Guide Constitucionalismo y democracia (Seccion de Obras de Administracion Publica) (Spanish Edition)

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On the basis of this ruling, we analyse the track record of the whole proceeding: Moreover, despite the fact the Supreme Court ruling did not apply to the relevant case, we are considering the truncated Tribunal doctrine, since it was raised by the appellant during the proceeding. Necesario repaso de los antecedentes. La sentencia5 declara probado que: El presidente del colegio arbitral, Sr. No consta la firma de D.

Por lo tanto, la sentencia analizada terminaba anulando el laudo de 2 de mayo de por haberse deliberado y adoptado en ausencia de uno de los miembros del Tribunal Arbitral. Despacha el primer argumento desplegado por los recurrentes manifestando que la temeridad no tiene que ser intencional y desarrolla lo anterior como sigue Correr un riesgo significa estar expuesto a no verificarse alguna cosa Y eso es precisamente lo que detona la temeridad que se les imputa y de las que se les hace responsables. Y llegamos siguiendo el razonamiento de la sentencia a la siguiente frase que de forma lapidaria manifiesta: La doctrina de los Tribunales truncados referida en la Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo.

Sin embargo, hasta la fe- cha no hay casos reportados al respecto. Efficient large scale multi-party dispute resolution mechanisms are arguably essential in current times. The Deutsche Telekom case, in Germany, is an eloquent example of this. Between and , Deutsche Telekom was sued in over 13, claims for alleged misrepresentation in its prospectus when it went public. The court in charge of all cases stated it would take 15 years to solve all of them and ca- lled for the enactment of new procedural rules to resolve collective disputes3. The Deutsche Telekom case, as well as so many others around the world, jus- tify the existence of efficient resolution mechanisms for this sort of disputes.

The answer to this necessity has been twofold: Vol VI no 4. And on the other hand, more predominantly in the US, class arbitration. There are also reports of class arbitrations or of decisions on its viability in other jurisdictions7. However, recent decisions of the US Supreme Court severely restrict class arbitration and suggest it might have lost mo- mentum, at least in the US. Class actions in general remain a contentious matter.

Nevertheless, to date there are no reported cases of recognition and enforce- ment of international class arbitral awards. Therefore, this paper will try to predict whether class arbitration would be truly benefitted from the application of the NY Convention to recognition of international class arbitral awards, or, if conversely, the current state of affairs regarding class actions and class arbitration around the world would hamper the probabilities to obtain recognition of class arbitral awards under the NY Convention. For such purpose, this paper will be divided into the following sections: The Fordham Papers p.

Ultimately, when US courts started to rule that class actions could proceed through arbitration, this practice backfired. In this Section, we will summarize the evolution of class arbitration until cu- rrent times. The history of class arbitration in the US can be segmented into three stages that we have called i the Early Stage, ii the Golden Years, and iii Stolt-Nielsen and its aftermath.

The case involved disputes between one fran- chisor Southland of convenience food stores and franchised operators. Each indi- vidual franchising agreement provided for arbitration. While Southland claimed each dispute to be submitted to arbitration on a franchisee-by-franchisee basis, the franchisees had sued Southland in individual and class actions and sustained that the arbitral clauses were not enforceable on adhesion grounds, and that the dispu- tes were not arbitrable.

The California Supreme Court held that the fact that the ar- bitral agreement was contained in a contract of adhesion did not per se make it unenforceable. Subsequently to Keating, while the US Supreme Court developed pro-arbi- tration case law17, State courts dissimilarly ruled on the possibility to adopt class 14 S. Strong, US and Canada compared N. Animal- Feeds International Corp. That continued until , when the US Supreme Court issued the ru- ling that would open the gates of what we have called the Golden Years of Class Arbi- tration: Green Tree Financial Corp.


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In Bazzle the US Supreme Court had to decide upon whether class arbitra- tion was allowed or not, considering the arbitration clauses in the contracts that led to the dispute did not expressly provide for it. The US Supreme Court faced the question of whether the silence of the arbitration clause meant class arbitration was forbidden, or on the contrary, if its silence entailed the viability of class arbitration. The US Supreme Court did not take a stand, but rather it ruled that it was not gi- ven to courts to decide, but only an arbitral tribunal had jurisdiction to do so.

Bazzle prompted the expansion of class arbitration in the US. Firstly, pur- suant to Bazzle some lower courts started to endorse class arbitration, in cases in which implicit consent could be inferred And secondly, it provoked two arbitral institutions, the AAA21 and JAMS, to issue specialized rules for class arbitration proceedings22, which deserve to be briefly addressed.

Although they have slight differences to which we will refer below, both sets of rules are essentially similar and for purposes of this paper can be studied to- gether. They are applicable to i any dispute arising out of an arbitral agreement providing for arbitration pursuant to them, ii whenever a court refers a matter pleaded as a class action to these institutions, or iii when a party to a pending ar- bitration before any of these institutions asserts new claims on behalf of or against a class.

Class, Mass and Collective Arbitration 19 U. Strong Class, Mass and Collective Arbitration n. Class arbitration rules of both institutions provide for four phases that are unique to this sort of proceedings: Class Determination Award In a partial award subject to immediate court review, the Arbitral Tribunal decides on whether the class should be certified. Final Award Final decision on the merits of the dispute. It shall be reasoned, define the class with specificity, state to whom notice was sent, and-if it was the case-identify who were excluded from the class.

Any settlement, voluntary dismissal, or compromise of the claims shall not be effective unless approved by the arbitral tribunal. As announced above, despite their overall similar structure, the AAA and JAMS class arbitration rules differ, in sum, on the following The arbitral tribunal shall proceed with the arbitration interpret the arbitration if the arbitral agreement is agreement in order to silent? Is the Arbitral Tribunal Yes. These requirements are not required to render reasoned expressly set forth under clause construction and this set of rules. Have the parties any Yes, at least one arbitrator No.

Are proceedings presumed No. While, as the AAA has stated, prior to Bazzle few cases were carried out as class arbitrations26, when these specialized rules came into force, class arbitration erupted in the US: The arbitral clause in the contracts underlying the dispute was silent on the viability of class arbitra- tion, and pursuant to Bazzle the arbitral tribunal interpreted it and concluded class arbitration was admissible.

Moreover, it considered that there were questions of law that although ad- dressed in Bazzle, were not resolved, i. This is so because class-action arbitration changes the nature of arbitration to such a de- gree that it cannot be presumed the parties consented to it by simply agreeing to sub- mit their disputes to an arbitrator. Stolt-Nielsen entailed a drastic modification to the legal framework upon which class arbitration had evolved until then in the US, granting leeway, for ins- tance, to the possibility to expressly prohibit class arbitration through class arbitra- tion waivers.

Concepcion has been highly criticized for its very discussable reasoning on what are the fundamental elements of arbitration31 and for its impact against consu- mers. Some said that Concepcion constituted an exit gate for companies to avoid class actions: This is a strong indicator that its restrictive approach towards class arbitration is likely to remain in the near future. Although sporadically, class arbitration has also been a matter of decisions, awards and statutes outside the US. In this subsection, we will go through them, country by country, in chronological order.

The bank successfully filed a motion to dismiss claiming the enforcement of an arbitration agreement set forth under the bylaws of the bank. The claimants alleged this entai- led a violation of their right to due process.

Constitucionalismo Y Democracia (Seccion De Obras De Administracion Publica) (Spanish Edition)

Italian Colors Restaurant et. Carlos Ignacio Jaramillo Jaramillo, File number: Strong Class Arbitration outside the US n. Nevertheless, the Colombian Supreme Court of Justice considered obiter dictum that in general, arbitral tribunals should not have jurisdiction over class actions, considering they are opt-out procedures in Colombia, and therefore, its decision could not be binding to non-signatory mem- bers of the arbitral agreement.

A final class arbitral award was issued in favor of the class37 which was subsequently upheld by Colombian courts The case concerned a cellular phone company which entered into several standard form contracts with different consumers, containing a mediation and arbitration clause which purpor- ted to waive any right of the plaintiff to commence or participate in a class action against TELUS.

The plaintiff initiated class action proceedings alleging that TELUS falsely represented how it calculated air time for billing purposes. TELUS applied for stay upon the arbitration agreements. Arbitral Award of January 30th, Strong US and Canada compared n. Upon its commencement, the defendant is given a day term to express its acceptance on the proceedings to be carried out as class arbitration.

If the defen- dant does not accept it, the proceedings will be archived. On the contrary, the mem- bers of the class will be notified via publications in local newspapers and will have a 2-month term to opt-in. The arbitral tribunal has a 6-month term to rule. The Mexican Supreme Court of Justice raised three main arguments: Secondly, it took into ac- count that while the contracts underlying the dispute had been entered between and , class action legislation was enacted in Mexico in Therefore, it concluded that parties could not have agreed on class arbitration at the time of exe- cution of the agreements.

See Michael Schafler and Amer Pasalic n.

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Jose Ramon Cossio Diaz. In a June 21st, , ruling49 the Portuguese Supreme Court affirmed the de- cision of the trial court that had held that courts lacked jurisdiction over a dispute seeking the annulment of three SWAP contracts that the claimant had entered into with a bank. The bank challenged the jurisdiction of local courts upon an arbitral agreement contained in a Master Agreement covering all SWAP contracts.

The Por- tuguese Supreme Court underlined the kompetenz-kompetenz principle to hold that arbitral tribunals are competent to rule on their own jurisdiction, unless the arbitral agreement is manifestly null or invalid.

This would happen if no evidence is neces- sary to appreciate the grounds of annulment or invalidity generally, if the arbitral agreement lacks formal requirements or the dispute is inarbitrable and therefore, grounds for annulment of an arbitral agreement upon lack of consent cannot be manifest.

Regarding arbitral agreements in contracts of adhesion, the lack of con- sent of a party to agree to an arbitral agreement contained in a Master Agreement cannot be manifest, and therefore an arbitral tribunal will have exclusive jurisdic- tion to decide upon the validity of the arbitral agreement. Although the case does not directly involve class arbitration, the reaffirma- tion of the kompetenz-kompetenz principle regarding arbitration of disputes derived from contracts of adhesion could build up the bases upon which class arbitration could be viable under Portuguese Law, similarly to what happened with Bazzle in the US.

Outside the US, few countries have had developments on class arbitration, and most of them linger between po- licy choices on whether class arbitration is an adequate dispute resolution mecha- nism for consumer protection matters like Spain or not like Canada and Mexico. Only one class arbitration has been reported outside the US: However, the circumstances surrounding it were very specific and the case law of the Colombian Supreme Court does not suggest it could extend its reach and scope, but rather, that it should have a limited one.

The most recent decision that could pinpoint where class arbitration currently was reported in Portugal in , and in it is a favorable one: S1 Parties are kept confidential , Reporting Justice: As mentioned above, supporters of class arbitration argue its potential use- fulness in the international scenario, inter alia because of the theoretical facility to obtain recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards via the NY Conven- tion.

The NY Convention is arguably one of the pillars of international arbitration. Ratified by States in all corners of the world51, the NY Convention provides a uniform and predictable process to obtain recognition of international arbitral awards, setting forth both its requirements and the exhaustive grounds for refusal of enforcement.

Therefore, theoretically speaking, the NY Convention could indeed make class arbitration particularly useful to resolve class international disputes. However, the current state of affairs on class arbitration rise doubts as to whether there would be hurdles to obtain recognition of international class arbitral awards under the NY Convention.

First, to date there are no reported decision on recognition and enforcement of international class arbitral awards. Considering that in most countries class arbitration is undeveloped, it is yet to see which would be the approach of courts towards this mechanism. Second, class arbitration re- mains contentious in most of the few countries in which it has been developed to any extent. Third, although not to the extent of changing the nature of arbitration, class arbitration has some features that differentiate it from bilateral arbitration which might impact the application of the NY Convention over class arbitral awards.

Finally, the issue of recognition and enforcement of class arbitral awards has not been broadly commented by scholars However, there has been some commentary on recognition and enforcement of US class action judgments abroad, mostly tending to conclude that such judgments would be unenforceable in civil law countries Thus, in this section we will analyze whether unsurmountable ob- jections may be raised against recognition of class arbitral awards under the NY Convention.

The New York Convention fifty years on: Arbitrators creating internationally enforcea- ble Awards when ordering Class Arbitration in cases of contractual silence or ambiguity? On the other handsome opine that there would not be significant obstacles to obtain recognition and enforcement. Introductory remarks i The pro-enforcement policy underlying the NY Convention The assessment on the likelihood of success of any of the objections to recog- nition and enforcement should be enlightened by the pro-enforcement policy underl- ying the NY Convention55, which has been endorsed and applied in a significant number of jurisdictions56 and entails that the NY Convention must be interpreted in the most favorable way towards obtaining its purpose, which is the circulation of ar- bitral awards.

Therefore, signatory States have the obligation to recognize and enfor- ce arbitral awards if the requisites set forth under the Convention are fulfilled. The only grounds to deny recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards are ex- haustively set forth under Article V of the NY Convention, should be narrowly inter- preted and must be alleged and proved by the opposing party According to professor S.

Therefore, class arbitral awards should receive the same treatment that any other arbitral award Thus, recognition and enforcement actions should be solved on a case-by-case basis: Not only the current state of affairs on class arbitration, but also on collecti- ve redress mechanisms legislation around the world, must be considered to assess the potential objections that could be raised against recognition of international class arbitral awards. Two circumstances should be taken into account: International Commercial Arbitration 56 Including: Productos Naturales de la Sabana S.

NCL Bahamas , Ltd. Furthermore, with the exception of South Africa, most African countries have not adopted a class action model. Crampton and Marc E. Both European and Latin American countries differentiate between two sorts of interest subject to protection through collective redress mechanisms In this case, the remedy for one person will be the remedy for all. These are divisible interests, which means that each claim can be pursued individually. Protection of diffuse and collective rights is a matter of public policy both in Latin America in some States it is even set forth under the Constitution 64 and Europe.

The approach to collective redress in civil law countries, then, derives in fundamental differences with the US Class Action Model. Indeed, the European Commission Recommendation No. In most civil law countries: The European Commission Recommendation, for example, sets out that collective redress mechanisms are valuable in areas like consu- mer protection, competition, environment protection, protection of personal data, fi- nancial services and investor protection.

The rationale behind this is twofold: The ruling will not be binding for absent members, and in any case, they will be free to pursue their claims individually. On another note, regulation of collective redress mechanisms is uneven across Asia. It is not easy, however, to find a common standard in subjects like standing to sue, matters that can be subject to collective redress mechanisms or effects of the ruling. To summarize, class actions are different all around the world, in terms of their objectives, scope, restrictions and overall, in terms of the policies underlying them.

The different approaches towards collective redress mechanisms are likely to imbue local courts in their application of the NY Convention towards recognition and enforcement of international class arbitral awards. Bearing these introductory remarks in mind, below we will analyze the po- tential objections that could be raised against recognition an enforcement of inter- national class arbitral awards under the NY Convention.

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Potential objections to recognition and enforcement of international class arbi- tral awards under the NY Convention i Potential objections concerning the applicability of the NY Convention A potential first obstacle to recognition and enforcement of international class arbitral awards under the NY Convention concerns its very applicability. See Antonio Gidi n.

Additionally the arbitrability of some of the types of disputes that frequently are brought to class arbitration is, in general, contentious. In one of the edges of the spectrum, the Amparo Directo Ruling in Mexico referred to above73, in which the Mexican Supreme Court of Justice held that disputes concer- ning consumer rights are a matter of public policy under Mexican law, and therefo- re inarbitrable. And in the other edge, the Rizalyn Bautista Philippines v. A first likely scenario is that the arbitration agreement was silent on class arbitration. Local courts might opt between two different approaches: Strong, Class, Mass and Collective Arbitration n.

Moreover, considering the Amparo Directo Ruling of the Mexican Supreme Court78, it is likely that silent clauses may be interpreted against recognition and enforcement in jurisdictions in which class actions have not been enacted or were not enacted at the time that the arbitral agreement was entered into, upon argu- ments that the parties could not have agreed to something that was not available for them under their legal systems. This might be raised in class arbitral awards enforcement proceedings upon circumstances like the party was not able to decide individually on which arbitrator it had the intention to nominate, or having to choose an arbitrator from a list of the arbitral institution administering the class arbitration The likelihood of success of the latter might not be high, especially in cases in which the parties have submitted to the rules of arbitral institutions provi- ding for class arbitration.

A second likely scenario related with the previous one is that the arbitral ru- les agreed upon do not provide for class arbitration proceedings. A possible argu- ment against recognition under this scenario is that the chosen rules were not suitable to properly carry out class arbitration or to properly constitute an arbitral tribunal considering the special features of class arbitration.

Counter argument is that nothing in the rules of the most prominent arbitration institutions restrict the possibility to undertake class arbitration81, but quite the opposite, most of them provide with provisions for aggregating claims. A third scenario is that the arbitral agreement contains a waiver of class ar- bitration that would have been declared invalid at the seat of the arbitration Opposing party to recognition and enforcement may request the waiver to be en- forced within recognition proceedings, deriving in the application of this ground of refusal.

Once again, it is hard to tell whether such a challenge would be successful. Y AS, Bundesgerichtshof, 4 October , the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland estopped opposing party to recognition and enforcement from raising objections relating to the composition of the arbitral tribunal that were not raised within the proceedings. However, in some Latin American countries arbitration has a mi- xed juridical nature contractual and jurisdictional 84 which equivalates access to arbitration to access to the administration of justice.

Therefore, it is unlikely that a class arbitration waiver would be enforced in countries that have embraced this ju- ridical nature of arbitration, or one in which arbitration is jurisdictional. Commentators have indicated that there is no guidance in the NY Convention or in preparatory works as to which is the applicable law to determine if there was a violation of due process: However, local courts have concluded that due process standards that this provision refers to, are the ones of the country in which recogni- tion and enforcement is sought With regards to class arbitration, these two po- tential challenges are likely to arise when trying to enforce international class arbitral awards issued under opt-out procedures in jurisdictions that either do not provide for collective redress mechanisms or that provide for opt-in procedures.

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We will analyze each of them separately below. Challenges against recognition upon improper notice may arise when the standards of notification in the class arbitral proceedings and in the jurisdiction in which enforcement is being sought differ. The Court held that to refu- se recognition, the violation of due process must be material, and in this case, defen- dant had not denied it received the faxes notifying it of the arbitration. Moreover, considering opposing party had not raised those objections within the proceedings.

See Colombian Constitution, Article Law of Articles 21 and German client , the Higher Regional Court of Munich, Germany, recognized a Czech award, although it was not possible to communicate the request for arbitration to the German party and it did not appear in the proceedings Opposing party argued that since the arbitral proceedings were held abroad it had to be notified via letters rogatory. The Court held such requirement was not necessary in internatio- nal arbitration and this requirement was sufficed with the communications that oppo- sing party received via courier and email.

In contrast with these cases, challenges upon this ground for refusal have been successful when there is real evidence that opposing party did not receive no- tifications and was in fact unaware of the arbitration. Nevertheless, the reluctance of ci- vil-law countries against opt-out procedures as a matter of public policy may give rise to refusal of enforcement under Article V 2 b as it will be discussed below Again, the standards applied by local courts to construct this ground for re- fusal might differ. However, a decision of the Higher Regional Court of Frank- furt, Germany, can enlighten a plausible approach to the construction of this ground for refusal, that would be favorable to enforcing class arbitral awards The principles of due process and of the obli- gation to give reasons do not require, however, that the arbitral tribunal examines all details of the arguments of the parties in the written reasons for its decision ….

The core of the question would be then, whether the actions of a representa- tive of the class on behalf of an absent member satisfy its reasonable opportunity to present its case or not. A likely case would be that opposing party challenges the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal to issue a class arbitral award if the arbitral agreement was silent on class 94 See infra Section III B iv. The case concerned an arbitral award resolving disputes arising out of an Option Agreement regarding the buil- ding of eight ships.

Claimant had constituted eight single-vehicle companies that were to enter eight different contracts for purposes of shipbuilding. Chinese courts found that the arbitral tribunal had decided on matters outside the scope of the ar- bitral agreement contained in the Option Agreement because, although the arbitral tribunal found that the eight single-vehicle companies lacked standing, it found that the damages claimed by them fell within the scope of the arbitral agreement.

The holding of this decision might be transposed to the class arbitration realm. Opposing party to recognition of a class arbitral award could potentially allege that, in class arbitration derived from silent clauses, the arbitral tribunal exceeds its jurisdiction if it grants damages to the members of the class, outside of the bilateral arbitral agreement existing between the members of the class, individually conside- red, and the defendant.


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  • Civil-law countries have two different approaches to the matter: Regarding the first of these issues, potential concerns on the arbitrability of class-wide disputes may arise in civil-law countries, particularly if the class arbitra- tion involves to any extent diffuse and collective interests.

    As it has been said abo- ve, these subjects are matter of public policy in several civil-law countries, and therefore it is likely that they would not be of free disposal of the parties. On the ot- her hand, homogeneous individual interests might be arbitrable at least in theory 99 First Investment Corp v.

    The Valencia decision of the Colom- bian Supreme Court of Justice referred to above may serve to illustrate the point In this case, as long as the process is limited to the definition of the controversy thus raised, there is no legal obstacle for the arbitral tribunal to be able to rule it. But if the group of twenty affected files a class action, it does not seem via- ble that arbitrators can assume jurisdiction over it because…if indefectibly its award…would ultimately affect the other affected members of the class, that is incompatible with the scope of the arbitration agreement, since those affected persons did not agree on the arbitral agreement, are not bound to recognize the award, and, what is more important, they have not declined sta- te justice.


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    All in all, opt-out procedures may be inarbitrable in civil law jurisdictions, either because they could be considered to be against public policy, or because of practical procedural reasons: This also could lead to objections of violations to the public policy of the country in which recognition is being sought, pursuant to Article V 2 b. The core of the question is to determine whether the US Class Action Model would contravene public policy in civil-law countries in which re- cognition would be sought.

    The first concern regarding public policy relates with the potential viola- tions to due process, to which we referred above Due process could be a matter of public policy in most countries, and therefore, its violation could entail the ap- plication of this ground for refusal Koksno Hemijski Kombinat d. Nevertheless, practice indicates that in several jurisdictions application and construction of both grounds are intertwined. A second concern, and perhaps the most problematic one, pertains the dif- ference between opt-out procedures under the US Class Action Model and opt-in procedures in most civil-law countries.

    This seems to constitute an insurmountable obstacle against recognition under this ground for refusal. Any exception to this principle, by law or by court order, should be duly justified by reasons of sound administration of justice. All these elements can be potentially alleged to be basic and ele- mental to the public policy of the State in which recognition is being sought and class arbitration under the US Class Action Model would be radically incompatible with them.

    This exercise throws reasonable concerns on whether class arbitral awards could be enforceable under the NY Convention, mainly, in the scenario of trying to enforce a class arbitral award under the US Class Action Model in civil-law coun- tries. A second one, is related with objections for improper constitution of the ar- bitral tribunal, particularly in cases arising out of silent arbitral agreements. Bazzle, on the one hand, and Stolt-Nielsen and Concepcion, on the other one, delimit plausi- ble interpretations of this ground for refusal.

    It is desirable, however, that the kom- petenz-kompetenz principle is given priority and therefore, that the threshold to solve objections upon this ground is set high: A third concern has to do precisely with due process. On the other hand, the likelihood of success of Antonio Gidi n.

    Similar arguments have been raised to conclude that US class ac- tion judgments would not be enforceable in China and in Europe. Concerns on violations of due process for reasons that the arbitral tribunal ex- ceeded the scope of the arbitration agreement seem more serious, especially in cases with silent arbitral agreements. If courts of recognition found that the arbitral agreement did not provide for class arbitration, it would most likely hinder recog- nition. This panel was then followed by a second in which D.

    Rafael Navarro Valls, who spoke about the importance of Christian values in the development of Europe. The Congress was inaugurated by D. According to the Vice-president of the Supreme Court, it is highly important that measures are taken to avoid fake news impinging upon elections.

    This sentiment was shared and expanded upon by all speakers throughout the two-day congress. The event was structured by three panel discussions: Over 20 speakers contributed to the event, either as panel members or individual speakers. Asistieron, entre otras personalidades, el jefe de la Casa del Rey, D. Coordinados por los profesores Paloma Biglino y Francisco J. Se ha publicado en el B. Convocatoria ayudas curso Extracto de la convocatoria publicado en el BOE. Modelo de curriculum-vitae curso Listado definitivo de admitidos y excluidos.

    Participaron en el acto, junto al autor, D. Participaron en el acto junto al autor, D. Participaron en las mesas redondas D. Impartieron la conferencia D. Perspectivas para el S. Participaron en el acto D. Renan Virginio marked it as to-read Jan 30, Graham marked it as to-read Jan 28, Mateus marked it as to-read Sep 16, Jeff marked it as to-read Aug 01, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. He is also a notable proponent of analytical Marxism, and a critic of neoclassical economics and public choice theory, largely on behavioral and psychological grounds.

    In , he was awarded the 22nd Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science for his contributions to political science. Books by Jon Elster. No trivia or quizzes yet. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.