree to all countries — is, that the example of immorality is given by the aged to the youngs who are thus atmOBt forced to receive the impure inheritance of the old regime.
It cannot he too often repeated, that the code of morals now practically adopted in France was created in the court of the BourbonSj where the demoralising tendency inherent in all forms of monarchy producedj perhaps, its most extreme results. It was easily propagated by ex- ample in a nation prepared by Catholicism and vanity. Writers patronised by the aristocracy be- came its apologists and its apostles. Even still are to be met with in Paris old sinnerSj like M. Not the youth of the schools— whoj even in their faults, mix a certain amount of poetry and decorum, and who are preserved by their poverty if not by their pride, — but grave men, occupying positions in Bocicty, — ministers, generals, judges, bankers, successful literary men, stockbrokers, the iliie of the middle- elasscs.
It has already been observed, that men choose their pleasures oftener from their opinions than their passions. If this be true, those who plead for education as the one thing needful, who make it a necessary preliminary to political reform, would have every argument in their favour, if it were not for the melancholy fact, that the general spread of virtue in all countries would threaten the existence of certain institutions and interests. Ill sagacity of the present Emperor, in proposing, if necessary, to occupy his subjects with the disastrous passions of the gambling-house.
To govern men is required a profound knowledge of human nature. Inferior agents of Louis Napoleon, totally mis- understanding his principles, and thinking them- selves bound to be ai'bitrary without an object, have, in various places throughout the country, presumed to meddle with the amusements of the population ; for- bidding, for example, girls under twenty to enter the public dancing-places. These attempts to moralise by force are evidently suggested by the Legitimist party and the clergy, who are not aware that they may introduce an element of perturbation into society.
The upper classes and their spokesmen are everywhere inclined to fall into the singular mistake of forbidding the people to indulge in the same vices as themselves. A nation of Puritans, however, is ill-fitted for the yoke. The Bishop of Cambrai has recently threatened to deprive all those who live in a state of concubinage of Christian biu-ial. This zeal, quite justified by the canons of the church, will scarcely be imitated. But it is not sufficient to show that all or most young men, under circumstances more or less demo- ralising, form irregular unions in their youth ; and that, in fact, the Hetaira in France, as in old Greece, is a recognised element in society.
We must also look upon this fact in its relations to the general position of women, and to the ideas both of moralists and the public in relation to the fair sex. Both from want of space and other reasons I cannot enter into all the details necessary for completeness, but VOL. They rarely appeal to absolute principles of morality. The whole is re- duced to a question of prudence; and, as is fre- quently the case with us, the evil dictates of the heart getting the upper baud of gospel precepts, the fault of a poor victim of seduction is visited with un- dying wrath, whilst all manner of excuses are found for the rake.
I am inclined to think, that un- merciful ladies of this kind have had experience of how easy it is to combine the pleasures of vice with the profits of reputation ; and that their anger is directed rather against the innocence, or want of tact, that led to discovery, than against the sin itself. In France, at any rate, women have a wonderful esprit de corps.
The course of my speculations leads me to treat of the unpleasant part of this subject first. How- ever, I have been suflSciently emphatic — some will say, sufficiently simple — in avowing my belief in the existence of a great amount of female virtue, even in France. To believe in excellence is the first step to- wards being excellent. It is very important, there- fore, without regard to the satirical sneers of rouis, to insist on this part of the truth.
I observe that the severest censors of morals, perhaps because they direct too much of their attention to the diseases of our nature, become gradually incredulous of good as they advance in life ; but if evil be universal, it is scarcely worth while to condemn. Bring the cup and the wreath of flowers, and let Lais cast aside her veil. If ethics treat of duties that are never complied with, and are conversant only with beings that do not exist, they are a romance more weari- some than Ossian, and nearly as uninstructive as Telemachus.
The basis of all religions is a theory of the com- posite nature of man, the varied play of his passions, his conflicting impulses, his spiritual aspirations, and gross appetites; and this theory is, after all, the most cheerful one that we can adopt. I shall take an illustration from another order of things. Liberty has a corner in every mind ; and I have heard even Tory gentlemen threaten insurrection in defence of their privileges. Nothing can be more immoral, therefore, than to imitate the wiseacres who go about saying, that Frenchmen are only fit to be governed by a Great Sword.
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Sword never taught anything but cowardice and immorality. We are placed on this earth to learn that which is good, and to assist others in exercising the same right. I reject the fatalist theory altogether. There are crises in the history of every nation when individual will may liberate and give expansion to our best instincts, or suppress and stifle every generous quality.
In , France was evidently incapable of self-government ; but if the frightened National Guards of Boulogne had fired low into the water some years before, a Washington would have found the field clear. The same train of reasoning will lead us not to pass irrevocable condemnation on the state of female morality in France. These strange speculators, therefore, have left their foot- marks in the French language. Perhaps many of the facts which I shall have to relate may, taking into account the different form of civilisation, have their counterpart in England.
At any rate, I think that most persons have come to the conclusion that there is some- thing radically wrong in the state of public opinion with reference to the treatment and edu- cation of women in all civilised countries. I say, education and treatment, because we educate them that they may submit to the treatment. It is a misfortune, incident to their position, tiiat women can scarcely expose their grievances without losing our respect in their own persons, and separating themselves, as it werCj from their clients m far that they must be disavowed- The truth is, that it is our duty to begin the reform ; and there is no better way of doing so than by ex- amining into the state to be reformed.
We must not, however, exaggerate the liberty French wives enjoy. Legislation is more unfavourable to them even than in England, and public opinion and manners greatly circumscribe their field of action. There is nothing in the mechanism of our society to prevent Englishwomen doing likewise.
French wives have no franchises that English women do not exercise in a greater degree. The only diflFerence is, that the latter make a better use of their freedom. What has led some people into this error is the contrast that really exists in France between the life of the girl and that of the woman.
The one being ridiculously confined, the other, at first sight, appears the extreme of uncontrol: Eastern maidens are watched by their mothers with excess of severity, not only be- cause it is believed that danger may befall them, but because the slightest hint that surveillance has been relaxed for a moment, even though no harm may be known of, is sufficient to destroy all prospect of marriage. This is precisely the case in France.
A mother who should allow her daughter once to walk out with a young man, or should allow a young man not of the family once to sleep in the house, might as well accept the most degrading epithet in the language. No exigencies can be more severe than those of a battered rake, who has at length made up his mind to run the risk of matrimony, as to the modest demeanour of his betrothed. He watches, with practised eye, to catch the slightest gesture, the slightest glance, that may contradict his ideas of innocence and candour; and has a certain rigid theory, according to which he judges of the way the young lady walks, of the degree of her elasticity — a little stiflFness and awkwardness are a sine qua non in a complete virtue— of the practice she may have attained in sending glances through her eyelids.
Few English girls who go to that country of Semblance escape similar slanders. The men cannot believe in Virtue allied with ease of manners, and augur ill even of a joyous laugh. The consequence is, that mothers, in self-defence, are obliged to give a false direction to the education of their daughters. They have constructed an art of modesty, a theory of reserve, to meet the tastes of the marrying public. The accomplishments of shyness and timidity are taught according to precise rules, just like music and dan- cing.
This explains why nearly all French girls have the same demeanour, walking, when in public, with their eyelids on their cheeks, never entering into conversation other than monosyllabic, and carefully eschewing, even in most familiar circles, any exhibi- tion of that open-hearted joy which makes the society of their English sisters so delightful. Of late years some mothers, disgusted with the hypocritical absurdity of all this, have begun to adopt a system half-way between French seclusion and English freedom. They tell me, however, that, though they admire our courage, they could not venture to allow, for example, even two young girls to walk out without a chaperon; and one especially has ceased to go into society, because CROCHET-WORK.
According to the preva- lent theory — which, however, is often contravened — a young girl should never be out of sight of her mamma. Even in humble life this strictness is often attempted, but cannot, of course, be maintained. From what I have heard and seen, it appears to me that the whole system of female education — being influenced by this desire to bring up girls that may be easily disposed of in the market matrimonial — is wrong in France ; as it may be, for that matter, in England, too— at least, to a certain extent. Young ladies, among other things, are taught a thing called crochet-work, which, I am afraid, will some day be introduced amongst us.
As a warning to mothers, I will describe it. It is the art of seeming to be employed for a long time, and of pro- ducing a result of the least possible value: I believe it was first found out in a moment of inspiration by a stupid man, who was afraid of having a wife cleverer than himself.
It was also suggested to him, that, to keep women virtuous, they must be given occupation; and as he, above all things, esteemed virtue — or rather innocence, which is not quite synonymous — he greedily seized on the expedient. If I were a Lovelace, I should never think of addressing a mother employed in making shirts or mending stockings ; for these humble things have associations with the whole circle of domestic happiness.
What duties is it connected with — what affections does it satisfy? It is a sort of delicate treadmill, by which men who despise you try to keep you from mischief. What respect can be entertained for your character by those who leave your virtue to this frivolous pro- tection? Indeed, I am quite sure that English young ladies, who have no more voice than Tom Pipes, have at various times seemed to challenge me to meet them by moonlight ; which I have always declined — of course, without giving the reason — namely, that I would rather see them engaged in learning the music of aflFection, the riches of a kind intonation which may be acquired in one lesson.
It is merely necessary to be aflFection- ate and kind.
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In France, German songs are now fashionable, and series of consonants proceed from young ladies' mouths as paper-twists from those of conjurers; and everybody — such is the influence of fashion — exclaims, " What a sweet language! A lady was once singing "Love not, love not. I shall say generally that, taking in the whole country, the formal education of girls is, perhaps, better than that of boys.
Statistics may contradict me; but, as far as my personal experience goes, the women write better, and with more ease, than the men, and are more capable in accounts. Amongst the humbler classes, an immense number of girls are sent to be educated by the Sisters, because it is admitted — which is a great sign of contempt — that religion is good for women, however useless it may be for men. The Sisters are very well intentioned, and do their best to attract pupils.
Their instruction is gratuitous; which circumstance, in a great measure, accounts for the tolerance of even infidel parents. Respectable tradesmen's wives have admitted to me, that all they know they learned " chez les Scsurs" This is rather a misfortune than otherwise; for these excellent women think it their duty to inculcate the great idea which is at the bottom of all the immorality of the French — of all their wrong appreciations of themselves and others — namely, that right is not absolute, but dependent upon precept, or rather TEACHING OF THE SISTERS.
Simple-minded girls eady learn to look Tipon a priest as the incarnation of the moral law, from which the step is easy to believing in no morality at all. Indeed, Catholicism has been often reduced, in defending itself, to maintain that, if the Church were removed, there would be nothing to guide men but their beastly instincts, and that hor- rible thing called Reason. Without being supplied with any axioms to that effect, girls are taught, in real good faith, and with the best possible intentions, to depend entirely on priestly advice for rules of conduct.
In scolding infants for wrong-doing, they are told that the terrible priest will be offended, or the good priest will be grieved ; and thus the two passions of fear and affection are suborned, as it were, to let the enemy within the walls. The per- nicious effect of this teaching may be traced every- where. A great number of young ladies are educated in convents, from which they are often transferred sud- denly into the noise and bustle of the world, where they find a husband ready to greet them.
On this account, not only do mothers, as I have said, watch their dangh- ters carefully, but boarding-schools are surronnded with so many precautions, that they oflFer nearly the same security as convents. Elopements of school- girls may be said to be unknown in France.
In many cases the virginity of the mind is not so well preserved as men would desire; but even here we must guard against exaggeration. The point for criticism is, that though young girls are kept really innocent, they are not suppUed with principles for their guidance, and are prepared rather to give inexpressible satisfaction on the threshold of real life than to deserve permanent affection and esteem.
Up to it was the custom, both in the case of boy and girl schools, to distribute the prizes in public. At that time the custom was suppressed, in the case of the girls, as it was found to be injurious to modesty. This reform, however, was not the result of any expression of public opinion, but was brought about by the arbitrary interference of the Prefect of the Seine.
I may here remark that the French have a strong tendency to depend, for the improvement both of children and grown-up men, on the eflScacy of prizes. In many cities the custom still remains of distributing what are called " prizes of virtue. The system was not carried out to the extent at first contemplated ; but I saw the other day an announcement in the papers that two young girls of the Pension St.
Denis had received the Fontaine prize for filial virtue. The most absurd part of the transaction is, that outward manifestations are generally adduced to justify the giving of a crown. Regan and Gonerill would not have been without their reward in this country. To impart a proper idea, however, of the way in which female character is formed in France, it is necessary to say something of the treatment of in- fants, which acts in two ways: The effect of the preaching of Jean Jacques Boussesa against the custom of sending children out to nurse was at first very great.
It became the fashion for many fine ladies to suckle their own infants. In- deed, at that time, it was only to this class that his preachings applied. By degrees, maternal zeal died away, and soon the woman of the world, yielding to her innate love of pleasure, again aban- doned her babes to hired nurses. Now-a-days most women who can afford it abstain from the maternal duty. I know an instance of a blind beggar who pipes on the Pont des Saints Peres, and is married to a very pretty woman: Her first child is now out at nurse, at the rate of fourteen francs a- month. It was originally put into the hands of a woman who neglected it; and I am told that the father, on going to ''see" it, as he said, at the Nurse-office, at once perceived, by the mere touch, that it was not properly cared for, and insisted on a change.
He seems, by the way, to make a good thing of his piping, for he lives in a style that many respectable workpeople would envy. The nurses are generally countrywomen, who, to gain a miserable sum of from fourteen to twenty-five francs a-month, bring up their own children by liand, and feed those of the townspeople on the nourishment thus fraudulently obtained. The price decreases in propor- tion to the distance from Paris. Healthy young girls who have had a misfortune are often induced to send their babes to the Foundling Hospital, and are taken home by wealthy families and coddled for a time as the most precious part of the household.
All their caprices are attended to, for fear that their young charges may suffer. I know of a lady who, having anticipations of an increase of her family, actually said to a fresh and cheerful-looking young girl, " What a pity we did not think of it in time! I believe it cannot be denied, that what may be called physical character — by which I mean the sum of all the instincts and aptitudes which directly de- velope themselves irrespective of moral and religious education, whose business is to supply principles that guide and curb — greatly depends on the foster- mother.
Perhaps it would be too much to say, that she who has fed at the breast of Phryne must pursue the same career; but the mental purity of a nurse is not indifferent.
Purple Tints of Paris, Vol. 2 of 2
In many cases amongst fashionable people, the account which I have given of the surveillance exer- cised by mothers over their daughters does not apply. When the child is taken out of the hands of the nurse, it passes into those of some light femme de chambre, who, without any evil intention, instils notions and suggests habits that a little lady might well be without. Afterwards a governess is chosen, who is supposed to possess certain accomplishments, but into the finer parts of whose moral character little inquiry is made.
Apparent good conduct is suffi- cient. Mademoiselle Honorine, who was seriously compromised in the society of my little friend Tom Pouce, is now engaged in superintending the educa- tion of the daughter of a tradesman whose wealth places him in the highest circles. Very often a mother of this rank takes little notice of her child until she begins to think of marrying her.
A story is related of two young ladies named Eugenie and Marie, intimate friends, who were almost always left by their mothers under the care of a couple of governesses of doubtful antecedents. These, in their turn, used to abandon their charges to themselves, and go out in search of pleasure and amusement. The girls had heard somehow of the fascinating balls frequented by the young students, and determined to take advantage of their liberty and see a little of what is called life.
It was Car- nival time. They stole out, went to a shop where costumes may be hired at so much a-night, and having procured two dominoes hastened away to the Chaumifere. They had resolved only to look on, but of course they danced. The first night went off well. They had gone with the intention of satis- fying their curiosity — that was all.
But the second time — for they soon returned — led to the making of acquaintances, and, in fact, they never went back to their homes at all. Marie became one of the most famous Lorettes in Paris, and Eugenie was considered fortunate because she settled down to be the mistress of a medical student.
Under ordinary circumstances, the first oppor- tunity which a young lady has of going out com- paratively unguarded is when she begins to be religious.
Purple Tints of Paris. Character and manners in the New Empire.
The other day an ugly young lady, to whom, in spite of her wealthj no suitors of her own class came, grew suddenly pious, or rather determined to go out every aiorning to the church of St. At the last moment her mother, who had all the prejudices and unscrupulousness of aristocracyi brought forward an old marquis, whose only fortune was his title ; but Aladenioiselle Melanie de — — , who, after all, had a good deal of rectitude and honesty about her, resolved to keep to her first choice — threatened to give food for scandal — and in a very short time the young supernumerary, having treated his fellows in the shop to a parting dinner, started with his ugly, but wealthy bride, for Italy.
Though there was somewhat too much of delibera- tion in all this transaction, it would be fortunate for the remnants of the noble families in France if such little accidents were oftener to happen. At any rate, if the counts and marquises of the present day were to imitate our aristocracy, and marry from the middle classes, they might have some hope that their race might rise from the wretched physical degradation to which it is fallen.
With few exceptions, there could not be found a meaner-looking set of men than those who hover about the Faubourg St. Ger- main, and look upon themselves still as the true repre- sentatives of France. I once heard a man, with a par- ticle in his name, indignantly repudiate the idea that there were thirty-five millions of Frenchmen.
From what I have already said, it appears that many mothers care little to educate their daughters, except to prepare them for marriage by some super- ficial accomplishments, and by furnishing them with certain appearances of innocence. However, amongst the genteeler classes, great care is taken not to offend maidenhood by any improper expression or equivocal word. The French, who are so unmerciful on our prudery — who make it an accusation against us that we dislike indecency — whose wit is unsparing and inexhaustible when they dilate on the category of ideas which, according to them, we call " shocking,'' — endeavour to draw a cordon sanitaire round their unmarried girls ; but when once the nuptial benedic- tion has been pronounced, the obligation of propriety ceases.
All barriers are thrown down, and young things who a little while before were not allowed to suspect what love was, soon assert the privilege of saying, ''I am a married woman, don't mind me. I know what you mean! The forms of intercourse adopted in the upper classes of all countries are favourable to immorality.
In France, men are generally theoretical rakes ; and women, as I have shown, are prepared to be victims. Probably the daughters of the middle classes in France are the best cared for and protected. In the last century it was necessary to guard them from the licentious nobles; and, though the danger has ceased, certain habits of surveillance have been kept up. Among the lower classes, including the work- people, though there is a good deal of care shown in some families, yet, as a rule, care is impossible.
Young girls are left, after having passed a certain age, to take charge of themselves, and, naturally, are often victims either to people of their own rank or to the rich. One of the most popular songs of Pierre Dupont, complains that even shopboys exercise what used to be " the lord's right ;'' for misery places the girls under the subjection of gold.
Among the poorer classes very little instruction is, of course, given to the young girl, who is com- pelled from a very early age to assist her mother in domestic affairs. Many learn to read and write, as I have said, with the Sisters, and are taught their cate- chism to prepare for the first communion ; after which they enter into service, or are apprenticed to some trade. Already, however, corrupting influences have been at work upon them. Parents and friends do not refrain in the slightest degree, when they are present, from conversing on subjects most improper for young minds to deal with ; and the poor things smile and blush at equivocations which would make our English ears tingle.
There are many things to be seen in the streets of Paris quite sufficient to destroy all idea of modesty as we understand it. The books which form the favourite reading of the young work-girls — which the learned among them often read to the unlearned in bed instead of sleep- ing — are novels that seem to be constructed for the special purpose of assisting those who would seduce them. In this way a morbid desire of material enjoyment is developed. I suppose this is a peculiarity of French women — of course it cannot be true amongst us — but half the delight of a handsome gown seems to consist in showing it to "dear friends,'' who will bite their lips and try to find fault with the ground or the flowers, the texture or the colour; or, if all these are unexceptionable, with their adaptation to the complexion of the owner: There was a young girl, one of whose names was Amelie, living with her parents, drunken people, who compelled her to work for their support.
As long as he was a friend of the family, and supplied plenty of wine, the parents shut their eyes to what was going on ; but when he dis- appeared they began beating her every day, until, exasperated, she escaped from the house and took refuge with Madame Rose , from whom, at various times, I heard of these proceedings. She was kindly received and lodged ; but at length the mother found her out, and, going to the Commissary of Police, procured a person to be sent to support her maternal authority, and compel Rose to give up the girl and her things.
Amelie was not taken home, but before the Commissary, who gave her a long lecture upon duty. She complained that, at her age, she was beaten like a child ; but was told that she must bear with all until she was twenty-one. As she was not sufficiently submissive — the law is very exacting in the matter of filial obedience — they sent her, under guard of a gendarme, to the Prefecture of Police. Having passed a day in the depot there, she was put into a van with a number of abandoned women, and conveyed to the prison of St. She is very clever and industrious.
Her mother pays fourteen francs a-month for the nursing of the child, which lives in spite of everything, and takes the remainder of her earnings for herself. Of coarse she waits with impatience for her majority, when there is no doubt she will rise in insurrection. By the way, medical writers assure us that cer- tain occupations exercise disastrous influence upon female morality, and cite as examples milliners and sempstresses. Montaigne had abeady made the same remark, but I believe that it is greatly exaggerated.
If sedentary workwomen are less pure in manners than others, it is probable that we may find the cause in the smallness of their gains rather than in absurd meditations, in which material agencies, not perhaps without some slight influence, are made to answer entirely for actions to which every form of moral doctrine attaches the idea of responsibility. The progress of modem knowledge consists, often, in checking inquiry, by giving seriously as an explanation of a puzzling foct a diluted statement of that fact. Because all are not "predisposed!
It is true that the public is more to blame than the men of science. They will admire only those who are '' point-devise. A fact worthy of remark is the disproportion that exists between the number of indigent women and indigent men.
There are almost twice as many poor women, in France and in other countries, as poor men — that is, forty-six to every twenty-seven. The wants of women are fewer, and their habits are more sober ; but it is far more difficult for them to gain their living. This is the reason that, in default of a husband, many take lovers, which cus- tom prevents the disproportion from increasing. There are only twenty poor young girls to nineteen poor young men.
Unfortunately, the unions that are formed are often not prolonged beyond the period of youth. The woman is deserted, and, by degrees, falls into misery, after having for a time swelled the ranks of mercenary vice. It is a curious fact that, although girls arrive at maturity much earlier than boys, the latter begin to infringe the law sooner.
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Setting aside exceptions, women be- come criminal at a later period of life than men, the obscure observation of which fact may have led to the popular absurdity that all old women are wicked. Skin care Face Body. What happens when I have an item in my cart but it is less than the eligibility threshold? Should I pay a subscription fee to always have free shipping? No, you will enjoy unlimited free shipping whenever you meet the above order value threshold. Paperback Language of Text: Bayle St John Publisher: Be the first to rate this product Rate this product: Sponsored products for you.
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We believe this work is culturally important in its original archival form. While we strive to adequately clean and digitally enhance the original work, there are occasionally instances where imperfections such as blurred or missing pages, poor pictures or errant marks may have been introduced due to either the quality of the original work or the scanning process itself. Despite these occasional imperfections, we have brought it back into print as part of our ongoing global book preservation commitment, providing customers with access to the best possible historical reprints.
We appreciate your understanding of these occasional imperfections, and sincerely hope you enjoy seeing the book in a format as close as possible to that intended by the original publisher. Read more Read less. Prime Book Box for Kids. Ulan Press August 31, Language: Be the first to review this item Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video.
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